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Job 31:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— I made a covenant with mine eyes; How then should I look upon a virgin?
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— I made a covenant with mine eyes; why then should I think upon a maid?
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “I have made a covenant with my eyes; How then could I gaze at a virgin?
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— I Made a covenant with my eyes; why then should I think upon a maid?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— I made a covenant with mine eyes; and how should I fix my regard upon a maid?
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— A covenant, I solemnised for mine eyes,—How then could I gaze upon a virgin?
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— A covenant I made for mine eyes, And what—do I attend to a virgin?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— I made a covenant with my eyes, that I would not so much as think upon a virgin.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— I made a couenant with mine eyes; why then should I thinke vpon a mayd?
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— I made a covenant with mine eyes, and I will not think upon a virgin.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— I made a covenant with mine eyes; why then should I think upon a maid?

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
I made 3772
{3772} Prime
כָּרַת
karath
{kaw-rath'}
A primitive root; to cut (off, down or asunder); by implication to destroy or consume; specifically to covenant (that is, make an alliance or bargain, originally by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
a covenant 1285
{1285} Prime
בְּרִית
b@riyth
{ber-eeth'}
From H1262 (in the sense of cutting (like H1254)); a compact (because made by passing between pieces of flesh).
with mine eyes; 5869
{5869} Prime
עַיִן
`ayin
{ah'-yin}
Probably a primitive word; an eye (literally or figuratively); by analogy a fountain (as the eye of the landscape).
why x4100
(4100) Complement
מָּה
mah
{maw}
A primitive particle; properly interrogitive what? (including how?, why? and when?); but also exclamations like what! (including how!), or indefinitely what (including whatever, and even relatively that which); often used with prefixes in various adverbial or conjugational senses.
then should I think 995
{0995} Prime
בִּין
biyn
{bene}
A primitive root; to separate mentally (or distinguish), that is, (generally) understand.
z8709
<8709> Grammar
Stem - Hithpolel (See H8824)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 45
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
a maid? 1330
{1330} Prime
בְּתוּלָה
b@thuwlah
{beth-oo-law'}
Feminine passive participle of an unused root meaning to separate; a virgin (from her privacy); sometimes (by continuation) a bride; also (figuratively) a city or state.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Job 31:1-4

_ _ Job proceeds to prove that he deserved a better lot. As in the twenty-ninth chapter, he showed his uprightness as an emir, or magistrate in public life, so in this chapter he vindicates his character in private life.

_ _ He asserts his guarding against being allured to sin by his senses.

_ _ think — rather, “cast a (lustful) look.” He not merely did not so, but put it out of the question by covenanting with his eyes against leading him into temptation (Proverbs 6:25; Matthew 5:28).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Job 31:1-8

_ _ The lusts of the flesh, and the love of the world, are the two fatal rocks on which multitudes split; against these Job protests he was always careful to stand upon his guard.

_ _ I. Against the lusts of the flesh. He not only kept himself clear from adultery, from defiling his neighbour's wives (Job 31:9), but from all lewdness with any women whatsoever. He kept no concubine, no mistress, but was inviolably faithful to the marriage bed, though his wife was none of the wisest, best, or kindest. From the beginning it was so, that a man should have but one wife and cleave to her only; and Job kept closely to that institution and abhorred the thought of transgressing it; for, though his greatness might tempt him to it, his goodness kept him from it. Job was now in pain and sickness of body, and under that affliction it is in a particular manner comfortable if our consciences can witness for us that we have been careful to preserve our bodies in chastity and to possess those vessels in sanctification and honour, pure from the lusts of uncleanness. Now observe here,

