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John 12:42 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess [it], lest they should be put out of the synagogue:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess [him], lest they should be put out of the synagogue:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Nevertheless many even of the rulers believed in Him, but because of the Pharisees they were not confessing [Him], for fear that they would be put out of the synagogue;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Nevertheless, among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess [him], lest they should be put out of the synagogue:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Although indeed from among the rulers also many believed on him, but on account of the Pharisees did not confess [him], that they might not be put out of the synagogue:
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Nevertheless, however, even from among the rulers, many believed on him; but, because of the Pharisees, they were not confessing him, lest, excommunicants from the synagogue, they should be made;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Still, however, also out of the rulers did many believe in him, but because of the Pharisees they were not confessing, that they might not be put out of the synagogue,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— However, many of the chief men also believed in him: but because of the Pharisees they did not confess him, that they might not be cast out of the synagogue.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Neuerthelesse, among the chiefe rulers also, many beleeued on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confesse him, lest they should be put out of the Synagogue.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— Yet of the chiefs also many believed in him: but because of the Pharishee they did not confess, that they might not be put out of the synagogue:
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And of the chiefs also, many believed on him; but on account of the Pharisees, they did not confess [him], lest they should be put out of the synagogue;

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Nevertheless 3676
{3676} Prime
ὅμως
homos
{hom'-oce}
Adverb from the base of G3674; at the same time, that is, (conjugationally) notwithstanding, yet still.
3305
{3305} Prime
μέντοι
mentoi
{men'-toy}
From G3303 and G5104; indeed though, that is, however.
x2532
(2532) Complement
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
among 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
chief rulers 758
{0758} Prime
ἄρχων
archon
{ar'-khone}
Present participle of G0757; a first (in rank or power).
also 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
many 4183
{4183} Prime
πολύς
polus
{pol-oos'}
Including the forms from the alternate 'pollos'; (singular) much (in any respect) or (plural) many; neuter (singular) as adverb largely; neuter (plural) as adverb or noun often, mostly, largely.
believed 4100
{4100} Prime
πιστεύω
pisteuo
{pist-yoo'-o}
From G4102; to have faith (in, upon, or with respect to, a person or thing), that is, credit; by implication to entrust (especially one's spiritual well being to Christ).
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
on 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
him; 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
but 235
{0235} Prime
ἀλλά
alla
{al-lah'}
Neuter plural of G0243; properly other things, that is, (adverbially) contrariwise (in many relations).
because 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
Pharisees 5330
{5330} Prime
Φαρισαῖος
Pharisaios
{far-is-ah'-yos}
Of Hebrew origin (compare [H6567]); a separatist, that is, exclusively religious; a Pharisaean, that is, Jewish sectary.
they did y3670
[3670] Standard
ὁμολογέω
homologeo
{hom-ol-og-eh'-o}
From a compound of the base of G3674 and G3056; to assent, that is, covenant, acknowledge.
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
not 3756
{3756} Prime
οὐ
ou
{oo}
A primary word; the absolutely negative (compare G3361) adverb; no or not.
confess 3670
{3670} Prime
ὁμολογέω
homologeo
{hom-ol-og-eh'-o}
From a compound of the base of G3674 and G3056; to assent, that is, covenant, acknowledge.
z5707
<5707> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 855
[him], lest 3363
{3363} Prime
ἵνα με
hina me
{hin'-ah may}
That is, G2443 and G3361; in order (or so) that not.
they should be 1096
{1096} Prime
γίνομαι
ginomai
{ghin'-om-ahee}
A prolonged and middle form of a primary verb; to cause to be ('gen' -erate), that is, (reflexively) to become (come into being), used with great latitude (literally, figuratively, intensively, etc.).
z5638
<5638> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Middle Deponent (See G5788)
Mood - Subjunctive (See G5792)
Count - 66
put out of the synagogue: 656
{0656} Prime
ἀποσυνάγωγος
aposunagogos
{ap-os-oon-ag'-o-gos}
From G0575 and G4864; excommunicated.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

John 12:42-43

_ _ among the chief rulers also — rather, “even of the rulers”; such as Nicodemus and Joseph.

_ _ because of the Pharisees — that is, the leaders of the sects; for they were of it themselves.

_ _ put out of the synagogue — See John 9:22, John 9:34.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

John 12:42-43

_ _ Some honour was done to Christ by these rulers: for they believed on him, were convinced that he was sent of God, and received his doctrine as divine; but they did not do him honour enough, for they had not courage to own their faith in him. Many professed more kindness for Christ than really they had; these had more kindness for him than they were willing to profess. See here what a struggle was in these rulers between their convictions and their corruptions.

_ _ I. See the power of the word in the convictions that many of them were under, who did not wilfully shut their eyes against the light. They believed on him as Nicodemus, received him as a teacher come from God. Note, The truth of the gospel has perhaps a better interest in the consciences of men than we are aware of. Many cannot but approve of that in their hearts which yet outwardly they are shy of. Perhaps these chief rulers were true believers, though very weak, and their faith like smoking flax. Note, It may be, there are more good people than we think there are. Elijah thought he was left alone, when God had seven thousand faithful worshippers in Israel. Some are really better than they seem to be. Their faults are known, but their repentance is not; a man's goodness may be concealed by a culpable yet pardonable weakness, which he himself truly repents of. The kingdom of God comes not in all with a like observation; nor have all who are good the same faculty of appearing to be so.

