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Joel 2:2 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness, as the dawn spread upon the mountains; a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after them, even to the years of many generations.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains: a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, [even] to the years of many generations.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— A day of darkness and gloom, A day of clouds and thick darkness. As the dawn is spread over the mountains, [So] there is a great and mighty people; There has never been [anything] like it, Nor will there be again after it To the years of many generations.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains: a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, [even] to the years of many generations.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and gross darkness, as the dawn spread upon the mountains;—a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after them, to the years of generations and generations.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— A day of obscurity and deep gloom, a day of cloud, and thick darkness, as dusk, spread over the mountains,—a people, many and bold, like whom, hath not been from age-past times, and, after whom, shall not be again unto the years of generation after generation.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— A day of darkness and thick darkness, A day of cloud and thick darkness, As darkness spread on the mountains, A people numerous and mighty, Like it there hath not been from of old, And after it there is not again—till the years of generation and generation.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— A day of darkness, and of gloominess, a day of clouds and whirlwinds: a numerous and strong people as the morning spread upon the mountains: the like to it hath not been from the beginning, nor shall be after it, even to the years of generation and generation.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— A day of darkenesse and of gloominesse, a day of clouds and of thicke darkenesse, as the morning spread vpon the mountaines: a great people and a strong, there hath not beene euer the like, neither shall be any more after it, euen to the yeres of many generations.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— for a day of darkness and gloominess is near, a day of cloud and mist: a numerous and strong people shall be spread upon the mountains as the morning; there has not been from the beginning one like it, and after it there shall not be again even to the years of many generations.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains: a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, [even] to the years of many generations.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
A day 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
of darkness 2822
{2822} Prime
חֹשֶׁךְ
choshek
{kho-shek'}
From H2821; the dark; hence (literally) darkness; figuratively misery, destruction, death, ignorance, sorrow, wickedness.
and of gloominess, 653
{0653} Prime
אֲפֵלָה
'aphelah
{af-ay-law'}
Feminine of H0651; duskiness, figuratively misfortune; concretely concealment.
a day 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
of clouds 6051
{6051} Prime
עֲנָן
`anan
{aw-nawn'}
From H6049; a cloud (as covering the sky), that is, the nimbus or thunder cloud.
and of thick darkness, 6205
{6205} Prime
עֲרָפֶל
`araphel
{ar-aw-fel'}
Probably from H6201; gloom (as of a lowering sky).
as the morning 7837
{7837} Prime
שַׁחַר
shachar
{shakh'-ar}
From H7836; dawn (literally, figuratively or adverbially).
spread 6566
{6566} Prime
פָּרַשׂ
paras
{paw-ras'}
A primitive root; to break apart, disperse, etc.
z8803
<8803> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Passive (See H8815)
Count - 1415
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the mountains: 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
a great 7227
{7227} Prime
רַב
rab
{rab}
By contraction from H7231; abundant (in quantity, size, age, number, rank, quality).
people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
and a strong; 6099
{6099} Prime
עָצוּם
`atsuwm
{aw-tsoom'}
Passive participle of H6105; powerful (specifically a paw); by implication numerous.
there hath not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
been 1961
{1961} Prime
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
ever 5769
{5769} Prime
עוֹלָם
`owlam
{o-lawm'}
From H5956; properly concealed, that is, the vanishing point; generally time out of mind (past or future), that is, (practically) eternity; frequentative adverbially (especially with prepositional prefix) always.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
the like, x3644
(3644) Complement
כְמוֹ
k@mow
{kem-o'}
A form of the prefix K, but used separately (compare H3651); as, thus, so.
neither x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
shall be any more 3254
{3254} Prime
יָסַף
yacaph
{yaw-saf'}
A primitive root; to add or augment (often adverbially to continue to do a thing).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
after 310
{0310} Prime
אַחַר
'achar
{akh-ar'}
From H0309; properly the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjugation, after (in various senses).
it, [even] to x5704
(5704) Complement
עַד
`ad
{ad}
Properly the same as H5703 (used as a preposition, adverb or conjugation; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with).
the years 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
of many y1755
[1755] Standard
דּוֹר
dowr
{dore}
From H1752; properly a revolution of time, that is, an age or generation; also a dwelling.
generations. 1755
{1755} Prime
דּוֹר
dowr
{dore}
From H1752; properly a revolution of time, that is, an age or generation; also a dwelling.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Joel 2:2

_ _ darkness ... gloominess ... clouds ... thick darkness — accumulation of synonyms, to intensify the picture of calamity (Isaiah 8:22). Appropriate here, as the swarms of locusts intercepting the sunlight suggested darkness as a fit image of the coming visitation.

