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Jonah 3:3 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of Jehovah. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city, of three days' journey.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days' journey.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So Jonah arose and went to Nineveh according to the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, a three days’ walk.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— So Jonah arose, and went to Nineveh, according to the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days' journey.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of Jehovah. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days' journey.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— So Jonah arose, and went his way unto Nineveh, according to the word of Yahweh,—Nineveh, being a city great before God, of three days' journey.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and Jonah riseth, and he goeth unto Nineveh, according to the word of Jehovah. And Nineveh hath been a great city before God, a journey of three days.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And Jonas arose, and went to Ninive, according to the word of the Lord: now Ninive was a great city of three days' journey.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— So Ionah arose and went vnto Nineueh, according to the word of the LORD: now Nineueh was an exceeding great citie of three dayes iourney.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Jonah{gr.Jonas} arose, and went to Nineveh{gr.Nineve}, as the Lord had spoken. Now Nineveh{gr.Nineve} was an exceeding great city, of about three days' journey.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— So Yonah arose, and went unto Ninweh, according to the word of Yahweh. Now Ninweh was an exceeding great city of three days' journey.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
So Yn יוֹנָה 3124
{3124} Prime
יוֹנָה
Yonah
{yo-naw'}
The same as H3123; Jonah, an Israelite.
arose, 6965
{6965} Prime
קוּם
quwm
{koom}
A primitive root; to rise (in various applications, literally, figuratively, intensively and causatively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and went y3212
[3212] Standard
יָלַך
yalak
{yaw-lak'}
A primitive root (compare H1980); to walk (literally or figuratively); causatively to carry (in various senses).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x1980
(1980) Complement
הָלַךְ
halak
{haw-lak'}
Akin to H3212; a primitive root; to walk (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Nnw נִינוֵה, 5210
{5210} Prime
נִינְוֵה
Niyn@veh
{nee-nev-ay'}
Of foreign origin; Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.
according to the word 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
of Yhw יָהוֶה. 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
Now Nnw נִינוֵה 5210
{5210} Prime
נִינְוֵה
Niyn@veh
{nee-nev-ay'}
Of foreign origin; Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.
was x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
an exceeding 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
great 1419
{1419} Prime
גָּדוֹל
gadowl
{gaw-dole'}
From H1431; great (in any sense); hence older; also insolent.
city 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
of three 7969
{7969} Prime
שָׁלוֹשׁ
shalowsh
{shaw-loshe'}
The last two forms being masculine; a primitive number; three; occasionally (ordinal) third, or (multiplicative) thrice.
days' 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
journey. 4109
{4109} Prime
מַהֲלָךְ
mahalak
{mah-hal-awk'}
From H1980; a walk, that is, a passage or a distance.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Jonah 3:3

_ _ arose and went — like the son who was at first disobedient to the father’s command, “Go work in my vineyard,” but who afterwards “repented and went” (Matthew 21:28, Matthew 21:29). Jonah was thus the fittest instrument for proclaiming judgment, and yet hope of mercy on repentance to Nineveh, being himself a living exemplification of both — judgment in his entombment in the fish, mercy on repentance in his deliverance. Israel professing to obey, but not obeying, and so doomed to exile in the same Nineveh, answers to the son who said, “I go, sir, and went not.” In Luke 11:30 it is said that Jonas was not only a sign to the men in Christ’s time, but also “unto the Ninevites.” On the latter occasion (Matthew 16:1-4) when the Pharisees and Sadducees tempted Him, asking a sign from heaven, He answered, “No sign shall be given, but the sign of the prophet Jonas,” Matthew 12:39. Thus the sign had a twofold aspect, a direct bearing on the Ninevites, an indirect bearing on the Jews in Christ’s time. To the Ninevites he was not merely a prophet, but himself a wonder in the earth, as one who had tasted of death, and yet had not seen corruption, but had now returned to witness among them for God. If the Ninevites had indulged in a captious spirit, they never would have inquired and so known Jonah’s wonderful history; but being humbled by God’s awful message, they learned from Jonah himself that it was the previous concealing in his bosom of the same message of their own doom that caused him to be entombed as an outcast from the living. Thus he was a “sign” to them of wrath on the one hand, and, on the other, of mercy. Guilty Jonah saved from the jaws of death gives a ray of hope to guilty Nineveh. Thus God, who brings good from evil, made Jonah in his fall, punishment, and restoration, a sign (an embodied lesson or living symbol) through which the Ninevites were roused to hear and repent, as they would not have been likely to do, had he gone on the first commission before his living entombment and resurrection. To do evil that good may come, is a policy which can only come from Satan; but from evil already done to extract an instrument against the kingdom of darkness, is a triumphant display of the grace and wisdom of God. To the Pharisees in Christ’s time, who, not content with the many signs exhibited by Him, still demanded a sign from heaven, He gave a sign in the opposite quarter, namely, Jonah, who came “out of the belly of hell” (the unseen region). They looked for a Messiah gloriously coming in the clouds of heaven; the Messiah, on the contrary, is to pass through a like, though a deeper, humiliation than Jonah; He is to lie “in the heart of the earth.” Jonah and his Antitype alike appeared low and friendless among their hearers; both victims to death for God’s wrath against sin, both preaching repentance. Repentance derives all its efficacy from the death of Christ, just as Jonah’s message derived its weight with the Ninevites from his entombment. The Jews stumbled at Christ’s death, the very fact which ought to have led them to Him, as Jonah’s entombment attracted the Ninevites to his message. As Jonah’s restoration gave hope of God’s placability to Nineveh, so Christ’s resurrection assures us God is fully reconciled to man by Christ’s death. But Jonah’s entombment only had the effect of a moral suasive; Christ’s death is an efficacious instrument of reconciliation between God and man [Fairbairn].

