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Jeremiah 13:22 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And if thou say in thy heart, Wherefore are these things come upon me? for the greatness of thine iniquity are thy skirts uncovered, and thy heels suffer violence.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And if thou say in thine heart, Wherefore come these things upon me? For the greatness of thine iniquity are thy skirts discovered, [and] thy heels made bare.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “If you say in your heart, ‘Why have these things happened to me?’ Because of the magnitude of your iniquity Your skirts have been removed And your heels have been exposed.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And if thou shalt say in thy heart, Why come these things upon me? For the greatness of thy iniquity are thy skirts uncovered, [and] thy heels made bare.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And if thou say in thy heart, Wherefore come these things upon me? For the greatness of thine iniquity are thy skirts uncovered, [and] thy heels have suffered violence.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, if thou say in thy heart, Wherefore, have these things befallen, me? For the greatness of thine iniquity, have, Thy skirts, been turned aside, Thy heels, suffered violence!
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And when thou dost say in thy heart, 'Wherefore have these met me?' For the abundance of thine iniquity Have thy skirts been uncovered, Have thy heels suffered violence.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And if thou shalt say in thy heart: Why are these things come upon me? For the greatness of thy iniquity, thy nakedness is discovered, the soles of thy feet are defiled.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And if thou say in thine heart, Wherefore come these things vpon me? for the greatnesse of thine iniquitie are thy skirts discouered, [and] thy heeles made bare.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if thou shouldest say in thine heart, Wherefore have these things happened to me? Because of the abundance of thine iniquity have thy skirts been discovered, that thine heels might be exposed.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And if thou say in thine heart, Wherefore come these things upon me? For the greatness of thine iniquity are thy skirts discovered, [and] thy heels made bare.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And if x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
thou say 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
in thine heart, 3824
{3824} Prime
לֵבָב
lebab
{lay-bawb'}
From H3823; the heart (as the most interior organ); used also like H3820.
Wherefore x4069
(4069) Complement
מַדּוּעַ
madduwa`
{mad-doo'-ah}
From H4100 and the passive participle of H3045; what (is) known?; that is, (by implication), (adverbially) why?.
come 7122
{7122} Prime
קָרָא
qara'
{kaw-raw'}
A primitive root; to encounter, whether accidentally or in a hostile manner.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
these things x428
(0428) Complement
אֵלֶּה
'el-leh
{ale'-leh}
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
upon me? For the greatness 7230
{7230} Prime
רֹב
rob
{robe}
From H7231; abundance (in any respect).
of thine iniquity 5771
{5771} Prime
עָוֹן
`avon
{aw-vone'}
From H5753; perversity, that is, (moral) evil.
are thy skirts 7757
{7757} Prime
שׁוּל
shuwl
{shool}
From an unused root meaning to hang down; a skirt; by implication a bottom edge.
discovered, 1540
{1540} Prime
גָּלַה
galah
{gaw-law'}
A primitive root; to denude (especially in a disgraceful sense); by implication to exile (captives being usually stripped); figuratively to reveal.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
[and] thy heels 6119
{6119} Prime
עָקֵב
`aqeb
{aw-kabe'}
From H6117; a heel (as protuberant); hence a track; figuratively the rear (of an army). (lier in wait is by mistake for H6120.).
made bare. 2554
{2554} Prime
חָמַס
chamac
{khaw-mas'}
A primitive root; to be violent; by implication to maltreat.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Jeremiah 13:22

_ _ if thou say — connecting this verse with “What wilt thou say” (Jeremiah 13:21)?

_ _ skirts discovered — that is, are thrown up so as to expose the person (Jeremiah 13:26; Isaiah 3:17; Nahum 3:5).

