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Isaiah 66:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Thus saith Jehovah, Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: what manner of house will ye build unto me? and what place shall be my rest?
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Thus saith the LORD, The heaven [is] my throne, and the earth [is] my footstool: where [is] the house that ye build unto me? and where [is] the place of my rest?
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Thus says the LORD, “Heaven is My throne and the earth is My footstool. Where then is a house you could build for Me? And where is a place that I may rest?
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Thus saith the LORD, The heaven [is] my throne, and the earth [is] my footstool: where [is] the house that ye build to me? and where [is] the place of my rest?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Thus saith Jehovah: The heavens are my throne, and the earth is my footstool: what is the house that ye will build unto me? and what is the place of my rest?
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Thus, saith Yahweh, The heavens, are my throne, and, The earth, is my footstool: Where, then is the house which ye can build me? Or where, is my place of rest?
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Thus said Jehovah: The heavens [are] My throne, And the earth My footstool, Where [is] this—the house that ye build for Me? And where [is] this—the place—My rest?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Thus saith the Lord: Heaven is my throne, and the earth my footstool: what is this house that you will build to me? and what is this place of my rest?
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Thus sayth the LORD, The heauen [is] my throne, and the earth [is] my footestoole: where is the house that yee builde vnto mee? and where is the place of my rest?
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Thus saith the Lord, Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: what kind of a house will ye build me? and of what kind [is to be] the place of my rest?
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Thus saith Yahweh, The heaven [is] my throne, and the earth [is] my footstool: where [is] the house that ye build unto me? and where [is] the place of my rest?

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Thus x3541
(3541) Complement
From the prefix K and H1931; properly like this, that is, by implication (of manner) thus (or so); also (of place) here (or hither); or (of time) now.
saith 559
{0559} Prime
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
The heaven 8064
{8064} Prime
The second form being dual of an unused singular; from an unused root meaning to be lofty; the sky (as aloft; the dual perhaps alluding to the visible arch in which the clouds move, as well as to the higher ether where the celestial bodies revolve).
[is] my throne, 3678
{3678} Prime
From H3680; properly covered, that is, a throne (as canopied).
and the earth 776
{0776} Prime
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
[is] my footstool: 7272
{7272} Prime
From H7270; a foot (as used in walking); by implication a step; by euphemism the pudenda.
{1916} Prime
From an unused root meaning to stamp upon; a foot stool.
where x335
(0335) Complement
Perhaps from H0370; where? hence how?.
[is] the house 1004
{1004} Prime
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
that x834
(0834) Complement
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
ye build 1129
{1129} Prime
A primitive root; to build (literally and figuratively).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto me? and where x335
(0335) Complement
Perhaps from H0370; where? hence how?.
[is] the x2088
(2088) Complement
A primitive word; the masculine demonstrative pronoun, this or that.
place 4725
{4725} Prime
From H6965; properly a standing, that is, a spot; but used widely of a locality (generally or specifically); also (figuratively) of a condition (of body or mind).
of my rest? 4496
{4496} Prime
Feminine of H4495; repose or (adverbially) peacefully; figuratively consolation (specifically matrimony); hence (concretely) an abode.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 66:1

_ _ Isaiah 66:1-24. The humble comforted, the ungodly condemned, at the Lord’s appearing: Jerusalem made a joy on earth.

_ _ This closing chapter is the summary of Isaiah’s prophecies as to the last days, hence the similarity of its sentiments with what went before.

_ _ heaven ... throne ... where is ... house ... ye build — The same sentiment is expressed, as a precautionary proviso for the majesty of God in deigning to own any earthly temple as His, as if He could be circumscribed by space (1 Kings 8:27) in inaugurating the temple of stone; next, as to the temple of the Holy Ghost (Acts 7:48, Acts 7:49); lastly here, as to “the tabernacle of God with men” (Isaiah 2:2, Isaiah 2:3; Ezekiel 43:4, Ezekiel 43:7; Revelation 21:3).

_ _ where — rather, “what is this house that ye are building, etc. — what place is this for My rest?” [Vitringa].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 66:1-4

_ _ Here, I. The temple is slighted in comparison with a gracious soul, Isaiah 66:1, Isaiah 66:2. The Jews in the prophet's time, and afterwards in Christ's time, gloried much in the temple and promised themselves great things from it; to humble them therefore, and to shake their vain confidence, both the prophets and Christ foretold the ruin of the temple, that God would leave it and then it would soon be desolate. After it was destroyed by the Chaldeans it soon recovered itself and the ceremonial services were revived with it; but by the Romans it was made a perpetual desolation, and the ceremonial law was abolished with it. That the world might be prepared for this, they were often told, as here, of what little account the temple was with God. 1. That he did not need it. Heaven is the throne of his glory and government; there he sits, infinitely exalted in the highest dignity and dominion, above all blessing and praise. The earth is his footstool, on which he stands, over-ruling all the affairs of it according to his will. If God has so bright a throne, so large a footstool, where then is the house they can build unto God, that can be the residence of his glory, or where is the place of his rest? What satisfaction can the Eternal Mind take in a house made with men's hands? What occasion has he, as we have, for a house to repose himself in, who faints not neither is weary, who neither slumbers nor sleeps? Or, if he had occasion, he would not tell us (Psalms 50:12), for all these things hath his hand made, heaven and all its courts, earth and all its borders, and all the hosts of both. All these things have been, have had their beginning, by the power of God, who was happy from eternity before they were, and therefore could not be benefited by them. All these things are (so some read it); they still continue, upheld by the same power that made them; so that our goodness extends not to him. If he required a house for himself to dwell in, he would have made one himself when he made the world; and, if he had made one, it would have continued to this day, as other creatures do, according to his ordinance; so that he had no need of a temple made with hands. 2. That he would not heed it as he would a humble, penitent, gracious heart. He has a heaven and earth of his own making, and a temple of man's making; but he overlooks them all, that he may look with favour to him that is poor in spirit, humble and serious, self-abasing and self-denying, whose heart is truly contrite for sin, penitent for it, and in pain to get it pardoned, and who trembles at God's word, not as Felix did, with a transient qualm that was over when the sermon was done, but with an habitual awe of God's majesty and purity and an habitual dread of his justice and wrath. Such a heart is a living temple for God; he dwells there, and it is the place of his rest; it is like heaven and earth, his throne and his footstool.