_ _ II. See the power of the world in the smothering of these convictions. They believed in Christ, but because of the Pharisees, who had it in their power to do them a diskindness, they durst not confess him for fear of being excommunicated. Observe here, 1. Wherein they failed and were defective; They did not confess Christ. Note, There is cause to question the sincerity of that faith which is either afraid or ashamed to show itself; for those who believe with the heart ought to confess with the mouth, Romans 10:9. 2. What they feared: being put out of the synagogue, which they thought would be a disgrace and damage to them; as if it would do them any harm to be expelled from a synagogue that had made itself a synagogue of Satan, and from which God was departing. 3. What was at the bottom of this fear: They loved the praise of men, chose it as a more valuable good, and pursued it as a more desirable end, than the praise of God; which was an implicit idolatry, like that (Romans 1:25) of worshipping and serving the creature more than the Creator. They set these two in the scale one against the other, and, having weighed them, they proceeded accordingly. (1.) They set the praise of men in one scale, and considered how good it was to give praise to men, and to pay a deference to the opinion of the Pharisees, and receive praise from men, to be commended by the chief priests and applauded by the people as good sons of the church, the Jewish church; and they would not confess Christ, lest they should thereby derogate from the reputation of the Pharisees, and forfeit their own, and thus hinder their own preferment. And, besides, the followers of Christ were put into an ill name, and were looked upon with contempt, which those who had been used to honour could not bear. Yet perhaps if they had known one another's minds they would have had more courage; but each one thought that if he should declare himself in favour of Christ he should stand alone, and have nobody to back him; whereas, if any one had had resolution to break the ice, he would have had more seconds than he thought of. (2.) They put the praise of God in the other scale. They were sensible that by confessing Christ they should both give praise to God, and have praise from God, that he would be pleased with them, and say, Well done; but, (3.) They gave the preference to the praise of men, and this turned the scale; sense prevailed above faith, and represented it as more desirable to stand right in the opinion of the Pharisees than to be accepted of God. Note, Love of the praise of men is a very great prejudice to the power and practice of religion and godliness. Many come short of the glory of God by having a regard to the applause of men, and a value for that. Love of the praise of men, as a by-end in that which is good, will make a man a hypocrite when religion is in fashion and credit is to be got by it; and love of the praise of men, as a base principle in that which is evil, will make a man an apostate when religion is in disgrace, and credit is to be lost for it, as here. See Romans 2:29.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

John 12:42

(10) Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess [him], lest they should be put out of the synagogue:

(10) The ones who believe are not only few in number, if they are compared with the unbelievers, but also the majority of those few (yea, and especially the ones of highest rank) fear men more than God.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
among:

John 3:2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
John 7:48-51 Have any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed on him? ... Doth our law judge [any] man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth?
John 11:45 Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him.
John 19:38 And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave [him] leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.

they did not:

Matthew 10:32 Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven.
Luke 12:8 Also I say unto you, Whosoever shall confess me before men, him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God:
Romans 10:10 For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.
1 John 4:2 Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God:
1 John 4:15 Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth in him, and he in God.

lest:

John 7:13 Howbeit no man spake openly of him for fear of the Jews.
John 9:22 These [words] spake his parents, because they feared the Jews: for the Jews had agreed already, that if any man did confess that he was Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue.
John 9:34 They answered and said unto him, Thou wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they cast him out.
John 16:2 They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service.
Proverbs 29:25 The fear of man bringeth a snare: but whoso putteth his trust in the LORD shall be safe.
Isaiah 51:7 Hearken unto me, ye that know righteousness, the people in whose heart [is] my law; fear ye not the reproach of men, neither be ye afraid of their revilings.
Isaiah 57:11 And of whom hast thou been afraid or feared, that thou hast lied, and hast not remembered me, nor laid [it] to thy heart? have not I held my peace even of old, and thou fearest me not?
Isaiah 66:5 Hear the word of the LORD, ye that tremble at his word; Your brethren that hated you, that cast you out for my name's sake, said, Let the LORD be glorified: but he shall appear to your joy, and they shall be ashamed.
Matthew 26:69-75 Now Peter sat without in the palace: and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. ... And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out, and wept bitterly.
Luke 6:22 Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you [from their company], and shall reproach [you], and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man's sake.
Acts 5:41 And they departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for his name.
1 Peter 4:12-16 Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you: ... Yet if [any man suffer] as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf.
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Pv 29:25. Is 51:7; 57:11; 66:5. Mt 10:32; 26:69. Lk 6:22; 12:8. Jn 3:2; 7:13, 48; 9:22, 34; 11:45; 16:2; 19:38. Ac 5:41. Ro 10:10. 1P 4:12. 1Jn 4:2, 15.

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