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Jeremiah 39:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass when Jerusalem was taken, (in the ninth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the tenth month, came Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon and all his army against Jerusalem, and besieged it;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— In the ninth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the tenth month, came Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon and all his army against Jerusalem, and they besieged it.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now when Jerusalem was captured in the ninth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the tenth month, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and all his army came to Jerusalem and laid siege to it;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In the ninth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the tenth month, came Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon and all his army against Jerusalem, and they besieged it.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass when Jerusalem was taken, in the ninth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the tenth month, came Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon and all his army against Jerusalem, and they besieged it.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— In the ninth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the tenth month, came Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon and all his force against Jerusalem, and they besieged it.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— In the ninth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the tenth month, come hath Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon and all his force unto Jerusalem, and they lay siege against it;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In the ninth year of Sedecias king of Juda, in the tenth month, came Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon, and all his army to Jerusalem, and they besieged it.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— In the ninth yeere of Zedekiah king of Iudah, in the tenth moneth, came Nebuchad rezzar king of Babylon, and all his armie against Ierusalem, and they besieged it.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass in the ninth month of Zedekiah{gr.Sedekias} king of Judah{gr.Juda}, [that] Nebuchadnezzar{gr.Nabuchodonosor} king of Babylon came, and all his host, against Jerusalem, and they besieged it.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— In the ninth year of Tzidqiyyah king of Yehudah, in the tenth month, came Nevukhadretztzar king of Bavel and all his army against Yerushalaim, and they besieged it.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
In the ninth 8671
{8671} Prime
Ordinal from H8672; ninth.
year 8141
{8141} Prime
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
of Xikiyy צִדקִיָּה 6667
{6667} Prime
From H6664 and H3050; right of Jah; Tsidkijah, the name of six Israelites.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
From H4427; a king.
of Yh יְהוּדָה, 3063
{3063} Prime
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
in the tenth 6224
{6224} Prime
From H6235; tenth; by abbreviation tenth month or (feminine) part.
month, 2320
{2320} Prime
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
came 935
{0935} Prime
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
Nvarexxar נְבוּכַדרֶאצַּר 5019
{5019} Prime
Of foreign derivation; Nebukadnetstsar (or retstsar, or retstsor), king of Babylon.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
From H4427; a king.
of Bvel בָּבֶל 894
{0894} Prime
From H1101; confusion; Babel (that is, Babylon), including Babylonia and the Babylonian empire.
and all x3605
(3605) Complement
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
his army 2428
{2428} Prime
From H2342; probably a force, whether of men, means or other resources; an army, wealth, virtue, valor, strength.
against x413
(0413) Complement
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Yrlaim יְרוּשָׁלִַם, 3389
{3389} Prime
A dual (in allusion to its two main hills (the true pointing, at least of the former reading, seems to be that of H3390)); probably from (the passive participle of) H3384 and H7999; founded peaceful; Jerushalaim or Jerushalem, the capital city of Palestine.
and they besieged 6696
{6696} Prime
A primitive root; to cramp, that is, confine (in many applications, literally and figuratively, formative or hostile).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Jeremiah 39:1

_ _ Jeremiah 39:1-18. Jerusalem taken. Zedekiah’s fate. Jeremiah cared for. Ebed-melech assured.

_ _ This chapter consists of two parts: the first describes the capture of Jerusalem, the removal of the people to Babylon, and the fate of Zedekiah, and that of Jeremiah. The second tells of the assurance of safety to Ebed-melech.

_ _ ninth year ... tenth month — and on the tenth day of it (Jeremiah 52:4; 2 Kings 25:1-4). From Jeremiah 39:2, “eleventh year ... fourth month ... ninth day,” we know the siege lasted one and a half years, excepting the suspension of it caused by Pharaoh. Nebuchadnezzar was present in the beginning of the siege, but was at Riblah at its close (Jeremiah 39:3, Jeremiah 39:6; compare Jeremiah 38:17).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Jeremiah 39:1-10

_ _ We were told, in the close of the foregoing chapter, that Jeremiah abode patiently in the court of the prison, until the day that Jerusalem was taken. He gave the princes no further disturbance by his prophesying, nor they him by their persecutions; for he had no more to say than what he had said, and, the siege being carried on briskly, God found them other work to do. See here what it came to.

_ _ I. The city is at length taken by storm; for how could it hold out when God himself fought against it? Nebuchadnezzar's army sat down before it in the ninth year of Zedekiah, in the tenth month (Jeremiah 39:1), in the depth of winter. Nebuchadnezzar himself soon after retired to take his pleasure, and left his generals to carry on the siege: they intermitted it awhile, but soon renewed it with redoubled force and vigour. At length, in the eleventh year, in the fourth month, about midsummer, they entered the city, the soldiers being so weakened by famine, and all their provisions being now spent, that they were not able to make any resistance, Jeremiah 39:2. Jerusalem was so strong a place that nobody would have believed the enemy could ever enter its gates, Lamentations 4:12. But sin had provoked God to withdraw his protection, and then, like Samson when his hair was cut, it was weak as other cities.

