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Isaiah 9:6 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— For to us a child is born, to us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder; and his name is called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty *God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— For, A Child, hath been born to us, A Son, hath been given to us, And the dominion is upon his shoulder,—And his Name hath been called, Wonderful Counselor, Mighty GOD, Father of Futurity, Prince of Prosperity.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— For a Child hath been born to us, A Son hath been given to us, And the princely power is on his shoulder, And He doth call his name Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— For a CHILD IS BORN to us, and a son is given to us, and the government is upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, God the Mighty, the Father of the world to come, the Prince of Peace.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— For vnto vs a child is borne, vnto vs a Sonne is giuen, and the gouernment shalbe vpon his shoulder: and his name shalbe called, Wonderfull, Counseller, The mightie God, The euerlasting Father, The Prince of peace.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— For a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, whose government is upon his shoulder: and his name is called the Messenger of great counsel: for I will bring peace upon the princes, and health to him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty El, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
For x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
unto us a child 3206
{3206} Prime
יֶלֶד
yeled
{yeh'-led}
From H3205; something born, that is, a lad or offspring.
is born, 3205
{3205} Prime
יָלַד
yalad
{yaw-lad'}
A primitive root; to bear young; causatively to beget; medically to act as midwife; specifically to show lineage.
z8795
<8795> Grammar
Stem - Pual (See H8849)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 199
unto us a son 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
is given: 5414
{5414} Prime
נָתַן
nathan
{naw-than'}
A primitive root; to give, used with great latitude of application (put, make, etc.).
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
and the government 4951
{4951} Prime
מִשְׂרָה
misrah
{mis-raw'}
From H8280; empire.
shall be upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
his shoulder: 7926
{7926} Prime
שְׁכֶם
sh@kem
{shek-em'}
From H7925; the neck (between the shoulders) as the place of burdens; figuratively the spur of a hill.
and his name 8034
{8034} Prime
שֵׁם
shem
{shame}
A primitive word (perhaps rather from H7760 through the idea of definite and conspicuous position; compare H8064); an appellation, as a mark or memorial of individuality; by implication honor, authority, character.
shall be x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
called 7121
{7121} Prime
קָרָא
qara'
{kaw-raw'}
A primitive root (rather identical with H7122 through the idea of accosting a person met); to call out to (that is, properly address by name, but used in a wide variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
Wonderful, 6382
{6382} Prime
פֶּלֶא
pele'
{peh'-leh}
From H6381; a miracle.
Counsellor, 3289
{3289} Prime
יָעַץ
ya`ats
{yaw-ats'}
A primitive root; to advise; reflexively to deliberate or resolve.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
The mighty 1368
{1368} Prime
גִּבּוֹר
gibbowr
{ghib-bore'}
Intensive from the same as H1397; powerful; by implication warrior, tyrant.
“Ėl אֵל, 410
{0410} Prime
אֵל
'el
{ale}
Shortened from H0352; strength; as adjective mighty; especially the Almighty (but used also of any deity).
The everlasting 5703
{5703} Prime
עַד
`ad
{ad}
From H5710; properly a (peremptory) terminus, that is, (by implication) duration, in the sense of perpetuity (substantially as a noun, either with or without a preposition).
Father, 1
{0001} Prime
אָב
'ab
{awb}
A primitive word; father in a literal and immediate, or figurative and remote application.
The Prince 8269
{8269} Prime
שַׂר
sar
{sar}
From H8323; a head person (of any rank or class).
of Peace. 7965
{7965} Prime
שָׁלוֹם
shalowm
{shaw-lome'}
From H7999; safe, that is, (figuratively) well, happy, friendly; also (abstractly) welfare, that is, health, prosperity, peace.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 9:6

_ _ For — the ground of these great expectations,

_ _ unto us — for the benefit of the Jews first, and then the Gentiles (compare “unto you,Luke 2:11).

_ _ son ... given — (Psalms 2:7). God’s gratuitous gift, on which man had no claim (John 3:16; Romans 6:23).

