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Jeremiah 44:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews that dwelt in the land of Egypt, that dwelt at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Memphis, and in the country of Pathros, saying,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews which dwell in the land of Egypt, which dwell at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros, saying,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— The word that came to Jeremiah for all the Jews living in the land of Egypt, those who were living in Migdol, Tahpanhes, Memphis, and the land of Pathros, saying,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews who dwell in the land of Egypt, who dwell at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros, saying,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews who dwelt in the land of Egypt, who dwelt at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros, saying,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— The word which came to Jeremiah, against all the Jews who were dwelling in the land of Egypt,—who were dwelling in Migdol, and in Tahpanhes, and in Noph, and in the land of Pathros, saying:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— The word that hath been unto Jeremiah concerning all the Jews who are dwelling in the land of Egypt—who are dwelling in Migdol, and in Tahpanhes, and in Noph, and in the land of Pathros—saying,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The word that came to Jeremias, concerning all the Jews that dwelt in the land of Egypt, dwelling in Magdal, and in Taphnis, and in Memphis, and in the land of Phatures, saying:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— The word that came to Ieremiah concerning all the Iewes which dwel in the land of Egypt, which dwell at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the countrey of Pathros, saying,
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— THE WORD THAT CAME TO JEREMIAH{gr.JEREMIAS} for all the Jews dwelling in the land of Mizraim{gr.Egypt}, and for those settled in Migdol{gr.Magdolo} and in Tahpanhes{gr.Taphnas}, and in the land of Pathura, saying,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— The word that came to Yirmeyah concerning all the Yehudim which dwell in the land of Mitzrayim, which dwell at Migdol, and at Tachpanches, and at Nof, and in the country of Pathros, saying,

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
The word 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
came x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Yirmy יִרמְיָה 3414
{3414} Prime
יִרְמְיָה
Yirm@yah
{yir-meh-yaw'}
From H7311 and H3050; Jah will rise; Jirmejah, the name of eight or nine Israelites.
concerning x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the Yhm יְהוּדִים 3064
{3064} Prime
יְהוּדִי
Y@huwdiy
{yeh-hoo-dee'}
Patronymic from H3063; a Jehudite (that is, Judaite or Jew), or descendant of Jehudah (that is, Judah).
which dwell 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
in the land 776
{0776} Prime
אֶרֶץ
'erets
{eh'-rets}
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
of Mixrayim מִצרַיִם, 4714
{4714} Prime
מִצְרַיִם
Mitsrayim
{mits-rah'-yim}
Dual of H4693; Mitsrajim, that is, Upper and Lower Egypt.
which dwell 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
at Miqdl מִגדּוֹל, 4024
{4024} Prime
מִגְדּוֹל
Migdowl
{mig-dole'}
Probably of Egyptian origin; Migdol, a place in Egypt.
and at Tapans תַּחפַּנחֵס, 8471
{8471} Prime
תַּחְפַּנְחֵס
Tachpanchec
{takh-pan-khace'}
(The second form used in Ezekiel 30:18); (the third form used in Jeremiah 2:16); of Egyptian derivation; Tachpanches, Techaphneches or Tachpenes, a place in Egypt.
and at Nf נֹף, 5297
{5297} Prime
נֹף
Noph
{nofe}
A variation of H4644; Noph, the capital of Upper Egypt.
and in the country 776
{0776} Prime
אֶרֶץ
'erets
{eh'-rets}
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
of Pars פַּתרוֹס, 6624
{6624} Prime
פַּתְרוֹס
Pathrowc
{path-roce'}
Of Egyptian derivation; Pathros, a part of Egypt.
saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Jeremiah 44:1

_ _ Jeremiah 44:1-30. Jeremiah reproves the Jews for their idolatry in Egypt, and denounces God’s judgments on them and Egypt alike.

_ _ Migdol — meaning a “tower.” A city east of Egypt, towards the Red Sea (Exodus 14:2; Numbers 33:7).

