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Jeremiah 49:23 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Of Damascus. Hamath is confounded, and Arpad; for they have heard evil tidings, they are melted away: there is sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Concerning Damascus. Hamath is confounded, and Arpad: for they have heard evil tidings: they are fainthearted; [there is] sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Concerning Damascus. “Hamath and Arpad are put to shame, For they have heard bad news; They are disheartened. There is anxiety by the sea, It cannot be calmed.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Concerning Damascus. Hamath is confounded, and Arpad: for they have heard evil tidings: they are faint-hearted; [there is] sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Concerning Damascus. Hamath is put to shame, and Arpad; for they have heard evil tidings, they are melted away: there is distress on the sea; it cannot be quiet.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Of Damascus, Turned pale, have Hamath and Arpad, For, a calamitous report, have they heard—they tremble,—In the sea, is anxiety, it cannot, rest.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Concerning Damascus: Ashamed hath been Hamath and Arpad, For an evil report they have heard, They have been melted, in the sea [is] sorrow, To be quiet it is not able.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Against Damascus. Emath is confounded and Arphad: for they have heard very bad tidings, they are troubled as in the sea: through care they could not rest.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Concerning Damascus, Hamath is confounded, & Arpad, for they haue heard euil tidings, they are faint hearted, [there is] sorrow on the sea, it can not be quiet.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— CONCERNING DAMASCUS. Hamath{gr.Emath} is brought to shame, and Arphath: for they have heard an evil report: they are amazed, they are angry, they shall be utterly unable to rest.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Concerning Dammaseq. Chamath is confounded, and Arpad: for they have heard evil tidings: they are fainthearted; [there is] sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Concerning Damm$ek דַּמָּשֶׂק. 1834
{1834} Prime
דַּמֶּשֶׂק
Dammeseq
{dam-meh'-sek}
Of foreign origin; Damascus, a city of Syria.
m חֲמָת 2574
{2574} Prime
חֲמָת
Chamath
{kham-awth'}
From the same as H2346; walled; Chamath, a place in Syria.
is confounded, 954
{0954} Prime
בּושׁ
buwsh
{boosh}
A primitive root; properly to pale, that is, by implication to be ashamed; also (by implication) to be disappointed, or delayed.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
and Arp אַרפָּד: 774
{0774} Prime
אַרְפַּד
'Arpad
{ar-pawd'}
From H7502; spread out; Arpad, a place in Syria.
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
they have heard 8085
{8085} Prime
שָׁמַע
shama`
{shaw-mah'}
A primitive root; to hear intelligently (often with implication of attention, obedience, etc.; causatively to tell, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
evil 7451
{7451} Prime
רָע
ra`
{rah}
From H7489; bad or (as noun) evil (naturally or morally). This includes the second (feminine) form; as adjective or noun.
tidings: 8052
{8052} Prime
שְׁמוּעָה
sh@muw`ah
{sehm-oo-aw'}
Feminine passive participle of H8074; something heard, that is, an announcement.
they are fainthearted; 4127
{4127} Prime
מוּג
muwg
{moog}
A primitive root; to melt, that is, literally (to soften, flow down, disappear), or figuratively (to fear, faint).
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
[there is] sorrow 1674
{1674} Prime
דְּאָגָה
d@'agah
{deh-aw-gaw'}
From H1672; anxiety.
on the sea; 3220
{3220} Prime
יָם
yam
{yawm}
From an unused root meaning to roar; a sea (as breaking in noisy surf) or large body of water; specifically (with the article) the Mediterranean; sometimes a large river, or an artificial basin; locally, the west, or (rarely) the south.
it cannot 3201
{3201} Prime
יָכֹל
yakol
{yaw-kole'}
A primitive root; to be able, literally (can, could) or morally (may, might).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
be quiet. 8252
{8252} Prime
שָׁקַט
shaqat
{shaw-kat'}
A primitive root; to repose (usually figuratively).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Jeremiah 49:23

_ _ Prophecy as to Damascus, etc. (Isaiah 17:1; Isaiah 10:9). The kingdom of Damascus was destroyed by Assyria, but the city revived, and it is as to the latter Jeremiah now prophesies. The fulfillment was probably about five years after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar [Josephus, Antiquities, 10.9, 7].