_ _ government ... upon ... shoulder — The ensign of office used to be worn on the shoulder, in token of sustaining the government (Isaiah 22:22). Here the government on Messiah’s shoulder is in marked antithesis to the “yoke and staff” of the oppressor on Israel’s “shoulder” (Isaiah 9:4). He shall receive the kingdom of the earth from the Father, to vindicate it from the misrule of those to whom it was entrusted to hold it for and under the Most High, but who sought to hold it in defiance of His right; the Father asserts His right by the Son, the “Heir of all things,” who will hold it for Him (Daniel 7:13, Daniel 7:14).

_ _ name ... called — His essential characteristics shall be.

_ _ Wonderful — (See on Isaiah 8:18; Judges 13:18, Margin; 1 Timothy 3:16).

_ _ Counsellor — (Psalms 16:7; Romans 11:33, Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 1:24; Colossians 2:3).

_ _ mighty God — (Isaiah 10:21; Psalms 24:8; Titus 2:13) Horsley translates: “God the mighty man.” “Unto us ... God” is equivalent to “Immanuel” (Isaiah 7:14).

_ _ everlasting Father — This marks Him as “Wonderful,” that He is “a child,” yet the “everlasting Father” (John 10:30; John 14:9). Earthly kings leave their people after a short reign; He will reign over and bless them for ever [Hengstenberg].

_ _ Prince of Peace — (See on Isaiah 9:5; Genesis 49:10; Shiloh, “The Tranquillizer”). Finally (Hosea 2:18). Even already He is “our peace” (Luke 2:14; Ephesians 2:14).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Isaiah 9:1-7.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 9:6

For — Having spoken of the glorious light, and joy, and victory of God's people, he now proceeds to shew the ground of it. Us — Unto us Jews, of whom Christ was born, and to whom he was primarily sent. A child — The Messiah by the consent of interpreters, not only Christian, but Jewish: for so the ancient Hebrew doctors understood the place, and particularly the Chaldee paraphrast; although the latter Jews, out of opposition to Christ, wrest it to Hezekiah. Which extravagant conceit, as it hath no foundation in this or any other text of scripture, so it is fully confuted by the following titles, which are such as cannot without blasphemy and nonsense be ascribed to Hezekiah, nor indeed to any mere mortal man, as we shall see. Is born — Or, shall be born, as the prophets generally speak. The government — Of God's people, to whom he is given. Shoulders — Upon him, or in his hands. He mentions shoulders, because great burdens are commonly laid upon men's shoulders. His name — This is not to be taken for a description of his name, but of his glorious nature and qualities. Wonderful counsellor — And so Christ is, because he hath been the counsellor of his church in all ages, and the author and giver of all those excellent counsels delivered not only by the apostles, but also by the prophets, and hath gathered and enlarged, and preserved his church, by admirable counsels and methods of his providence, and, in a word, hath in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, Colossians 2:3. Mighty God — This title can agree to no man but Christ, who was God as well as man, to whom the title of God or Jehovah is given, both in the Old and New Testament. And it is a true observation, that this Hebrew word El is never used in the singular number, of any creature, but only of the almighty God. The father — The father of eternity. Who, though as man he was then unborn, yet was and is from everlasting to everlasting.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 9:6

For to us a child is born, to us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting (k) Father, The Prince of Peace.

(k) The author of eternity, and by whom the Church and every member of it will be preserved forever, and have immortal life.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
For unto:

Isaiah 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
Luke 1:35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
Luke 2:11 For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.

unto us a son:

John 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
John 3:16-17 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. ... For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved.
Romans 8:32 He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?
1 John 4:10-14 Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son [to be] the propitiation for our sins. ... And we have seen and do testify that the Father sent the Son [to be] the Saviour of the world.

the government:

Isaiah 22:21-22 And I will clothe him with thy robe, and strengthen him with thy girdle, and I will commit thy government into his hand: and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah. ... And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open.
Psalms 2:6-12 Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. ... Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish [from] the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed [are] all they that put their trust in him.
Psalms 110:1-4 [[A Psalm of David.]] The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. ... The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou [art] a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.
Jeremiah 23:5-6 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. ... In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this [is] his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.
Zechariah 6:12-13 And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name [is] The BRANCH; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD: ... Even he shall build the temple of the LORD; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.
Zechariah 9:9-10 Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he [is] just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass. ... And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and the battle bow shall be cut off: and he shall speak peace unto the heathen: and his dominion [shall be] from sea [even] to sea, and from the river [even] to the ends of the earth.
Matthew 11:27 All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and [he] to whomsoever the Son will reveal [him].
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
1 Corinthians 15:25 For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.
Ephesians 1:21-22 Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: ... And hath put all [things] under his feet, and gave him [to be] the head over all [things] to the church,
Revelation 19:16 And he hath on [his] vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

his name:

Isaiah 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
Judges 13:18 And the angel of the LORD said unto him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it [is] secret?
*marg.
Jeremiah 31:22 How long wilt thou go about, O thou backsliding daughter? for the LORD hath created a new thing in the earth, A woman shall compass a man.
Matthew 1:23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.
1 Timothy 3:16 And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.

Counsellor:

Isaiah 28:29 This also cometh forth from the LORD of hosts, [which] is wonderful in counsel, [and] excellent in working.
Zechariah 6:13 Even he shall build the temple of the LORD; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.
Luke 21:15 For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist.
John 1:16 And of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace.
1 Corinthians 1:30 But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption:
Colossians 2:3 In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

The mighty God:

Isaiah 45:24-25 Surely, shall [one] say, in the LORD have I righteousness and strength: [even] to him shall [men] come; and all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed. ... In the LORD shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory.
Psalms 45:3 Gird thy sword upon [thy] thigh, O [most] mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty.
Psalms 45:6 Thy throne, O God, [is] for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom [is] a right sceptre.
Psalms 50:1 [[A Psalm of Asaph.]] The mighty God, [even] the LORD, hath spoken, and called the earth from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof.
Jeremiah 23:5-6 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. ... In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this [is] his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.
John 1:1-2 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. ... The same was in the beginning with God.
Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.
Romans 9:5 Whose [are] the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ [came], who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
Titus 2:13 Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
Hebrews 1:8 But unto the Son [he saith], Thy throne, O God, [is] for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness [is] the sceptre of thy kingdom.
1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, [even] in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.

The everlasting Father:

Isaiah 8:18 Behold, I and the children whom the LORD hath given me [are] for signs and for wonders in Israel from the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion.
Isaiah 53:10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put [him] to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see [his] seed, he shall prolong [his] days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.
Proverbs 8:23 I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was.
Hebrews 2:13-14 And again, I will put my trust in him. And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me. ... Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil;

The Prince of Peace:

Isaiah 11:6-9 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. ... They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea.
Isaiah 53:5 But he [was] wounded for our transgressions, [he was] bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace [was] upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.
Psalms 72:3 The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the little hills, by righteousness.
Psalms 72:7 In his days shall the righteous flourish; and abundance of peace so long as the moon endureth.
Psalms 85:10 Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed [each other].
Daniel 9:24-25 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. ... Know therefore and understand, [that] from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
Micah 5:4-5 And he shall stand and feed in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God; and they shall abide: for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth. ... And this [man] shall be the peace, when the Assyrian shall come into our land: and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight principal men.
Luke 2:14 Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.
John 14:27 Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.
Acts 10:36 The word which [God] sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ: (he is Lord of all:)
Romans 5:1-10 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: ... For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.
2 Corinthians 5:19 To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation.
Ephesians 2:14-18 For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition [between us]; ... For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.
Colossians 1:20-21 And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, [I say], whether [they be] things in earth, or things in heaven. ... And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in [your] mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled
Hebrews 7:2-3 To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all; first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of peace; ... Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually.
Hebrews 13:20 Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,
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