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Jeremiah 41:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the seed royal and [one of] the chief officers of the king, and ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now it came to pass in the seventh month, [that] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— In the seventh month Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the royal family and [one] of the chief officers of the king, along with ten men, came to Mizpah to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam. While they were eating bread together there in Mizpah,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now it came to pass in the seventh month, [that] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they ate bread together in Mizpah.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the royal seed, and [one] of the king's chief men, and ten men with him, came to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam unto Mizpah, and there they ate bread together, in Mizpah.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, in the seventh month, that Ishmael son of Nethaniah son of Elishama of the seed royal and chiefs of the king, and ten men with him, came in, unto Gedaliah son of Ahikam, at Mizpah,—and they did there eat bread together, in Mizpah.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass, in the seventh month, come hath Ishmael son of Nethaniah, son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and of the chiefs of the king, and ten men with him, unto Gedaliah son of Ahikam, to Mizpah, and they eat there bread together in Mizpah.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ismahel the son of Nathanias, the son of Elisama of the royal blood, and the nobles of the king, and ten men with him, came to Godolias the son of Ahicam into Masphath: and they ate bread there together in Masphath.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now it came to passe in the seuenth moneth, [that] Ishmael the sonne of Nethaniah the sonne of Elishamah of the seede royall, and the princes of the king, euen tenne men with him, came vnto Gedaliah the sonne of Ahikam to Mizpah, and there they did eate bread together in Mizpah.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Now it came to pass in the seventh month that Ishmael{gr.Ismael} the son of Nethaniah{gr.Nathanias} the son of Eleasa of the seed royal, came, and ten men with him, to Gedaliah{gr.Godolias} to Mizpeh{gr.Massepha}: and they ate bread there together.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now it came to pass in the seventh month, [that] Yishmael the son of Nethanyah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedalyah the son of Achiqam to Mitzpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mitzpah.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now it came to pass x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
in the seventh 7637
{7637} Prime
שְׁבִיעִי
sh@biy`iy
{sheb-ee-ee'}
Ordinal from H7657; seventh.
month, 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
[that] Yim`l יִשׁמָעֵאל 3458
{3458} Prime
יִשְׁמָעֵאל
Yishma`e'l
{yish-maw-ale'}
From H8085 and H0410; God will hear; Jishmael, the name of Abraham's oldest son, and of five Israelites.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Nany נְתַניָה 5418
{5418} Prime
נְתַנְיָה
N@thanyah
{neth-an-yaw'}
From H5414 and H3050; given of Jah; Nethanjah, the name of four Israelites.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of lm` אֱלִישָׁמָע, 476
{0476} Prime
אֱלִישָׁמָע
'Eliyshama`
{el-ee-shaw-maw'}
From H0410 and H8085; God of hearing; Elishama, the name of seven Israelites.
of the seed 2233
{2233} Prime
זֶרַע
zera`
{zeh'-rah}
From H2232; seed; figuratively fruit, plant, sowing time, posterity.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
royal, 4410
{4410} Prime
מְלוּכָה
m@luwkah
{mel-oo-kaw'}
Feminine passive participle of H4427; something ruled, that is, a realm.
and the princes 7227
{7227} Prime
רַב
rab
{rab}
By contraction from H7231; abundant (in quantity, size, age, number, rank, quality).
of the king, 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
even ten 6235
{6235} Prime
עֶשֶׂר
`eser
{eh'-ser}
From H6237; ten (as an accumulation to the extent of the digits).
men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
with x854
(0854) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Probably from H0579; properly nearness (used only as a preposition or adverb), near; hence generally with, by, at, among, etc.
him, came 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Galy גְּדַליָה 1436
{1436} Prime
גְּדַלְיָה
G@dalyah
{ghed-al-yaw'}
From H1431 and H3050; Jah has become great; Gedaljah, the name of five Israelites.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of km אֲחִיקָם 296
{0296} Prime
אֲחִיקָם
'Achiyqam
{akh-ee-kawm'}
From H0251 and H6965; brother of rising (that is, high); Achikam, an Israelite.
to Mixp מִצפָּה; y4709
[4709] Standard
מִצְפָּה
Mitspah
{mits-paw'}
Feminine of H4708; Mitspah, the name of two places in Palestine. (This seems rather to be only an orthographical variation of H4708 when 'in pause'.).
x4708
(4708) Complement
מִצְפֶּה
Mitspeh
{mits-peh'}
The same as H4707; Mitspeh, the name of five places in Palestine.
and there x8033
(8033) Complement
שָׁם
sham
{shawm}
A primitive particle (rather from the relative H0834); there (transfered to time) then; often thither, or thence.
they did eat 398
{0398} Prime
אָכַל
'akal
{aw-kal'}
A primitive root; to eat (literally or figuratively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
bread 3899
{3899} Prime
לֶחֶם
lechem
{lekh'-em}
From H3898; food (for man or beast), especially bread, or grain (for making it).
together 3162
{3162} Prime
יַחַד
yachad
{yakh'-ad}
From H3161; properly a unit, that is, (adverbially) unitedly.
in Mixp מִצפָּה. y4708
[4708] Standard
מִצְפֶּה
Mitspeh
{mits-peh'}
The same as H4707; Mitspeh, the name of five places in Palestine.
x4709
(4709) Complement
מִצְפָּה
Mitspah
{mits-paw'}
Feminine of H4708; Mitspah, the name of two places in Palestine. (This seems rather to be only an orthographical variation of H4708 when 'in pause'.).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Jeremiah 41:1

