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Job 3:20 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery, And life unto the bitter in soul;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery, and life unto the bitter [in] soul;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “Why is light given to him who suffers, And life to the bitter of soul,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Why is light given to him that is in misery, and life to the bitter [in] soul;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Wherefore is light given to him that is in trouble, and life to those bitter of soul,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Wherefore give, to the wretched, light? Or, life, to the embittered in soul?—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Why giveth He to the miserable light, and life to the bitter soul?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Why is light given to him that is in misery, and life to them that are in bitterness of soul?
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Wherefore is light giuen to him that is in misery, and life vnto the bitter [in] soule?
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— For why is light given to those who are in bitterness, and life to those souls which are in griefs?
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery, and life unto the bitter [in] soul;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Wherefore x4100
(4100) Complement
מָּה
mah
{maw}
A primitive particle; properly interrogitive what? (including how?, why? and when?); but also exclamations like what! (including how!), or indefinitely what (including whatever, and even relatively that which); often used with prefixes in various adverbial or conjugational senses.
is light 216
{0216} Prime
אוֹר
'owr
{ore}
From H0215; illumination or (concretely) luminary (in every sense, including lightning, happiness, etc.).
given 5414
{5414} Prime
נָתַן
nathan
{naw-than'}
A primitive root; to give, used with great latitude of application (put, make, etc.).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to him that is in misery, 6001
{6001} Prime
עָמֵל
`amel
{aw-male'}
From H5998; toiling; concretely a laborer; figuratively sorrowful.
and life 2416
{2416} Prime
חַי
chay
{khah'-ee}
From H2421; alive; hence raw (flesh); fresh (plant, water, year), strong; also (as noun, especially in the feminine singular and masculine plural) life (or living thing), whether literally or figuratively.
unto the bitter 4751
{4751} Prime
מַר
mar
{mar}
From H4843; bitter (literally or figuratively); also (as noun) bitterness, or (adverbially) bitterly.
[in] soul; 5315
{5315} Prime
נֶפֶשׁ
nephesh
{neh'-fesh}
From H5314; properly a breathing creature, that is, animal or (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Job 3:20

_ _ Job 3:20-26. He complains of life because of his anguish.

_ _ Wherefore giveth he light — namely, God; often omitted reverentially (Job 24:23; Ecclesiastes 9:9). Light, that is, life. The joyful light ill suits the mourners. The grave is most in unison with their feelings.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Job 3:20-26

_ _ Job, finding it to no purpose to wish either that he had not been born or had died as soon as he was born, here complains that his life was now continued and not cut off. When men are set on quarrelling there is no end of it; the corrupt heart will carry on the humour. Having cursed the day of his birth, here he courts the day of his death. The beginning of this strife and impatience is as the letting forth of water.

_ _ I. He thinks it hard, in general, that miserable lives should be prolonged (Job 3:20-22): Wherefore is light in life given to those that are bitter in soul? Bitterness of soul, through spiritual grievances, makes life itself bitter. Why doth he give light? (so it is in the original): he means God, yet does not name him, though the devil had said, “He will curse thee to thy face;” but he tacitly reflects on the divine Providence as unjust and unkind in continuing life when the comforts of life are removed. Life is called light, because pleasant and serviceable for walking and working. It is candle-light; the longer it burns the shorter it is, and the nearer to the socket. This light is said to be given us; for, if it were not daily renewed to us by a fresh gift, it would be lost. But Job reckons that to those who are in misery it is dron adrongift and no gift, a gift that they had better be without, while the light only serves them to see their own misery by. Such is the vanity of human life that it sometimes becomes a vexation of spirit; and so alterable is the property of death that, though dreadful to nature, it may become desirable even to nature itself. He here speaks of those, 1. Who long for death, when they have out-lived their comforts and usefulness, are burdened with age and infirmities, with pain or sickness, poverty or disgrace, and yet it comes not; while, at the same time, it comes to many who dread it and would put it far from them. The continuance and period of life must be according to God's will, not according to ours. It is not fit that we should be consulted how long we would live and when we would die; our times are in a better hand than our own. 2. Who dig for it as for hidden treasures, that is, would give any thing for a fair dismission out of this world, which supposes that then the thought of men's being their own executioners was not so much as entertained or suggested, else those who longed for it needed not take much pains for it, they might soon come at it (as Seneca tells them) if they are pleased. 3. Who bid it welcome, and are glad when they can find the grave and see themselves stepping into it. If the miseries of this life can prevail, contrary to nature, to make death itself desirable, shall not much more the hopes and prospects of a better life, to which death is our passage, make it so, and set us quite above the fear of it? It may be a sin to long for death, but I am sure it is no sin to long for heaven.