_ _ II. The princes of the king of Babylon take possession of the middle gate, Jeremiah 39:3. Some think that this was the same with that which is called the second gate (Zephaniah 1:10), which is supposed to be in the middle wall that divided between one part of the city and the other. Here they cautiously made a half, and durst not go forward into so large a city, among men that perhaps would sell their lives as dearly as they could, until they had given directions for the searching of all places, that they might not be surprised by any ambush. They sat in the middle gate, thence to take a view of the city and give orders. The princes are here named, rough and uncouth names they are, to intimate what a sad change sin had made; there, where Eliakim and Hilkiah, who bore the name of the God of Israel, used to sit, now sit Nergal-sharezer, and Samgar-nebo, etc., who bore the names of the heathen gods. Rab-saris and Rab-mag are supposed to be not the names of distinct persons, but the titles of those whose names go before. Sarsechim was Rab-saris, that is, captain of the guard; and Nergal-sharezer, to distinguish him from the other of the same name that is put first, is called Ram-magcamp-master, either muster-master or quarter-master: these and the other great generals sat in the gate. And now was fulfilled what Jeremiah prophesied long since (Jeremiah 1:15), that the families of the kingdoms of the north should set every one his throne at the entering of the gates of Jerusalem. Justly do the princes of the heathen set up themselves there, where the gods of the heathen had been so often set up.

_ _ III. Zedekiah, having in disguise perhaps seen the princes of the king of Babylon take possession of one of the gates of the city, thought it high time to shift for his own safety, and, loaded with guilt and fear, he went out of the city, under no other protection but that of the night (Jeremiah 39:4), which soon failed him, for he was discovered, pursued, and overtaken. Though he made the best of his way, he could make nothing of it, could not get forward, but in the plains of Jericho fell into the hands of the pursuers, Jeremiah 39:5. Thence he was brought prisoner to Riblah, where the king of Babylon passed sentence upon him as a rebel, not sentence of death, but, one many almost say, a worse thing. For, 1. He slew his sons before his eyes, and they must all be little, some of them infants, for Zedekiah himself was now but thirty-two years of age. The death of these sweet babes must needs be so many deaths to himself, especially when he considered that his own obstinacy was the cause of it, for he was particularly told of this thing: They shall bring forth thy wives and children to the Chaldeans, Jeremiah 38:23. 2. He slew all the nobles of Judah (Jeremiah 39:6), probably not those princes of Jerusalem who had advised him to this desperate course (it would be a satisfaction to him to see them cut off), but the great men of the country, who were innocent of the matter. 3. He ordered Zedekiah to have his eyes put out (Jeremiah 39:7), so condemning him to darkness for life who had shut his eyes against the clear light of God's word, and was of those princes who will not understand, but walk on in darkness, Psalms 82:5. 4. He bound him with two brazen chains or fetters (so the margin reads it), to carry him away to Babylon, there to spend the rest of his days in misery. All this sad story we had before, 2 Kings 25:4, etc.

_ _ IV. Some time afterwards the city was burnt, temple and palace and all, and the wall of it broken down, Jeremiah 39:8. “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem! this comes of killing the prophets, and stoning those that were sent to thee. O Zedekiah, Zedekiah! this thou mightest have prevented if thou wouldst but have taken God's counsel, and yielded in time.”

_ _ V. The people that were left were all carried away captives to Babylon, Jeremiah 39:9. Now they must bid a final farewell to the land of their nativity, that pleasant land, and to all their possessions and enjoyments in it, must be driven some hundreds of miles, like beasts, before the conquerors, that were now their cruel masters, must lie at their mercy in a strange land, and be servants to those who would be sure to rule them with rigour. The word tyrant is originally a Chaldee word, and is often used for lords by the Chaldee paraphrast, as if the Chaldeans, when they were lords, tyrannized more than any other: we have reason to think that the poor Jews had reason to say so. Some few were left behind, but they were the poor of the people, that had nothing to lose, and therefore never made any resistance. And they not only had their liberty, and were left to tarry at home, but the captain of the guard gave them vineyards and fields at the same time, such as they were never masters of before, Jeremiah 39:10. Observe here, 1. The wonderful changes of Providence. Some are abased, others advanced, 1 Samuel 2:5. The hungry are filled with good things, and the rich sent empty away. The ruin of some proves the rise of others. Let us therefore in our abundance rejoice as though we rejoiced not, and in our distresses weep as though we wept not. 2. The just retributions or Providence. The rich had been proud oppressors, and now they were justly punished for their injustice; the poor had been patient sufferers, and now they were graciously rewarded for their patience and amends made them for all their losses; for verily there is a God that judges in the earth, even in this world, much more in the other.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Jeremiah 39:1

Tenth month — This month answers to part of our December and January.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 3414, bc 590

the ninth:

Jeremiah 52:4-7 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth [day] of the month, [that] Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it, and built forts against it round about. ... Then the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled, and went forth out of the city by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, which [was] by the king's garden; (now the Chaldeans [were] by the city round about:) and they went by the way of the plain.
2 Kings 25:1 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth [day] of the month, [that] Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he, and all his host, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it; and they built forts against it round about.
2 Kings 25:2-7 And the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. ... And they slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, and put out the eyes of Zedekiah, and bound him with fetters of brass, and carried him to Babylon.
Ezekiel 24:1-2 Again in the ninth year, in the tenth month, in the tenth [day] of the month, the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, ... Son of man, write thee the name of the day, [even] of this same day: the king of Babylon set himself against Jerusalem this same day.
Zechariah 8:19 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; The fast of the fourth [month], and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love the truth and peace.

the tenth:
This was the month Tebeth (
Esther 2:16 So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which [is] the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.
), which began with the first moon of January; and it was on the 10th of this month that Nebuchadnezzar invested the city.
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2K 25:1, 2. Es 2:16. Jr 52:4. Ezk 24:1. Zc 8:19.

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