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Joel 1:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— That which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the canker-worm eaten; and that which the canker-worm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— That which the palmerworm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpiller eaten.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— What the gnawing locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; And what the swarming locust has left, the creeping locust has eaten; And what the creeping locust has left, the stripping locust has eaten.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— That which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the canker-worm eaten; and that which the canker-worm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— that which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— That which was left by the creeping locust, hath the swarming locust eaten, and, that which was left by the swarming locust, hath the grass locust eaten; and, that which was left by the grass locust, hath the corn locust eaten.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— What is left of the palmer-worm, eaten hath the locust, And what is left of the locust, Eaten hath the cankerworm, And what is left of the cankerworm, Eaten hath the caterpillar.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— That which the palmerworm hath left, the locust hath eaten: and that which the locust hath left, the bruchus hath eaten: and that which the bruchus hath left, the mildew hath destroyed.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— That which the palmer worme hath left, hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left, hath the canker-worme eaten; and that which the canker-worme hath left, hath the caterpillar eaten.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— The leavings of the caterpillar has the locust eaten, and the leavings of the locust has the palmerworm eaten, and the leavings of the palmerworm has the cankerworm eaten.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— That which the palmerworm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpiller eaten.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
That which the palmerworm 1501
{1501} Prime
גָּזָם
gazam
{gaw-zawm'}
From an unused root meaning to devour; a kind of locust.
hath left 3499
{3499} Prime
יֶתֶר
yether
{yeh'-ther}
Properly an overhanging, that is, (by implication) an excess, superiority, remainder; also a small rope (as hanging free).
hath the locust 697
{0697} Prime
אַרְבֶּה
'arbeh
{ar-beh'}
From H7235; a locust (from its rapid increase).
eaten; 398
{0398} Prime
אָכַל
'akal
{aw-kal'}
A primitive root; to eat (literally or figuratively).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
and that which the locust 697
{0697} Prime
אַרְבֶּה
'arbeh
{ar-beh'}
From H7235; a locust (from its rapid increase).
hath left 3499
{3499} Prime
יֶתֶר
yether
{yeh'-ther}
Properly an overhanging, that is, (by implication) an excess, superiority, remainder; also a small rope (as hanging free).
hath the cankerworm 3218
{3218} Prime
יֶלֶק
yekeq
{yeh'-lek}
From an unused root meaning to lick up; a devourer; specifically the young locust.
eaten; 398
{0398} Prime
אָכַל
'akal
{aw-kal'}
A primitive root; to eat (literally or figuratively).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
and that which the cankerworm 3218
{3218} Prime
יֶלֶק
yekeq
{yeh'-lek}
From an unused root meaning to lick up; a devourer; specifically the young locust.
hath left 3499
{3499} Prime
יֶתֶר
yether
{yeh'-ther}
Properly an overhanging, that is, (by implication) an excess, superiority, remainder; also a small rope (as hanging free).
hath the caterpiller 2625
{2625} Prime
חָסִיל
chaciyl
{khaw-seel'}
From H2628; the ravager, that is, a locust.
eaten. 398
{0398} Prime
אָכַל
'akal
{aw-kal'}
A primitive root; to eat (literally or figuratively).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Joel 1:4