_ _ II. He thinks himself, in particular, hardly dealt with, that he might not be eased of his pain and misery by death when he could not get ease in any other way. To be thus impatient of life for the sake of the troubles we meet with is not only unnatural in itself, but ungrateful to the giver of life, and argues a sinful indulgence of our own passion and a sinful inconsideration of our future state. Let it be our great and constant care to get ready for another world, and then let us leave it to God to order the circumstances of our removal thither as he thinks fit: “Lord, when and how thou pleasest;” and this with such an indifference that, if he should refer it to us, we would refer it to him again. Grace teaches us, in the midst of life's greatest comforts, to be willing to die, and, in the midst of its greatest crosses, to be willing to live. Job, to excuse himself in this earnest desire which he had to die, pleads the little comfort and satisfaction he had in life.

_ _ 1. In his present afflicted state troubles were continually felt, and were likely to be so. He thought he had cause enough to be weary of living, for, (1.) He had no comfort of his life: My sighing comes before I eat, Job 3:24. The sorrows of life prevented and anticipated the supports of life; nay, they took away his appetite for his necessary food. His griefs returned as duly as his meals, and affliction was his daily bread. Nay, so great was the extremity of his pain and anguish that he did not only sigh, but roar, and his roarings were poured out like the waters in a full and constant stream. Our Master was acquainted with grief, and we must expect to be so too. (2.) He had no prospect of bettering his condition: His way was hidden, and God had hedged him in, Job 3:23. He saw no way open of deliverance, nor knew he what course to take; his way was hedged up with thorns, that he could not find his path. See Job 23:8; Lamentations 3:7.

_ _ 2. Even in his former prosperous state troubles were continually feared; so that then he was never easy, Job 3:25, Job 3:26. He knew so much of the vanity of the world, and the troubles to which, of course, he was born, that he was not in safety, neither had he rest then. That which made his grief now the more grievous was that he was not conscious to himself of any great degree either of negligence or security in the day of his prosperity, which might provoke God thus to chastise him. (1.) He had not been negligent and unmindful of his affairs, but kept up such a fear of trouble as was necessary to the maintaining of his guard. He was afraid for his children when they were feasting, lest they should offend God (Job 1:5), afraid for his servants lest they should offend his neighbours; he took all the care he could of his own health, and managed himself and his affairs with all possible precaution; yet all would not do. (2.) He had not been secure, nor indulged himself in ease and softness, had not trusted in his wealth, nor flattered himself with the hopes of the perpetuity of his mirth; yet trouble came, to convince and remind him of the vanity of the world, which yet he had not forgotten when he lived at ease. Thus his way was hidden, for he knew not wherefore God contended with him. Now this consideration, instead of aggravating his grief, might rather serve to alleviate it. Nothing will make trouble easy so much as the testimony of our consciences for us, that, in some measure, we did our duty in a day of prosperity; and an expectation of trouble will make it sit the lighter when it comes. The less it is a surprise the less it is a terror.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Job 3:20

Light — The light of life. Bitter — Unto those to whom life itself is bitter and burdensome. Life is called light, because it is pleasant and serviceable for walking and working; and this light is said to be given us, because it would be lost, if it were not daily renewed to us by a fresh gift.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Job 3:20

Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery, and (n) life unto the bitter [in] soul;

(n) He shows that the benefits of God are not comfortable, unless the heart is joyful, and the conscience quieted.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Wherefore:

Job 6:9 Even that it would please God to destroy me; that he would let loose his hand, and cut me off!
Job 7:15-16 So that my soul chooseth strangling, [and] death rather than my life. ... I loathe [it]; I would not live alway: let me alone; for my days [are] vanity.
Jeremiah 20:18 Wherefore came I forth out of the womb to see labour and sorrow, that my days should be consumed with shame?

light:

Job 3:16 Or as an hidden untimely birth I had not been; as infants [which] never saw light.
Job 33:28 He will deliver his soul from going into the pit, and his life shall see the light.
Job 33:30 To bring back his soul from the pit, to be enlightened with the light of the living.

the bitter:

Job 7:15-16 So that my soul chooseth strangling, [and] death rather than my life. ... I loathe [it]; I would not live alway: let me alone; for my days [are] vanity.
1 Samuel 1:10 And she [was] in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the LORD, and wept sore.
2 Kings 4:27 And when she came to the man of God to the hill, she caught him by the feet: but Gehazi came near to thrust her away. And the man of God said, Let her alone; for her soul [is] vexed within her: and the LORD hath hid [it] from me, and hath not told me.
Proverbs 31:6 Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine unto those that be of heavy hearts.
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1S 1:10. 2K 4:27. Jb 3:16; 6:9; 7:15; 33:28, 30. Pv 31:6. Jr 20:18.

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