_ _ Jeremiah 41:1-18. Ishmael murders Gedaliah and others, then flees to the Ammonites. Johanan pursues him, recovers the captives, and purposes to flee to Egypt for fear of the Chaldeans.

_ _ seventh month — the second month after the burning of the city (Jeremiah 52:12, Jeremiah 52:13).

_ _ and the princes — not the nominative. And the princes came, for the “princes” are not mentioned either in Jeremiah 41:2 or in 2 Kings 25:25 : but, “Ishmael being of the seed royal and of the princes of the king” [Maurer]. But the ten men were the “princes of the king”; thus Maurer’s objection has no weight: so English Version.

_ _ eat bread together — Ishmael murdered Gedaliah, by whom he was hospitably received, in violation of the sacred right of hospitality (Psalms 41:9).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Jeremiah 41:1-10

_ _ It is hard to say which is more astonishing, God's permitting or men's perpetrating such villanies as here we find committed. Such base, barbarous, bloody work is here done by men who by their birth should have been men of honour, by their religion just men, and this done upon those of their own nature, their own nation, their own religion, and now their brethren in affliction, when they were all brought under the power of the victorious Chaldeans, and smarting under the judgments of God, upon no provocation, nor with any prospect of advantage — all done, not only in cold blood, but with art and management. We have scarcely such an instance of perfidious cruelty in all the scripture; so that with John, when he saw the woman drunk with the blood of the saints, we may well wonder with great admiration. But God permitted it for the completing of the ruin of an unhumbled people, and the filling up of the measure of their judgments, who had filled up the measure of their iniquities. Let it inspire us with an indignation at the wickedness of men and an awe of God's righteousness.

_ _ I. Ishmael and his party treacherously killed Gedaliah himself in the first place. Though the king of Babylon had made him a great man, had given him a commission to be governor of the land which he had conquered, though God had made him a good man and a great blessing to his country, and his agency for its welfare was as life from the dead, yet neither could secure him. Ishmael was of the seed royal (Jeremiah 41:1) and therefore jealous of Gedaliah's growing greatness, and enraged that he should merit and accept a commission under the king of Babylon. He had ten men with him that were princes of the king too, guided by the same peevish resentments that he was; these had been with Gedaliah before, to put themselves under his protection (Jeremiah 40:8), and now came again to make him a visit; and they did eat bread together in Mizpah. he entertained them generously, and entertained no jealousy of them, notwithstanding the information given him by Johanan. They pretended friendship to him, and gave him no warning to stand on his guard; he was in sincerity friendly to them, and did all he could to oblige them. But those that did eat bread with him lifted up the heel against him. They did not pick a quarrel with him, but watched an opportunity, when they had him alone, and assassinated him, Jeremiah 41:2.

_ _ II. They likewise put all to the sword that they found in arms there, both Jews and Chaldeans, all that were employed under Gedaliah or were in any capacity to revenge his death, Jeremiah 41:3. As if enough of the blood of Israelites had not been shed by the Chaldeans, their own princes here mingle it with the blood of the Chaldeans. The vine-dressers and the husbandmen were busy in the fields, and knew nothing of this bloody massacre; so artfully was it carried on and concealed.