_ _ heels made bare — The sandal was fastened by a thong above the heel to the instep. The Hebrew, is, “are violently handled,” or “torn off”; that is, thou art exposed to ignominy. Image from an adulteress.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Jeremiah 13:22-27

_ _ Here is, I. Ruin threatened as before, that the Jews shall go into captivity, and fall under all the miseries of beggary and bondage, shall be stripped of their clothes, their skirts discovered for want of upper garments to cover them, and their heels made bare for want of shoes, Jeremiah 13:22. Thus they used to deal with prisoners taken in war, when they drove them into captivity, naked and barefoot, Isaiah 20:4. Being thus carried off into a strange country, they shall be scattered there, as the stubble that is blown away by the wind of the wilderness, and nobody is concerned to bring it together again, Jeremiah 13:24. If the stubble escape the fire, it shall be carried away by the wind. If one judgment do not do the work, another shall, with those that by sin have made themselves as stubble. They shall be stripped of all their ornaments and exposed to shame, as harlots that are carted, Jeremiah 13:26. They made their pride appear, but God will make their shame appear; so that those who have doted on them shall be ashamed of them.

_ _ II. An enquiry made by the people into the cause of this ruin, Jeremiah 13:22. Thou wilt say in thy heart (and God knows how to give a proper answer to what men say in their hearts, though they do not speak it out; Jesus, knowing their thoughts, replied to them, Matthew 9:4), Wherefore came these things upon me? The question is supposed to come into the heart, 1. Of a sinner quarrelling with God and refusing to receive correction. They could not see that they had done any thing which might justly provoke God to be thus angry with them. They durst not speak it out; but in their hearts they thus charged God with unrighteousness, if he had laid upon them more than was meet. They seek for the cause of their calamities, when, if they had not been willfully blind, they might easily have seen it. Or, 2. Of a sinner returning to God. If there come but a penitent thought into the heart at any time (saying, What have I done? Jeremiah 8:6, wherefore am I in affliction? why doth God contend with me?) God takes notice of it, and is ready by his Spirit to impress the conviction, that, sin being discovered, it may be repented of.

_ _ III. An answer to this enquiry. God will be justified when he speaks and will oblige us to justify him, and therefore will set the sin of sinners in order before them. Do they ask, Wherefore come these things upon us? Let them know it is all owing to themselves.

_ _ 1. It is for the greatness of their iniquities, Jeremiah 13:22. God does not take advantage against them for small faults; no, the sins for which he now punishes them are of the first rate, very heinous in their own nature and highly aggravated — for the multitude of thy iniquity (so it may be read), sins of every kind and often repeated and relapsed into. Some think we are more in danger from the multitude of our smaller sins than from the heinousness of our greater sins; of both we may say, Who can understand his errors?

_ _ 2. It is for their obstinacy in sin, their being so long accustomed to it that there was little hope left of their being reclaimed from it (Jeremiah 13:23): Can the Ethiopian change his skin, that is by nature black, or the leopard his spots, that are even woven into the skin? Dirt contracted may be washed off, but we cannot alter the natural colour of a hair (Matthew 5:36), much less of the skin; and so impossible is it, morally impossible, to reclaim and reform these people. (1.) They had been long accustomed to do evil. They were taught to do evil; they had been educated and brought up in sin; they had served an apprenticeship to it, and had all their days made a trade of it. It was so much their constant practice that it had become a second nature to them. (2.) Their prophets therefore despaired of ever bring them to do good. This was what they aimed at; they persuaded them to cease to do evil and learn to do well, but could not prevail. They had so long been used to do evil that it was next to impossible for them to repent, and amend, and begin to do good. Note, Custom in sin is a very great hindrance to conversion from sin. The disease that is inveterate is generally thought incurable. Those that have been long accustomed to sin have shaken off the restraint of fear and shame; their consciences are seared; the habits of sin are confirmed; it pleads prescription; and it is just with God to give those up to their own hearts' lusts that have long refused to give themselves up to his grace. Sin is the blackness of the soul, the deformity of it; it is its spot, the discolouring of it; it is natural to us, we were shapen in it, so that we cannot get clear of it by any power of our own. But there is an almighty grace that is able to change the Ethiopian's skin, and that grace shall not be wanting to those who in a sense of their need of it seek it earnestly and improve it faithfully.