_ _ Noph — Memphis, now Cairo (Jeremiah 2:16).

_ _ Pathros — Upper Egypt (Isaiah 11:11).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Jeremiah 44:1-14

_ _ The Jews in Egypt were now dispersed into various parts of the country, into Migdol, and Noph, and other places, and Jeremiah was sent on an errand from God to them, which he delivered either when he had the most of them together in Pathros (Jeremiah 44:15) or going about from place to place preaching to this purport. He delivered this message in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, and in it,

_ _ I. God puts them in mind of the desolations of Judah and Jerusalem, which, though the captives by the rivers of Babylon were daily mindful of (Psalms 137:1), the fugitives in the cities of Egypt seem to have forgotten and needed to be put in mind of, though, one would have thought, they had not been so long out of sight as to become out of mind (Jeremiah 44:2): You have seen what a deplorable condition Judah and Jerusalem are brought into; now will you consider whence those desolations came? From the wrath of God; it was his fury and his anger that kindled the fire which made Jerusalem and the cities of Judah waste and desolate (Jeremiah 44:6); whoever were the instruments of the destruction, they were but instruments: it was a destruction from the Almighty.

_ _ II. He puts them in mind of the sins that brought those desolations upon Judah and Jerusalem. It was for their wickedness. It was this that provoked God to anger, and especially their idolatry, their serving other gods (Jeremiah 44:3) and giving that honour to counterfeit deities, the creatures of their own fancy and the work of their own hands, which should have been given to the true God only. They forsook the God who was known among them, and whose name was great, for gods that they knew not, upstart deities, whose original was obscure and not worth taking notice of: “Neither they nor you, nor your fathers, could give any rational account why the God of Israel was exchanged for such impostors.” They knew not that they were gods; nay, they could not but know that they were no gods.

_ _ III. He puts them in mind of the frequent and fair warnings he had given them by his word not to serve other gods, the contempt of which warnings was a great aggravation of their idolatry, Jeremiah 44:4. The prophets were sent with a great deal of care to call to them, saying, Oh! do not this abominable thing that I hate. It becomes us to speak of sin with the utmost dread and detestation as an abominable thing; it is certainly so, for it is that which God hates, and we are sure that hid judgment is according to truth. Call it grievous, call it odious, that we may by all means possible put ourselves and others out of love with it. It becomes us to give warning of the danger of sin, and the fatal consequences of it, with all seriousness and earnestness: “Oh! do not do it. If you love God, do not, for it is provoking to him; if you love your own souls do not, for it is destructive to them.” Let conscience do this for us in an hour of temptation, when we are ready to yield. O take heed! do not this abominable thing which the Lord hates; for, if God hates it, though shouldst hate it. But did they regard what God said to them? No: “They hearkened not, nor inclined their ear (Jeremiah 44:5); they still persisted in their idolatries; and you see what came of it, therefore God's anger was poured out upon them, as at this day. Now this was intended for warning to you, who have not only heard the judgments of God's mouth, as they did, but have likewise seen the judgments of his hand, by which you should be startled and awakened, for they were inflicted in terrorem, that others might hear and fear and do no more as they did, lest they should fare as they fared.”