_ _ III. Some good honest men, that were going all in tears to lament the desolations of Jerusalem, were drawn in by Ishmael, and murdered with the rest. Observe, 1. Whence they came (Jeremiah 41:5) — from Shechem, Samaria, and Shiloh, places that had been famous, but wee now reduced; they belonged to the ten tribes, but there were some in those countries that retained an affection for the worship of the God of Israel. 2. Whither they were going — to the house of the Lord, the temple at Jerusalem, which, no doubt, they had heard of the destruction of, and were going to pay their respects to its ashes, to see its ruins, that their eye might affect their heart with sorrow for them. They favour the dust thereof, Psalms 102:14. They took offerings and incense in their hand, that if they should find any altar there, though it were but an altar of earth, and any priest ready to officiate, they might not be without something to offer; if not, yet they showed their good-will, as Abraham, when he came to the place of the altar, though the altar was gone. The people of God used to go rejoicing to the house of the Lord, but these went in the habit of mourners, with their clothes rent and their heads shaven; for the providence of God loudly called to weeping and mourning, because it was not with the faithful worshippers of God as in months past. 3. How they were decoyed into a fatal snare by Ishmael's malice. Hearing of their approach, he resolved to be the death of them too, so bloodthirsty was he. He seemed as if he hated every one that had the name of an Israelite or the face of an honest man. These pilgrims towards Jerusalem he had a spite to, for the sake of their errand. Ishmael went out to meet them with crocodiles' tears, pretending to bewail the desolations of Jerusalem as much as they; and, to try how they stood affected to Gedaliah and his government, he courted them into the town and found them to have a respect for him, which confirmed him in his resolution to murder them. He said, Come to Gedaliah, pretending he would have them come and live with him, when really he intended that they should come and die with him, Jeremiah 41:6. They had heard such a character of Gedaliah that they were willing enough to be acquainted with him; but Ishmael, when he had them in the midst of the town, fell upon them and slew them (Jeremiah 41:7), and no doubt took the offerings they had and converted them to his own use; for he that would not stick at such a murder would not stick at sacrilege. Notice is taken of his disposing of the dead bodies of these and the rest that he had slain; he tumbled them all into a great pit (Jeremiah 41:7), the same pit that Asa king of Judah had digged long before, either in the city or adjoining to it, when he built or fortified Mizpah (1 Kings 15:22), to be a frontier-garrison against Baasha king of Israel and for fear of him, Jeremiah 41:9. Note, Those that dig pits with a good intention know not what bad use they may be put to, one time or other. He slew so many that he could not afford them each a grave, or would not do them so much honour, but threw them all promiscuously into one pit. Among these last that were doomed to the slaughter there were ten that obtained a pardon, by working, not on the compassion, but the covetousness, of those that had them at their mercy, Jeremiah 41:8. They said to Ishmael, when he was about to suck their blood, like an insatiable horseleech, after that of the companions, Slay us not, for we have treasurers in the field, country treasures, large stocks upon the ground, abundance of such commodities as the country affords, wheat and barley, and oil and honey, intimating that they would discover it to him and put him in possession of it all, if he would spare them. Skin for skin, and all that a man has, will he give for his life. This bait prevailed. Ishmael saved them, not for the love of mercy, but for the love of money. Here were riches kept for the owners thereof, not to their hurt (Ecclesiastes 5:13) and to cause them to lose their lives (Job 31:39), but to their good and the preserving of their lives. Solomon observes that sometimes the ransom of a man's life is his riches. But those who think thus to bribe death, when it comes with commission, and plead with it, saying, Slay us not, for we have treasures in the field, will find death inexorable and themselves wretchedly deceived.

_ _ IV. He carried off the people prisoners. The king's daughters (whom the Chaldeans cared not for troubling themselves with when they had the king's sons) and the poor of the land, the vine-dressers and husband-men, that were committed to Gedaliah's charge, were all led away prisoners towards the country of the Ammonites (Jeremiah 41:10), Ishmael probably intending to make a present of them, as the trophies of his barbarous victory, to the king of that country, that set him on. This melancholy story is a warning to us never to be secure in this world. Worse may be yet to come when we think the worst is over; and that end of one trouble, which we fancy to be the end of all trouble, may prove to be the beginning of another, of a greater. These prisoners thought, Surely the bitterness of death, and of captivity, is past; and yet some died by the sword and others went into captivity. When we think ourselves safe, and begin to be easy, destruction may come that way that we little expect it. There is many a ship wrecked in the harbour. We can never be sure of peace on this side heaven.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Jeremiah 41:1

Now — Three months after the city was taken. Ishmael — The same Ishmael that came to Gedaliah, Jeremiah 41:8-9, to whom he sware protection; only here we are told he was of the royal blood, which might both raise his spirits, as having a more legal pretence to the government, and rendered him a fitter instrument, for Baalis the king or queen of the Ammonites to make use of. The princes — Some of the princes, who had escaped the army of the king of Babylon.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Jeremiah 41:1

Now it came to pass in the (a) seventh month, [that] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the (b) king, even ten men with him, came to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they (c) ate bread together in Mizpah.