_ _ 3. It is for their treacherous departures from the God of truth and dependence on lying vanities (Jeremiah 13:25): “This is thy lot, to be scattered and driven away; this is the portion of thy measures from me, the punishment assigned thee as by line and measure; this shall be thy share of the miseries of this world; expect it, and think not to escape it: it is because thou hast forgotten me, the favours I have bestowed upon thee and the obligations thou art under to me; thou hast no sense, no remembrance, of these.” Forgetfulness of God is at the bottom of all sin, as the remembrance of our Creator betimes is the happy and hopeful beginning of a holy life. “Having forgotten me, thou hast trusted in falsehood, in idols, in an arm of flesh in Egypt and Assyria, in the self-flatteries of a deceitful heart.” Whatever those trust to that forsake God, they will find it a broken reed, a broken cistern.

_ _ 4. It is for their idolatry, their spiritual whoredom, that sin which is of all sins most provoking to the jealous God. They are exposed to a shameful calamity (Jeremiah 13:26) because they have been guilty of a shameful iniquity and yet are shameless in it (Jeremiah 13:27): “I have seen thy adulteries (thy inordinate fancy for strange gods, which thou hast been impatient for the gratification of, and hast even neighed after it), even the lewdness of thy whoredoms, thy impudence and insatiableness in them, thy eager worshipping of idols on the hills in the fields, upon the high places. This is that for which a woe is denounced against thee, O Jerusalem! nay, and many woes.”

_ _ IV. Here is an affectionate expostulation with them, in the close, upon the whole matter. Though it was adjudged next to impossible for them to be brought to do good (Jeremiah 13:23), yet while there is life there is hope, and therefore still he reasons with them to bring them to repentance, Jeremiah 13:27. 1. He reasons with them concerning the thing itself: Wilt thou not be made clean? Note, It is the great concern of those who are polluted by sin to be made clean by repentance, and faith, and a universal reformation. The reason why sinners are not made clean is because they will not be made clean; and herein they act most unreasonably: “Wilt thou not be made clean? Surely thou will at length be persuaded to wash thee, and make thee clean, and so be wise for thyself.” 2. Concerning the time of it: When shall it once be? Note, It is an instance of the wonderful grace of God that he desires the repentance and conversion of sinners, and thinks the time long till they are brought to relent; but it is an instance of the wonderful folly of sinners that they put that off from time to time which is of such absolute necessity that, if it be not done some time, they are certainly undone for ever. They do not say that they will never be cleansed, but not yet; they will defer it to a more convenient season, but cannot tell us when it shall once be.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Jeremiah 13:22

Thy skirts — Probably these phrases are fetched from the usual practice of soldiers when they have conquered a place and taken prisoners, to strip them. By skirts is meant the lower part of their bodies covered with the lower part of their garments.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Jeremiah 13:22

And if thou shalt say in thy heart, Why come these things upon me? For the greatness of thy iniquity are thy skirts (l) uncovered, [and] thy heels made bare.

(l) The cloak of hypocrisy will be pulled off, and your shame seen.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
if:

Deuteronomy 7:17 If thou shalt say in thine heart, These nations [are] more than I; how can I dispossess them?
Deuteronomy 8:17 And thou say in thine heart, My power and the might of [mine] hand hath gotten me this wealth.
Deuteronomy 18:21 And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken?
Isaiah 47:8 Therefore hear now this, [thou that art] given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in thine heart, I [am], and none else beside me; I shall not sit [as] a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children:
Zephaniah 1:12 And it shall come to pass at that time, [that] I will search Jerusalem with candles, and punish the men that are settled on their lees: that say in their heart, The LORD will not do good, neither will he do evil.
Luke 5:21-22 And the scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, Who is this which speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone? ... But when Jesus perceived their thoughts, he answering said unto them, What reason ye in your hearts?