_ _ This verse states the subject on which he afterwards expands. Four species or stages of locusts, rather than four different insects, are meant (compare LeviticusLeviticus 11:22). Literally, (1) the gnawing locust; (2) the swarming locust; (3) the licking locust; (4) the consuming locust; forming a climax to the most destructive kind. The last is often three inches long, and the two antennae, each an inch long. The two hinder of its six feet are larger than the rest, adapting it for leaping. The first “kind” is that of the locust, having just emerged from the egg in spring, and without wings. The second is when at the end of spring, still in their first skin, the locusts put forth little ones without legs or wings. The third, when after their third casting of the old skin, they get small wings, which enable them to leap the better, but not to fly. Being unable to go away till their wings are matured, they devour all before them, grass, shrubs, and bark of trees: translated “rough caterpillars” (Jeremiah 51:27). The fourth kind, the matured winged locusts (see on Nahum 3:16). In Joel 2:25 they are enumerated in the reverse order, where the restoration of the devastations caused by them is promised. The Hebrews make the first species refer to Assyria and Babylon; the second species, to Medo-Persia; the third, to Greco-Macedonia and Antiochus Epiphanes; the fourth, to the Romans. Though the primary reference be to literal locusts, the Holy Spirit doubtless had in view the successive empires which assailed Judea, each worse than its predecessor, Rome being the climax.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Joel 1:1-7.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Joel 1:4

Palmer — worm — Four sorts of insects, are here mentioned, which succeeded each other, and devoured all that might be a support to the Jews, whence ensued a grievous famine.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
That which the palmerworm hath left:
Heb. The residue of the palmer-worm,
Joel 2:25 And I will restore to you the years that the locust hath eaten, the cankerworm, and the caterpiller, and the palmerworm, my great army which I sent among you.
Amos 4:9 I have smitten you with blasting and mildew: when your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees increased, the palmerworm devoured [them]: yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.
; The learned Bochart, and others, are of the opinion that the four Hebrew words, gazam, yelek, arbeh, chasil, respectively rendered the palmer-worm, locust, canker-worm and caterpillar, denote four different species of locusts. See note on
Exodus 10:4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast:

the locust eaten:

Exodus 10:12-15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, [even] all that the hail hath left. ... For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt.
Deuteronomy 28:38 Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, and shalt gather [but] little in; for the locust shall consume it.
Deuteronomy 28:42 All thy trees and fruit of thy land shall the locust consume.
1 Kings 8:37 If there be in the land famine, if there be pestilence, blasting, mildew, locust, [or] if there be caterpiller; if their enemy besiege them in the land of their cities; whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness [there be];
2 Chronicles 6:28 If there be dearth in the land, if there be pestilence, if there be blasting, or mildew, locusts, or caterpillers; if their enemies besiege them in the cities of their land; whatsoever sore or whatsoever sickness [there be]:
2 Chronicles 7:13 If I shut up heaven that there be no rain, or if I command the locusts to devour the land, or if I send pestilence among my people;
Psalms 78:46 He gave also their increase unto the caterpiller, and their labour unto the locust.
Psalms 105:34 He spake, and the locusts came, and caterpillers, and that without number,
Amos 7:1 Thus hath the Lord GOD shewed unto me; and, behold, he formed grasshoppers in the beginning of the shooting up of the latter growth; and, lo, [it was] the latter growth after the king's mowings.
Revelation 9:3-7 And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power. ... And the shapes of the locusts [were] like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads [were] as it were crowns like gold, and their faces [were] as the faces of men.

the cankerworm eaten:

Nahum 3:15-17 There shall the fire devour thee; the sword shall cut thee off, it shall eat thee up like the cankerworm: make thyself many as the cankerworm, make thyself many as the locusts. ... Thy crowned [are] as the locusts, and thy captains as the great grasshoppers, which camp in the hedges in the cold day, [but] when the sun ariseth they flee away, and their place is not known where they [are].

the caterpillar:

Isaiah 33:4 And your spoil shall be gathered [like] the gathering of the caterpiller: as the running to and fro of locusts shall he run upon them.
Jeremiah 51:14 The LORD of hosts hath sworn by himself, [saying], Surely I will fill thee with men, as with caterpillers; and they shall lift up a shout against thee.
Jeremiah 51:27 Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.
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Ex 10:4, 12. Dt 28:38, 42. 1K 8:37. 2Ch 6:28; 7:13. Ps 78:46; 105:34. Is 33:4. Jr 51:14, 27. Jol 2:25. Am 4:9; 7:1. Na 3:15. Rv 9:3.

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