(a) The city was destroyed in the fourth month and in the seventh month, which contained part of September and part of October, the governor Gedaliah was slain.

(b) Meaning, Zedekiah.

(c) They ate together as familiar friends.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the seventh month:
This was the month Tisri answering to the new moon of September, the seventh of the sacred, but the first of the civil year; on the third day of which the Jews keep a fast, in commemoration of the death of Gedaliah, to which the prophet Zechariah refers,
Zechariah 8:19 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; The fast of the fourth [month], and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love the truth and peace.
Jeremiah 39:2 [And] in the eleventh year of Zedekiah, in the fourth month, the ninth [day] of the month, the city was broken up.
Jeremiah 52:6 And in the fourth month, in the ninth [day] of the month, the famine was sore in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land.
2 Kings 25:3 And on the ninth [day] of the [fourth] month the famine prevailed in the city, and there was no bread for the people of the land.
2 Kings 25:8 And in the fifth month, on the seventh [day] of the month, which [is] the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem:
2 Kings 25:25 But it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, came, and ten men with him, and smote Gedaliah, that he died, and the Jews and the Chaldees that were with him at Mizpah.
Zechariah 7:5 Speak unto all the people of the land, and to the priests, saying, When ye fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh [month], even those seventy years, did ye at all fast unto me, [even] to me?
Zechariah 8:19 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; The fast of the fourth [month], and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love the truth and peace.
.

Ishmael:

Jeremiah 40:6 Then went Jeremiah unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and dwelt with him among the people that were left in the land.
Jeremiah 40:8 Then they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan and Jonathan the sons of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth, and the sons of Ephai the Netophathite, and Jezaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men.

Elishama:

Jeremiah 36:12 Then he went down into the king's house, into the scribe's chamber: and, lo, all the princes sat there, [even] Elishama the scribe, and Delaiah the son of Shemaiah, and Elnathan the son of Achbor, and Gemariah the son of Shaphan, and Zedekiah the son of Hananiah, and all the princes.
Jeremiah 36:20 And they went in to the king into the court, but they laid up the roll in the chamber of Elishama the scribe, and told all the words in the ears of the king.

of the:

Proverbs 13:10 Only by pride cometh contention: but with the well advised [is] wisdom.
Proverbs 27:4 Wrath [is] cruel, and anger [is] outrageous; but who [is] able to stand before envy?
James 4:1-3 From whence [come] wars and fightings among you? [come they] not hence, [even] of your lusts that war in your members? ... Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume [it] upon your lusts.

seed:

2 Kings 11:1 And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal.
2 Chronicles 22:10 But when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal of the house of Judah.
Ezekiel 17:13 And hath taken of the king's seed, and made a covenant with him, and hath taken an oath of him: he hath also taken the mighty of the land:

they did:

Jeremiah 40:14-16 And said unto him, Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee? But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not. ... But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam said unto Johanan the son of Kareah, Thou shalt not do this thing: for thou speakest falsely of Ishmael.
2 Samuel 3:27 And when Abner was returned to Hebron, Joab took him aside in the gate to speak with him quietly, and smote him there under the fifth [rib], that he died, for the blood of Asahel his brother.
2 Samuel 20:9-10 And Joab said to Amasa, [Art] thou in health, my brother? And Joab took Amasa by the beard with the right hand to kiss him. ... But Amasa took no heed to the sword that [was] in Joab's hand: so he smote him therewith in the fifth [rib], and shed out his bowels to the ground, and struck him not again; and he died. So Joab and Abishai his brother pursued after Sheba the son of Bichri.
Psalms 41:9 Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up [his] heel against me.
Psalms 109:5 And they have rewarded me evil for good, and hatred for my love.
Proverbs 26:23-26 Burning lips and a wicked heart [are like] a potsherd covered with silver dross. ... [Whose] hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall be shewed before the [whole] congregation.
Daniel 11:26-27 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain. ... And both these kings' hearts [shall be] to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end [shall be] at the time appointed.
Luke 22:47-48 And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. ... But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?
John 13:18 I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.
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2S 3:27; 20:9. 2K 11:1; 25:3, 8, 25. 2Ch 22:10. Ps 41:9; 109:5. Pv 13:10; 26:23; 27:4. Jr 36:12, 20; 39:2; 40:6, 8, 14; 52:6. Ezk 17:13. Dn 11:26. Zc 7:5; 8:19. Lk 22:47. Jn 13:18. Jm 4:1.

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