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Jeremiah 31:22 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— How long wilt thou go hither and thither, O thou backsliding daughter? for Jehovah hath created a new thing in the earth: a woman shall encompass a man.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— How long wilt thou go about, O thou backsliding daughter? for the LORD hath created a new thing in the earth, A woman shall compass a man.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “How long will you go here and there, O faithless daughter? For the LORD has created a new thing in the earth— A woman will encompass a man.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— How long wilt thou wander about, O thou backsliding daughter? for the LORD hath created a new thing in the earth, A woman shall compass a man.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— How long wilt thou wander about, thou backsliding daughter? For Jehovah hath created a new thing on the earth, a woman shall encompass a man.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— How long, wilt thou turn hither and thither, O apostate daughter? For Yahweh hath created, a new thing in the earth, A female, defendeth, a strong man!
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Till when dost thou withdraw thyself, O backsliding daughter? For Jehovah hath prepared a new thing in the land, Woman doth compass man.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— How long wilt thou be dissolute in deliciousness, O wandering daughter? for the Lord hath created a new thing upon the earth: A WOMAN SHALL COMPASS A MAN.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— How long wilt thou go about, O thou backsliding daughter? for the LORD hath created a new thing in the earth: A woman shall compasse a man.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— How long, O disgraced daughter, wilt thou turn away? for the Lord has created safety for a new plantation: men shall go about in safety.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— How long wilt thou go about, O thou backsliding daughter? for Yahweh hath created a new thing in the earth, A woman shall compass a man.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
How long x5704
(5704) Complement
Properly the same as H5703 (used as a preposition, adverb or conjugation; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with).
(4970) Complement
From an unused root meaning to extend; properly extent (of time); but used only adverbially (especially with other particles prefixed), when (either relative or interrogitive).
wilt thou go about, 2559
{2559} Prime
A primitive root; properly to enwrap; hence to depart (that is, turn about).
<8691> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 533
O thou backsliding 7728
{7728} Prime
From H7725; apostate, that is, heathenish or (actually) heathen.
daughter? 1323
{1323} Prime
From H1129 (as feminine of H1121); a daughter (used in the same wide sense as other terms of relationship, literally and figuratively).
for x3588
(3588) Complement
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
hath created 1254
{1254} Prime
A primitive root; (absolutely) to create; (qualified) to cut down (a wood), select, feed (as formative processes).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
a new thing 2319
{2319} Prime
From H2318; new.
in the earth, 776
{0776} Prime
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
A woman 5347
{5347} Prime
From H5344; female (from the sexual form).
shall compass 5437
{5437} Prime
A primitive root; to revolve, surround or border; used in various applications, literally and figuratively.
<8779> Grammar
Stem - Poel (See H8845)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 29
a man. 1397
{1397} Prime
From H1396; properly a valiant man or warrior; generally a person simply.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Jeremiah 31:22

_ _ go about — namely, after human helps (Jeremiah 2:18, Jeremiah 2:23, Jeremiah 2:36). Why not return immediately to me? Maurer translates, as in Song of Songs 5:6, “How long wilt thou withdraw thyself?” Let thy past backslidings suffice thee now that a new era approaches. What God finds fault with in them is, that they looked hither and thither, leaning on contingencies, instead of at once trusting the word of God, which promised their restoration. To assure them of this, God promises to create a new thing in their land, A woman shall compass a man. Calvin explains this: Israel, who is feeble as a woman, shall be superior to the warlike Chaldeans; the captives shall reduce their captors to captivity. Hengstenberg makes the “woman” the Jewish Church, and the “man” Jehovah, her husband, whose love she will again seek (Hosea 2:6, Hosea 2:7). Maurer, A woman shall protect (Deuteronomy 32:10, Margin; Psalms 32:10) a man, that is, You need fear no foes in returning, for all things shall be so peaceful that a woman would be able to take man’s part, and act as his protector. But the Christian fathers (Augustine, etc.) almost unanimously interpreted it of the Virgin Mary compassing Christ in her womb. This view is favored: —

_ _ (1) By the connection; it gives a reason why the exiles should desire a return to their country, namely, because Christ was conceived there.