_ _ IV. He reproves them for, and upbraids them with, their continued idolatries, now that they had come into Egypt (Jeremiah 44:8): You burn incense to other gods in the land of Egypt. Therefore God forbade them to go into Egypt, because he knew it would be a snare to them. Those whom God sent into the land of the Chaldeans, though that was an idolatrous country, were there, by the power of God's grace, weaned from idolatry; but those who went against God's mind into the land of the Egyptians were there, by the power of their own corruptions, more wedded than ever to their idolatries; for, when we thrust ourselves without cause or call into places of temptation, it is just with God to leave us to ourselves. In doing this, 1. They did a great deal of injury to themselves and their families: “You commit this great evil against your souls (Jeremiah 44:7), you wrong them, you deceive them with that which is false, you destroy them, for it will be fatal to them.” Note, In sinning against God we sin against our own souls. “It is the ready way to cut yourselves off from all comfort and hope (Jeremiah 44:8), to cut off your name and honour; so that you will, both by your sin and by your misery, become a curse and a reproach among all nations. It will become a proverb, As wretched as a Jew. It is the ready way to cut off from you all your relations, all that you shave have joy of and have your families built up in, man and woman, child and suckling, so that Judah shall be a land lost for want of heirs.” 2. They filled up the measure of the iniquity of their fathers, and, as if that had been too little for them, added to it (Jeremiah 44:9): “Have you forgotten the wickedness of those who are gone before you, that you are not humbled for it as you ought to be, and afraid of the consequences of it?” Have you forgotten the punishments of your fathers? so some read it. “Do you not know how dear their idolatry cost them? And yet dare you continue in that vain conversation received by tradition from you fathers, though you received the curse with it?” He reminds them of the sins and punishments of the kings of Judah, who, great as they were, escaped not the judgments of God for their idolatry; yea, and they should have taken warning by the wickedness of their wives, who had seduced them to idolatry. In the original it is, And of his wives, which, Dr. Lightfoot thinks, tacitly reflects upon Solomon's wives, particularly his Egyptian wives, to whom the idolatry of the kings of Judah owed its original. “Have you forgotten this, and what came of it, that you dare venture upon the same wicked courses?” See Nehemiah 13:18, Nehemiah 13:26. “Nay, to come to your own times, Have you forgotten your own wickedness and the wickedness of your wives, when you lived in prosperity in Jerusalem, and what ruin it brought upon you? But, alas! to what purpose do I speak to them?” (says God to the prophet, Jeremiah 44:10) “they are not humbled unto this day, by all the humbling providences that they have been under. They have not feared, nor walked in my law.” Note, Those that walk not in the law of God do thereby show that they are destitute of the fear of God.

_ _ V. He threatens their utter ruin for their persisting in their idolatry now that they were in Egypt. Judgment is given against them, as before (Jeremiah 42:22), that they shall perish in Egypt; the decree has gone forth, and shall not be called back. They set their faces to go into the land of Egypt (Jeremiah 44:12), were resolute in their purpose against God, and now God is resolute in his purpose against them: I will set my face to cut off all Judah, Jeremiah 44:11. Those that think not only to affront, but to confront, God Almighty, will find themselves outfaced; for the face of the Lord is against those that do evil, Psalms 34:16. It is here threatened concerning these idolatrous Jews in Egypt, 1. That they shall all be consumed, without exception; no degree nor order among them shall escape: They shall fall, from the least to the greatest (Jeremiah 44:12), high and low, rich and poor. 2. That they shall be consumed by the very same judgments which God made use of for the punishment of Jerusalem, the sword, famine, and pestilence, Jeremiah 44:12, Jeremiah 44:13. They shall not be wasted by natural deaths, as Israel in the wilderness, but by these sore judgments, which, by flying into Egypt, they thought to get out of the reach of. 3. That none (except a very few that will narrowly escape) shall ever return to the land of Judah again, Jeremiah 44:14. They thought, being nearer, that they stood fairer for a return to their own land than those that were carried to Babylon; yet those shall return, and these shall not; for the way in which God has promised us any comfort is much surer than that in which we have projected it for ourselves. Observe, Those that are fretful and discontented will be uneasy and fond of change wherever they are. The Israelites, when they were in the land of Judah, desired to go into Egypt (Jeremiah 42:22), but when they were in Egypt they desired to return to the land of Judah again; they lifted up their soul to it (so it is in the margin), which denotes an earnest desire. But, because they would not dwell there when God commanded it, they shall not dwell they were they desire it. If we walk contrary to God, he will walk contrary to us. How can those expect to be well off who would not know when they were so, though God himself told them?