_ _ Nineveh was an exceeding great city — literally, “great to God,” that is, before God. All greatness was in the Hebrew mind associated with GOD; hence arose the idiom (compare “great mountains,” Margin, “mountains of God,” Psalms 36:6; “goodly cedars,” Margin, “cedars of God,” Psalms 80:10; “a mighty hunter before the Lord,Genesis 10:9).

_ _ three days’ journey — that is, about sixty miles, allowing about twenty miles for a day’s journey. Jonah’s statement is confirmed by heathen writers, who describe Nineveh as four hundred eighty stadia in circumference [Diodorus Siculus, 2.3]. Herodotus defines a day’s journey to be one hundred fifty stadia; so three days’ journey will not be much below Diodorus’ estimate. The parallelogram in Central Assyria covered with remains of buildings has Khorsabad northeast; Koyunjik and Nebbi Yunus near the Tigris, northwest; Nimroud, between the Tigris and the Zab, southwest; and Karamless, at a distance inward from the Zab, southeast. From Koyunjik to Nimroud is about eighteen miles; from Khorsabad to Karamless, the same; from Koyunjik to Khorsabad, thirteen or fourteen miles; from Nimroud to Karamless, fourteen miles. The length thus was greater than the breadth; compare Jonah 3:4, “a day’s journey,” which is confirmed by heathen writers and by modern measurements. The walls were a hundred feet high, and broad enough to allow three chariots abreast, and had moreover fifteen hundred lofty towers. The space between, including large parks and arable ground, as well as houses, was Nineveh in its full extent. The oldest palaces are at Nimroud, which was probably the original site. Layard latterly has thought that the name Nineveh belonged originally to Koyunjik, rather than to Nimroud. Jonah (Jonah 4:11) mentions the children as numbering one hundred twenty thousand, which would give about a million to the whole population. Existing ruins show that Nineveh acquired its greatest extent under the kings of the second dynasty, that is, the kings mentioned in Scripture; it was then that Jonah visited it, and the reports of its magnificence were carried to the west [Layard].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Jonah 3:1-4.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Jonah 3:3

Exceeding great — The greatest city of the known world at that day, it was then in its flourishing state greater than Babylon, whose compass was three hundred eighty — five furlongs, but Nineveh was in compass, four hundred and eighty. It is said, her walls were an hundred foot in height, her walls broad enough for three coaches to meet, and safely pass by each other; that it had fifteen hundred towers on its walls, each two hundred foot high, and one million, four hundred thousand men employed for eight years to build it. Of three days journey — To walk round the walls, allowing twenty miles to each day's journey.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Jonah 3:3

So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an exceeding (b) great city of three days' journey.

(b) See Jonah 1:2

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
So:

Genesis 30:8 And Rachel said, With great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister, and I have prevailed: and she called his name Naphtali.
*marg.
Psalms 36:6 Thy righteousness [is] like the great mountains; thy judgments [are] a great deep: O LORD, thou preservest man and beast.
*marg.
Psalms 80:10 The hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs thereof [were like] the goodly cedars.
*marg.

arose:

Genesis 22:3 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him.
Matthew 21:28-29 But what think ye? A [certain] man had two sons; and he came to the first, and said, Son, go work to day in my vineyard. ... He answered and said, I will not: but afterward he repented, and went.
2 Timothy 4:11 Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry.

an exceeding great city:
Heb. a city great of God
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Gn 22:3; 30:8. Ps 36:6; 80:10. Mt 21:28. 2Ti 4:11.

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