_ _ 1. What the resolutions were which, in this matter, he kept to (Job 31:1): I made a covenant with my eyes, that is, “I watched against the occasions of the sin; why then should I think upon a maid?” that is, “by that means, through the grace of God, I kept myself from the very first step towards it.” So far was he from wanton dalliances, or any act of lasciviousness, that, (1.) He would not so much as admit a wanton look. He made a covenant with his eyes, made this bargain with them, that he would allow them the pleasure of beholding the light of the sun and the glory of God shining in the visible creation, provided they would never fasten upon any object that might occasion any impure imaginations, much less any impure desires, in his mind; and under this penalty, that, if they did, they must smart for it in penitential tears. Note, Those that would keep their hearts pure must guard their eyes, which are both the outlets and inlets of uncleanness. Hence we read of wanton eyes (Isaiah 3:16) and eyes full of adultery, 2 Peter 2:14. The first sin began in the eye, Genesis 3:6. What we must not meddle with we must not lust after; and what we must not lust after we must not look at; not the forbidden wealth (Proverbs 23:5), not the forbidden wine (Proverbs 23:31), not the forbidden woman, Matthew 5:28. (2.) He would not so much as allow a wanton thought: “Why then should I think upon a maid with any unchaste fancy or desire towards her?” Shame and sense of honour might restrain him from soliciting the chastity of a beautiful virgin, but only grace and the fear of God would restrain him from so much as thinking of it. Those are not chaste that are not so in spirit as well as body, 1 Corinthians 7:34. See how Christ's exposition of the seventh commandment agrees with the ancient sense of it, and how much better Job understood it than the Pharisees, though they sat in Moses's chair.

_ _ 2. What the reasons were which, in this matter, he was governed by. It was not for fear of reproach among men, though that is to be considered (Proverbs 6:33), but for fear of the wrath and curse of God. He knew very well, (1.) That uncleanness is a sin that forfeits all good, and shuts us out from the hope of it (Job 31:2): What portion of God is there from above? What blessing can such impure sinners expect from the pure and holy God, or what token of his favour? What inheritance of the Almighty can they look for from on high? There is no portion, no inheritance, no true happiness, for a soul, but what is in God, in the Almighty, and what comes from above, from on high. Those that wallow in uncleanness render themselves utterly unfit for communion with God, either in grace here or in glory hereafter, and become allied to unclean spirits, which are for ever separated from him; and then what portion, what inheritance, can they have with God? No unclean thing shall enter into the New Jerusalem, that holy city. (2.) It is a sin that incurs divine vengeance, Job 31:3. It will certainly be the sinner's ruin if it be not repented of in time. Is not destruction, a swift and sure destruction, to those wicked people, and a strange punishment to the workers of this iniquity? Fools make a mock at this sin, make a jest of it; it is with them a peccadillo, a trick of youth. But they deceive themselves with vain words, for because of these things, how light soever they make of them, the wrath of God, the unsupportable wrath of the eternal God, comes upon the children of disobedience, Ephesians 5:6. There are some sinners whom God sometimes out of the common road of Providence to meet with; such are these. The destruction of Sodom is a strange punishment. Is there not alienation (so some read it) to the workers of iniquity? This is the sinfulness of the sin that it alienates the mind from God (Ephesians 4:18, Ephesians 4:19), and this is the punishment of the sinners that they shall be eternally set at a distance from him, Revelation 22:15. (3.) It cannot be hidden from the all-seeing God. A wanton thought cannot be so close, nor a wanton look so quick, as to escape his cognizance, much less any act of uncleanness so secretly done as to be out of his sight. If Job was at any time tempted to this sin, he restrained himself from it, and all approaches to it, with this pertinent thought (Job 31:4), Doth not he see my ways; as Joseph did (Genesis 39:9), How can I do it, and sin against God? Two things Job had an eye to: — [1.] God's omniscience. It is a great truth that God's eyes are upon all the ways of men (Proverbs 5:20, Proverbs 5:21); but Job here mentions it with application to himself and his own actions: Doth not he see my ways? O God! thou hast searched me and known me. God sees what rule we walk by, what company w walk with, what end we walk towards, and therefore what ways we walk in. [2.] His observance. “He not only sees, but takes notice; he counts all my steps, all my false steps in the way of duty, all my by-steps into the way of sin.” He not only sees our ways in general, but takes cognizance of our particular steps in these ways, every action, every motion. He keeps account of all, because he will call us to account, will bring every work into judgment. God takes a more exact notice of us than we do of ourselves; for who ever counted his own steps? yet God counts them. Let us therefore walk circumspectly.