_ _ as the morning spread upon the mountains: a great people — Substitute a comma for a colon after mountains: As the morning light spreads itself over the mountains, so a people numerous [Maurer] and strong shall spread themselves. The suddenness of the rising of the morning light, which gilds the mountain tops first, is less probably thought by others to be the point of comparison to the sudden inroad of the foe. Maurer refers it to the yellow splendor which arises from the reflection of the sunlight on the wings of the immense hosts of locusts as they approach. This is likely; understanding, however, that the locusts are only the symbols of human foes. The immense Assyrian host of invaders under Sennacherib (compare Isaiah 37:36) destroyed by God (Joel 2:18, Joel 2:20, Joel 2:21), may be the primary objects of the prophecy; but ultimately the last antichristian confederacy, destroyed by special divine interposition, is meant (see on Joel 3:2).

_ _ there hath not been ever the like — (Compare Joel 1:2; Exodus 10:14).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Joel 2:1-11.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Joel 2:2

A day of darkness — A time of exceeding great troubles and calamities. And this passage may well allude to the day of judgment, and the calamities which precede that day. As the morning — As the morning spreads itself over all the hemisphere and first upon the high mountains, so shall the approaching calamities overspread this people. A great people — This seems more directly to intend the Babylonians.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Joel 2:2

A (b) day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains: a (c) great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, [even] to the years of many generations.

(b) Of affliction and trouble.

(c) Meaning, the Assyrians.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
A day of darkness:
"The quantity of these insects," says a French author,"is incredible to all who have not themselves witnessed their astonishing numbers; the whole earth is covered with them for the space of several leagues. The noise they make in browsing on the trees and herbage may be heard at a great distance, and resembles that of an army in secret. Wherever their myriads spread, the verdure of the country disappears; trees and plants, stripped of their leaves and reduced to their naked boughs and stems, cause the dreary image of winter to succeed in an instant to the rich scenery of spring. When these clouds of locusts take their flight, to surmount any obstacles or to traverse more rapidly a desert soil, the heavens may literally be said to be obscured by them."
Joel 2:10 The earth shall quake before them; the heavens shall tremble: the sun and the moon shall be dark, and the stars shall withdraw their shining:
Joel 2:31 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come.
Joel 3:14-15 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD [is] near in the valley of decision. ... The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining.
Exodus 20:21 And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God [was].
Psalms 97:2 Clouds and darkness [are] round about him: righteousness and judgment [are] the habitation of his throne.
Isaiah 5:30 And in that day they shall roar against them like the roaring of the sea: and if [one] look unto the land, behold darkness [and] sorrow, and the light is darkened in the heavens thereof.
Isaiah 8:22 And they shall look unto the earth; and behold trouble and darkness, dimness of anguish; and [they shall be] driven to darkness.
Jeremiah 13:16 Give glory to the LORD your God, before he cause darkness, and before your feet stumble upon the dark mountains, and, while ye look for light, he turn it into the shadow of death, [and] make [it] gross darkness.
Amos 5:18-20 Woe unto you that desire the day of the LORD! to what end [is] it for you? the day of the LORD [is] darkness, and not light. ... [Shall] not the day of the LORD [be] darkness, and not light? even very dark, and no brightness in it?
Zephaniah 1:14-15 The great day of the LORD [is] near, [it is] near, and hasteth greatly, [even] the voice of the day of the LORD: the mighty man shall cry there bitterly. ... That day [is] a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness,
Hebrews 12:18 For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest,
Jude 1:13 Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.

as:

Amos 4:13 For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man what [is] his thought, that maketh the morning darkness, and treadeth upon the high places of the earth, The LORD, The God of hosts, [is] his name.

a great:

Joel 2:5 Like the noise of chariots on the tops of mountains shall they leap, like the noise of a flame of fire that devoureth the stubble, as a strong people set in battle array.
Joel 2:11 And the LORD shall utter his voice before his army: for his camp [is] very great: for [he is] strong that executeth his word: for the day of the LORD [is] great and very terrible; and who can abide it?
Joel 2:25 And I will restore to you the years that the locust hath eaten, the cankerworm, and the caterpiller, and the palmerworm, my great army which I sent among you.
Joel 1:6 For a nation is come up upon my land, strong, and without number, whose teeth [are] the teeth of a lion, and he hath the cheek teeth of a great lion.

there:

Joel 1:2-3 Hear this, ye old men, and give ear, all ye inhabitants of the land. Hath this been in your days, or even in the days of your fathers? ... Tell ye your children of it, and [let] your children [tell] their children, and their children another generation.
Exodus 10:6 And they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that they were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh.
Exodus 10:14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous [were they]; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such.
Daniel 12:1 And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation [even] to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.
Mark 13:19 For [in] those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be.

many generations:
Heb. generation and generation,
Deuteronomy 32:7 Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations: ask thy father, and he will shew thee; thy elders, and they will tell thee.
Psalms 10:6 He hath said in his heart, I shall not be moved: for [I shall] never [be] in adversity.
*marg.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 10:6, 14; 20:21. Dt 32:7. Ps 10:6; 97:2. Is 5:30; 8:22. Jr 13:16. Dn 12:1. Jol 1:2, 6; 2:5, 10, 11, 25, 31; 3:14. Am 4:13; 5:18. Zp 1:14. Mk 13:19. He 12:18. Jde 1:13.

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