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Jeremiah 44:1

At Migdol — It seems the Jews that went into Egypt had planted themselves at these four places. Migdol was a city upon the borders of the Red Sea. Noph was a city, which the Greeks and Latines called Memphis; it is thought to be that, which is now called Cairo. Pathros was the province, since called Thebais.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Jeremiah 44:1

The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews who dwell in the land of Egypt, who dwell at Migdol, and at (a) Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros, saying,

(a) These were all famous and strange cities in Egypt, where the Jews that fled dwelt for their safety but the prophet declares that there is no hold so strong that can preserve them from God's vengeance.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Cir, am 3433, bc 571

The word:
Dahler supposes this discourse to have been delivered in the seventeenth or eighteenth year after the taking of Jerusalem.

concerning:

Jeremiah 42:15-18 And now therefore hear the word of the LORD, ye remnant of Judah; Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; If ye wholly set your faces to enter into Egypt, and go to sojourn there; ... For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; As mine anger and my fury hath been poured forth upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem; so shall my fury be poured forth upon you, when ye shall enter into Egypt: and ye shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach; and ye shall see this place no more.
Jeremiah 43:5-7 But Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, took all the remnant of Judah, that were returned from all nations, whither they had been driven, to dwell in the land of Judah; ... So they came into the land of Egypt: for they obeyed not the voice of the LORD: thus came they [even] to Tahpanhes.

Migdol:

Jeremiah 46:14 Declare ye in Egypt, and publish in Migdol, and publish in Noph and in Tahpanhes: say ye, Stand fast, and prepare thee; for the sword shall devour round about thee.
Exodus 14:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.
Ezekiel 29:10 Behold, therefore I [am] against thee, and against thy rivers, and I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste [and] desolate, from the tower of Syene even unto the border of Ethiopia.
*Heb:

Tahpanhes:
Tahpanhes rendered Ταφνη and Ταφναι by the LXX, is no doubt the Δαφναι of Herodotus, a royal city of Lower Egypt, situated, according to the Itinerary of Antoninus, sixteen miles south from Pelusium, from which it was called Daphne Pelusice. Forster says that there is now a place situated in the vicinity of Pelusium called Safnas, which may be a vestige of the ancient name. It appears to have been the very first town in Egypt, in the road from Palestine, that afforded tolerable accommodation for the fugitives. It was at this place that, according to Jerome and several of the ancients, tradition says the faithful Jeremiah was stoned to death by these rebellious wretches, for whose welfare he had watched, prayed, and suffered every kind of indignity and hardship.
Jeremiah 43:7 So they came into the land of Egypt: for they obeyed not the voice of the LORD: thus came they [even] to Tahpanhes.
Ezekiel 30:18 At Tehaphnehes also the day shall be darkened, when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt: and the pomp of her strength shall cease in her: as for her, a cloud shall cover her, and her daughters shall go into captivity.
, Tehaphnehes

Noph:

Jeremiah 2:16 Also the children of Noph and Tahapanes have broken the crown of thy head.
Jeremiah 46:14 Declare ye in Egypt, and publish in Migdol, and publish in Noph and in Tahpanhes: say ye, Stand fast, and prepare thee; for the sword shall devour round about thee.
Jeremiah 46:19 O thou daughter dwelling in Egypt, furnish thyself to go into captivity: for Noph shall be waste and desolate without an inhabitant.
Isaiah 19:13 The princes of Zoan are become fools, the princes of Noph are deceived; they have also seduced Egypt, [even they that are] the stay of the tribes thereof.
Ezekiel 30:16 And I will set fire in Egypt: Sin shall have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, and Noph [shall have] distresses daily.

Pathros:

Genesis 10:14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.
, Pathrusim,
Isaiah 11:11 And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.
Ezekiel 29:14 And I will bring again the captivity of Egypt, and will cause them to return [into] the land of Pathros, into the land of their habitation; and they shall be there a base kingdom.
Ezekiel 30:14 And I will make Pathros desolate, and will set fire in Zoan, and will execute judgments in No.
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Gn 10:14. Ex 14:2. Is 11:11; 19:13. Jr 2:16; 42:15; 43:5, 7; 46:14, 19. Ezk 29:10, 14; 30:14, 16, 18.

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