_ _ (2) The word “created” implies a divine power put forth in the creation of a body in the Virgin’s womb by the Holy Ghost for the second Adam, such as was exerted in creating the first Adam (Luke 1:35; Hebrews 10:5).

_ _ (3) The phrase, “a new thing,” something unprecedented; a man whose like had never existed before, at once God and man; a mother out of the ordinary course of nature, at once mother and virgin. An extraordinary mode of generation; one conceived by the Holy Ghost without man.

_ _ (4) The specification “in the land” (not “earth,” as English Version), namely, of Judah, where probably Christ was conceived, in Hebron (compare Luke 1:39, Luke 1:42, Luke 1:44, with Joshua 21:11) or else in Nazareth, “in the territory” of Israel, to whom Jeremiah 31:5, Jeremiah 31:6, Jeremiah 31:15, Jeremiah 31:18, Jeremiah 31:21 refer; His birth was at Beth-lehem (Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:5, Matthew 2:6). As the place of His nativity, and of His being reared (Matthew 2:23), and of His preaching (Haggai 2:7; Malachi 3:1), are specified, so it is likely the Holy Spirit designated the place of His being conceived.

_ _ (5) The Hebrew for “woman” implies an individual, as the Virgin Mary, rather than a collection of persons.

_ _ (6) The restoration of Israel is grounded on God’s covenant in Christ, to whom, therefore, allusion is naturally made as the foundation of Israel’s hope (compare Isaiah 7:14). The Virgin Mary’s conception of Messiah in the womb answers to the “Virgin of Israel” (therefore so called, Jeremiah 31:21), that is, Israel and her sons at their final restoration, receiving Jesus as Messiah (Zechariah 12:10).

_ _ (7) The reference to the conception of the child Messiah accords with the mention of the massacre of “children” referred to in Jeremiah 31:15 (compare Matthew 2:17).

_ _ (8) The Hebrew for “man” is properly “mighty man,” a term applied to God (Deuteronomy 10:17); and to Christ (Zechariah 13:7; compare Psalms 45:3; Isaiah 9:6) [Calovius].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Jeremiah 31:18-26.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Jeremiah 31:22

Backsliding — Running after idols; or seeking help from foreign nations, instead of applying to God. A woman — This seems to be a promise of the Jewish church in its time, and of the gospel — church, prevailing over all its enemies; though, considering the fewness of the church's members, with the multitude of its enemies, and their power, it seemed as strange a thing, as for a woman to prevail against a strong and mighty man.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Jeremiah 31:22

How long wilt thou wander about, O thou backsliding daughter? for the LORD hath created (d) a new thing in the earth, A woman shall encompass a man.

(d) Because their deliverance from Babylon was a figure of their deliverance from sin, he shows how this would be procured that is, by Jesus Christ, whom a woman would conceive and bear in her womb. Which is a strange thing in earth, because he would be born of a virgin without man or he means that Jerusalem which was like a barren woman in her captivity would be fruitful as she that is joined in marriage and whom God blesses with children.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Jeremiah 2:18 And now what hast thou to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of Sihor? or what hast thou to do in the way of Assyria, to drink the waters of the river?
Jeremiah 2:23 How canst thou say, I am not polluted, I have not gone after Baalim? see thy way in the valley, know what thou hast done: [thou art] a swift dromedary traversing her ways;
Jeremiah 2:36 Why gaddest thou about so much to change thy way? thou also shalt be ashamed of Egypt, as thou wast ashamed of Assyria.
Jeremiah 4:14 O Jerusalem, wash thine heart from wickedness, that thou mayest be saved. How long shall thy vain thoughts lodge within thee?
Jeremiah 13:27 I have seen thine adulteries, and thy neighings, the lewdness of thy whoredom, [and] thine abominations on the hills in the fields. Woe unto thee, O Jerusalem! wilt thou not be made clean? when [shall it] once [be]?
Hosea 8:5 Thy calf, O Samaria, hath cast [thee] off; mine anger is kindled against them: how long [will it be] ere they attain to innocency?