_ _ Hamath is confounded — at the tidings of the overthrow of the neighboring Damascus.

_ _ on the sea — that is, at the sea; the dwellers there are alarmed. Other manuscripts read, “like the sea.” “There is anxiety (restless) as is the sea: they cannot quiet it,” that is, it cannot be quieted (Isaiah 57:20).

_ _ it — Whatever dwellers are there “cannot be quiet.”

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Jeremiah 49:23-27

_ _ The kingdom of Syria lay north of Canaan, as that of Edom lay south, and thither we must now remove and take a view of the approaching fate of that kingdom, which had been often vexatious to the Israel of God. Damascus was the metropolis of that kingdom, and the ruin of the whole is supposed in the ruin of that: yet Hamath and Arpad, two other considerable cities, are names (Jeremiah 49:23), and the palaces of Ben-hadad, which he built, are particularly marked for ruin, Jeremiah 49:27; see also Amos 1:4. Some think Ben-hadad (the son of Hadad, either their idol, or one of their ancient kings, whence the rest descended) was a common name of the kings of Syria, as Pharaoh of the kings of Egypt. Now observe concerning the judgment of Damascus, 1. It begins with a terrible fright and faint-heartedness. They hear evil tidings, that the king of Babylon, with all his force, is coming against them, and they are confounded; they know not what measures to take for their own safety, their souls are melted, they are faint-hearted, they have no spirit left them, they are like the troubled sea, that cannot be quiet (Isaiah 57:20), or like men in a storm at sea (Psalms 107:26); or the sorrow that begins in the city shall go to the sea-coast, Jeremiah 49:23. See how easily God can dispirit those nations that have been most celebrated for valour. Damascus now waxes feeble (Jeremiah 49:24), a city that thought she could look the most formidable enemy in the face now turns herself to flee, and owns it is to no more purpose to think of contending with her fate than for a woman in labour to contend with her pains, which she cannot escape, but must yield to. It was a city of praise (Jeremiah 49:25), not praise to God, but to herself, a city much commended and admired by all strangers that visited it. It was a city of joy, where there was an affluence and confluence of all the delights of the sons of men, and abundance of mirth in the enjoyment of them. We read it (though there is no necessity for this) the city of my joy, which the prophet himself had sometimes visited with pleasure. Or it may be the speech of the king lamenting the ruin of the city of his joy. But now it is all overwhelmed with fear and grief. Note, Those deceive themselves who place their happiness in carnal joys; for God in his providence can soon cast a damp upon them and put an end to them. He can soon make a city of praise to be a reproach and a city of joy to be a terror to itself. 2. It ends with a terrible fall and fire. (1.) The inhabitants are slain (Jeremiah 49:26): The young men, who should fight the enemy and defend the city, shall fall by the sword in her streets; and all the men of war, mighty men, expert in war, and engaged in the service of their country, shall be cut off. (2.) The city is laid in ashes (Jeremiah 49:27): The fire is kindled by the besiegers in the wall, but it shall devour all before it, the palaces of Ben-hadad particularly, where so much mischief had formerly been hatched against God's Israel, for which it is now thus visited.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Jeremiah 49:23

Damascus — Being the head of this country, is put for the whole country. Hamath — Hamath and Arpad were two cities also of Syria. On the sea — Their inhabitants that live near the sea shall be troubled.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Jeremiah 49:23

Concerning (y) Damascus. Hamath is confounded, and Arpad: for they have heard evil tidings: they are fainthearted; [there is] sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet.