_ _ II. He stood upon his guard against the love of the world, and carefully avoided all sinful indirect means of getting wealth. He dreaded all forbidden profit as much as all forbidden pleasure. Let us see,

_ _ 1. What his protestation is. In general, he had been honest and just in all his dealings, and never, to his knowledge, did any body any wrong. (1.) He never walked with vanity (Job 31:5), that is, he never durst tell a lie to get a good bargain. It was never his way to banter, or equivocate, or make many words in his dealings. Some men's constant walk is a constant cheat. They either make what they have more than it is, that they may be trusted, or less than it is, that nothing may be expected from them. But Job was a different man. His wealth was not acquired by vanity, though now diminished, Proverbs 13:11. (2.) He never hasted to deceit. Those that deceive must be quick and sharp, but Job's quickness and sharpness were never turned that way. He never made haste to be rich by deceit, but always acted cautiously, lest, through inconsideration, he should do an unjust thing. Note, What we have in the world may be either used with comfort or lost with comfort if it was honestly obtained. (3.) His steps never turned out of the way, the way of justice and fair dealing; from that he never deviated, Job 31:7. He not only took care not to walk in a constant course and way of deceit, but he did not so much as take one step out of the way of honesty. In every particular action and affair we must closely tie ourselves up to the rules of righteousness. (4.) His heart did not walk after his eyes, that is, he did not covet what he saw that was another's, nor wish it his own. Covetousness is called the lust of the eye, 1 John 2:16. Achan saw, and then took, the accursed thing. That heart must needs wander that walks after the eyes; for then it looks no further than the things that are seen, whereas it ought to be in heaven whither the eyes cannot reach: it should follow the dictates of religion and right reason: if it follow the eye, it will be misled to that for which God will bring men into judgment, Ecclesiastes 11:9. (5.) That no blot had cleaved to his hands, that is, he was not chargeable with getting any thing dishonestly, or keeping that which was another's, whenever it appeared to be so. Injustice is a blot, a blot to the estate, a blot to the owner; it spoils the beauty of both, and therefore is to be dreaded. Those that deal much in the world may perhaps have a blot come upon their hands, but they must wash it off again by repentance and restitution, and not let it cleave to their hands. See Isaiah 33:15.

_ _ 2. How he ratifies his protestation. So confident is he of his own honesty that, (1.) He is willing to have his goods searched (Job 31:6): Let me be weighed in an even balance, that is, “Let what I have got be enquired into and it will be found to weigh well” — a sign that it was not obtained by vanity, for then Tekel would have been written on it — weighed in the balance and found too light. An honest man is so far from dreading a trial that he desires it rather, being well assured that God knows his integrity and will approve it, and that the trial of it will be to his praise and honour. (2.) He is willing to forfeit the whole cargo if there be found any prohibited or contraband goods, any thing but what he came honestly by (Job 31:8): “Let me sow, and let another eat,” which was already agreed to be the doom of oppressors (Job 5:5), “and let my offspring, all the trees that I have planted, be rooted out.” This intimates that he believed the sin did deserve this punishment, that usually it is thus punished, but that though now his estate was ruined (and at such a time, if ever, his conscience would have brought his sin to his mind), yet he knew himself innocent and would venture all the poor remains of his estate upon the issue of the trial.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Job 31:1

I made — So far have I been from any gross wickedness, that I have abstained from the least occasions and appearances of evil.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Job 31:1

I made a covenant with mine (a) eyes; why then should I think upon (b) a maid?

(a) I kept my eyes from all wanton looks.

(b) Would not God then have punished me?

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
a covenant:

Genesis 6:2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they [were] fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
2 Samuel 11:2-4 And it came to pass in an eveningtide, that David arose from off his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a woman washing herself; and the woman [was] very beautiful to look upon. ... And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in unto him, and he lay with her; for she was purified from her uncleanness: and she returned unto her house.
Psalms 119:37 Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity; [and] quicken thou me in thy way.
Proverbs 4:25 Let thine eyes look right on, and let thine eyelids look straight before thee.
Proverbs 23:31-33 Look not thou upon the wine when it is red, when it giveth his colour in the cup, [when] it moveth itself aright. ... Thine eyes shall behold strange women, and thine heart shall utter perverse things.
Matthew 5:28-29 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. ... And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast [it] from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not [that] thy whole body should be cast into hell.
1 John 2:16 For all that [is] in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.

think:

Proverbs 6:25 Lust not after her beauty in thine heart; neither let her take thee with her eyelids.
James 1:14-15 But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. ... Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 6:2. 2S 11:2. Ps 119:37. Pv 4:25; 6:25; 23:31. Mt 5:28. Jm 1:14. 1Jn 2:16.

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