Wherefore:

Jeremiah 5:19 And it shall come to pass, when ye shall say, Wherefore doeth the LORD our God all these [things] unto us? then shalt thou answer them, Like as ye have forsaken me, and served strange gods in your land, so shall ye serve strangers in a land [that is] not yours.
Jeremiah 16:10-11 And it shall come to pass, when thou shalt shew this people all these words, and they shall say unto thee, Wherefore hath the LORD pronounced all this great evil against us? or what [is] our iniquity? or what [is] our sin that we have committed against the LORD our God? ... Then shalt thou say unto them, Because your fathers have forsaken me, saith the LORD, and have walked after other gods, and have served them, and have worshipped them, and have forsaken me, and have not kept my law;

the greatness:

Jeremiah 2:17-19 Hast thou not procured this unto thyself, in that thou hast forsaken the LORD thy God, when he led thee by the way? ... Thine own wickedness shall correct thee, and thy backslidings shall reprove thee: know therefore and see that [it is] an evil [thing] and bitter, that thou hast forsaken the LORD thy God, and that my fear [is] not in thee, saith the Lord GOD of hosts.
Jeremiah 9:2-9 Oh that I had in the wilderness a lodging place of wayfaring men; that I might leave my people, and go from them! for they [be] all adulterers, an assembly of treacherous men. ... Shall I not visit them for these [things]? saith the LORD: shall not my soul be avenged on such a nation as this?
Hosea 12:8 And Ephraim said, Yet I am become rich, I have found me out substance: [in] all my labours they shall find none iniquity in me that [were] sin.

skirts:

Jeremiah 13:26 Therefore will I discover thy skirts upon thy face, that thy shame may appear.
Isaiah 3:17 Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and the LORD will discover their secret parts.
Isaiah 20:4 So shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners, and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot, even with [their] buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt.
Isaiah 47:2-3 Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers. ... Thy nakedness shall be uncovered, yea, thy shame shall be seen: I will take vengeance, and I will not meet [thee as] a man.
Lamentations 1:8 Jerusalem hath grievously sinned; therefore she is removed: all that honoured her despise her, because they have seen her nakedness: yea, she sigheth, and turneth backward.
Ezekiel 16:37-39 Behold, therefore I will gather all thy lovers, with whom thou hast taken pleasure, and all [them] that thou hast loved, with all [them] that thou hast hated; I will even gather them round about against thee, and will discover thy nakedness unto them, that they may see all thy nakedness. ... And I will also give thee into their hand, and they shall throw down thine eminent place, and shall break down thy high places: they shall strip thee also of thy clothes, and shall take thy fair jewels, and leave thee naked and bare.
Ezekiel 23:27-29 Thus will I make thy lewdness to cease from thee, and thy whoredom [brought] from the land of Egypt: so that thou shalt not lift up thine eyes unto them, nor remember Egypt any more. ... And they shall deal with thee hatefully, and shall take away all thy labour, and shall leave thee naked and bare: and the nakedness of thy whoredoms shall be discovered, both thy lewdness and thy whoredoms.
Hosea 2:3 Lest I strip her naked, and set her as in the day that she was born, and make her as a wilderness, and set her like a dry land, and slay her with thirst.
Hosea 2:10 And now will I discover her lewdness in the sight of her lovers, and none shall deliver her out of mine hand.
Nahum 3:5 Behold, I [am] against thee, saith the LORD of hosts; and I will discover thy skirts upon thy face, and I will shew the nations thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy shame.

made bare:
or, shall be violently taken away
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Dt 7:17; 8:17; 18:21. Is 3:17; 20:4; 47:2, 8. Jr 2:17; 5:19; 9:2; 13:26; 16:10. Lm 1:8. Ezk 16:37; 23:27. Ho 2:3, 10; 12:8. Na 3:5. Zp 1:12. Lk 5:21.

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