(y) Which was the chief city of Syria, by which he means the whole country.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Damascus:

Genesis 14:15 And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which [is] on the left hand of Damascus.
Genesis 15:2 And Abram said, Lord GOD, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house [is] this Eliezer of Damascus?
1 Kings 11:24 And he gathered men unto him, and became captain over a band, when David slew them [of Zobah]: and they went to Damascus, and dwelt therein, and reigned in Damascus.
Isaiah 17:1-3 The burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is taken away from [being] a city, and it shall be a ruinous heap. ... The fortress also shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus, and the remnant of Syria: they shall be as the glory of the children of Israel, saith the LORD of hosts.
Isaiah 37:13 Where [is] the king of Hamath, and the king of Arphad, and the king of the city of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivah?
Amos 1:3-5 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away [the punishment] thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron: ... I will break also the bar of Damascus, and cut off the inhabitant from the plain of Aven, and him that holdeth the sceptre from the house of Eden: and the people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir, saith the LORD.
Zechariah 9:1-2 The burden of the word of the LORD in the land of Hadrach, and Damascus [shall be] the rest thereof: when the eyes of man, as of all the tribes of Israel, [shall be] toward the LORD. ... And Hamath also shall border thereby; Tyrus, and Zidon, though it be very wise.
2 Corinthians 11:32 In Damascus the governor under Aretas the king kept the city of the Damascenes with a garrison, desirous to apprehend me:

Hamath:

Numbers 13:21 So they went up, and searched the land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob, as men come to Hamath.
2 Samuel 8:9 When Toi king of Hamath heard that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer,
2 Kings 17:24 And the king of Assyria brought [men] from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed [them] in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof.
2 Kings 18:34 Where [are] the gods of Hamath, and of Arpad? where [are] the gods of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivah? have they delivered Samaria out of mine hand?
2 Kings 19:13 Where [is] the king of Hamath, and the king of Arpad, and the king of the city of Sepharvaim, of Hena, and Ivah?
Isaiah 10:9 [Is] not Calno as Carchemish? [is] not Hamath as Arpad? [is] not Samaria as Damascus?
Isaiah 11:11 And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.

fainthearted:
Heb. melted,
Deuteronomy 20:8 And the officers shall speak further unto the people, and they shall say, What man [is there that is] fearful and fainthearted? let him go and return unto his house, lest his brethren's heart faint as well as his heart.
*marg.
Joshua 2:11 And as soon as we had heard [these things], our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man, because of you: for the LORD your God, he [is] God in heaven above, and in earth beneath.
Joshua 14:8 Nevertheless my brethren that went up with me made the heart of the people melt: but I wholly followed the LORD my God.
2 Samuel 17:10 And he also [that is] valiant, whose heart [is] as the heart of a lion, shall utterly melt: for all Israel knoweth that thy father [is] a mighty man, and [they] which [be] with him [are] valiant men.
Isaiah 13:7 Therefore shall all hands be faint, and every man's heart shall melt:
Nahum 2:10 She is empty, and void, and waste: and the heart melteth, and the knees smite together, and much pain [is] in all loins, and the faces of them all gather blackness.

sorrow:

Isaiah 57:20 But the wicked [are] like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt.

on the sea:
or, as on the sea,
Psalms 107:26-27 They mount up to the heaven, they go down again to the depths: their soul is melted because of trouble. ... They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wits' end.
Luke 8:23-24 But as they sailed he fell asleep: and there came down a storm of wind on the lake; and they were filled [with water], and were in jeopardy. ... And they came to him, and awoke him, saying, Master, master, we perish. Then he arose, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water: and they ceased, and there was a calm.
Luke 21:25-26 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; ... Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.
Acts 27:20 And when neither sun nor stars in many days appeared, and no small tempest lay on [us], all hope that we should be saved was then taken away.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 14:15; 15:2. Nu 13:21. Dt 20:8. Jsh 2:11; 14:8. 2S 8:9; 17:10. 1K 11:24. 2K 17:24; 18:34; 19:13. Ps 107:26. Is 10:9; 11:11; 13:7; 17:1; 37:13; 57:20. Am 1:3. Na 2:10. Zc 9:1. Lk 8:23; 21:25. Ac 27:20. 2Co 11:32.

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