Jeremiah 3:6 The LORD said also unto me in the days of Josiah the king, Hast thou seen [that] which backsliding Israel hath done? she is gone up upon every high mountain and under every green tree, and there hath played the harlot.
Jeremiah 3:8 And I saw, when for all the causes whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given her a bill of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah feared not, but went and played the harlot also.
Jeremiah 3:11-12 And the LORD said unto me, The backsliding Israel hath justified herself more than treacherous Judah. ... Go and proclaim these words toward the north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel, saith the LORD; [and] I will not cause mine anger to fall upon you: for I [am] merciful, saith the LORD, [and] I will not keep [anger] for ever.
Jeremiah 3:14 Turn, O backsliding children, saith the LORD; for I am married unto you: and I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to Zion:
Jeremiah 3:22 Return, ye backsliding children, [and] I will heal your backslidings. Behold, we come unto thee; for thou [art] the LORD our God.
Jeremiah 7:24 But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked in the counsels [and] in the imagination of their evil heart, and went backward, and not forward.
Jeremiah 8:4-6 Moreover thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the LORD; Shall they fall, and not arise? shall he turn away, and not return? ... I hearkened and heard, [but] they spake not aright: no man repented him of his wickedness, saying, What have I done? every one turned to his course, as the horse rusheth into the battle.
Jeremiah 14:7 O LORD, though our iniquities testify against us, do thou [it] for thy name's sake: for our backslidings are many; we have sinned against thee.
Jeremiah 49:4 Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures, [saying], Who shall come unto me?
Hosea 4:16 For Israel slideth back as a backsliding heifer: now the LORD will feed them as a lamb in a large place.
Hosea 11:7 And my people are bent to backsliding from me: though they called them to the most High, none at all would exalt [him].
Hosea 14:4 I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely: for mine anger is turned away from him.
Zechariah 7:11 But they refused to hearken, and pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their ears, that they should not hear.


Numbers 16:30 But if the LORD make a new thing, and the earth open her mouth, and swallow them up, with all that [appertain] unto them, and they go down quick into the pit; then ye shall understand that these men have provoked the LORD.

A woman:
נקבה תסובב גבר [Strong's H5347], literally "A female ('one who is only a woman, not a wife, namely a virgin,' says Cocceius) shall encompass a man," or a male child. Comp.
Job 3:3 Let the day perish wherein I was born, and the night [in which] it was said, There is a man child conceived.
. Which, together with the addition of a new creation, may well be understood to denote the miraculous conception. Hence the Jews have applied it determinately to the Messiah. In Berashith Rabba (Parash 89) it is said, that as God punished Israel in a virgin, so would he also heal; and in Midrash Tillim, on
Psalms 2:1-12 Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? ... Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish [from] the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed [are] all they that put their trust in him.
, R. Huna, in the name of R. Idi, speaking of the sufferings of the Messiah, says, that when his hour is come, God shall say, "I must create him with a new creation; and so he saith, This day I have begotten thee."
Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
Isaiah 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
Matthew 1:21 And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.
Luke 1:34-35 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? ... And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
Galatians 4:4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,
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Gn 3:15. Nu 16:30. Jb 3:3. Ps 2:1. Is 7:14. Jr 2:18, 23, 36; 3:6, 8, 11, 14, 22; 4:14; 7:24; 8:4; 13:27; 14:7; 49:4. Ho 4:16; 8:5; 11:7; 14:4. Zc 7:11. Mt 1:21. Lk 1:34. Ga 4:4.

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