_ _ II. Sacrifices are slighted when they come from ungracious hands. The sacrifice of the wicked is not only unacceptable, but it is an abomination to the Lord (Proverbs 15:8); this is largely shown here, v. 3, 4. Observe, 1. How detestable their sacrifices were to God. The carnal Jews, after their return out of captivity, though they relapsed not to idolatry, grew very careless and loose in the service of God; they brought the torn, and the lame, and the sick for sacrifice (Malachi 1:8, Malachi 1:13), and this made their services abominable to God; they had no regard to their sacrifices, and therefore how could they think God would have any regard to them? The unbelieving Jews, after the gospel was preached and in it notice given of the offering up of the great sacrifice, which put an end to all the ceremonial services, continued to offer sacrifices, as if the law of Moses had been still in force and could make the comers thereunto perfect: this was an abomination. He that kills an ox for his own table is welcome to do it; but he that now kills it, that thus kills it, for God's altar, is as if he slew a man; it is as great an offence to God as murder itself; he that does it does in effect set aside Christ's sacrifice, treads under foot the blood of the covenant, and makes himself accessory to the guilt of the body and blood of the Lord, setting up what Christ died to abolish. He that sacrifices a lamb, if it be a corrupt thing, and not the male in his flock, the best he has, if he think to put God off with any thing, he affronts him, instead of pleasing him; it is as if he cut off a dog's neck, a creature in the eye of the law so vile that, whereas an ass might be redeemed, the price of a dog was never to be brought into the treasury, Deuteronomy 23:18. He that offers an oblation, a meat offering or drink-offering, is as if he thought to make atonement with swine's blood, a creature that must not be eaten nor touched, the broth of it was abominable (Isaiah 65:4), much more the blood of it. He that burns incense to God, and so puts contempt upon the incense of Christ's intercession, is as if he blessed an idol; it was as great an affront to God as if they had paid their devotions to a false god. Hypocrisy and profaneness are as provoking as idolatry. 2. What their wickedness was which made their sacrifices thus detestable. It was because they had chosen their own ways, the ways of their own wicked hearts, and not only their hands did but their souls delighted in their abominations. They were vicious and immoral in their conversations, chose the way of sin rather than the way of God's commandments, and took pleasure in that which was provoking to God; this made their sacrifices so offensive to God, Isaiah 1:11-15. Those that pretend to honour God by a profession of religion, and yet live wicked lives, put an affront upon him, as if he were the patron of sin. And that which was an aggravation of their wickedness was that they persisted in it, notwithstanding the frequent calls given them to repent and reform; they turned a deaf ear to all the warnings of divine justice and all the offers of divine grace: When I called, none did answer, as before, Isaiah 65:12. And the same follows here that did there: They did evil before my eyes. Being deaf to what he said, they cared not what he saw, but chose that in which they knew he delighted not. How could those expect to please him in their devotions who took no care to please him in their conversations, but, on the contrary, designed to provoke him? 3. The doom passed upon them for this. Theychose their own ways, therefore, says God, I also will choose their delusions. They have made their choice (as Mr. Gataker paraphrases it), and now I will make mine; they have taken what course they pleased with me, and I will take what course I please with them. I will choose their illusions, or mockeries (so some); as they have mocked God and dishonoured him by their wickedness, so God will give them up to their enemies, to be trampled upon and insulted by them. Or they shall be deceived by those vain confidences with which they have deceived themselves. God will make their sin their punishment; they shall be beaten with their own rod and hurried into ruin by their own delusions. God will bring their fears upon them, that is, will bring upon them that which shall be a great terror to them, or that which they themselves have been afraid of and thought to escape by sinful shifts. Unbelieving hearts, and unpurified unpacified consciences, need no more to make them miserable than to have their own fears brought upon them.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 66:1

The heaven — The highest heaven, is the place where I shew myself in my majesty. So Psalms 11:4, Psalms 103:19; Matthew 5:34. Hence we are taught to pray; our father which art in heaven. And the earth is my footstool — Or a place wherein I set my feet, Matthew 5:35. The house — Can there be an house built, that will contain me? My rest — Or where is the place wherein I can be said to rest in a proper sense?

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 66:1

Thus saith the LORD, The (a) heaven [is] my throne, and the earth [is] my footstool: where [is] the house that ye build to me? and where [is] the place of my rest?

(a) My majesty is so great, that it fills both heaven and earth, and therefore cannot be included in a temple like an idol, condemning by this their main confidence which trusted in the temple and sacrifices.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
The heaven:

1 Kings 8:27 But will God indeed dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house that I have builded?
1 Chronicles 28:2 Then David the king stood up upon his feet, and said, Hear me, my brethren, and my people: [As for me], I [had] in mine heart to build an house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and for the footstool of our God, and had made ready for the building:
2 Chronicles 6:18 But will God in very deed dwell with men on the earth? behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house which I have built!
Psalms 11:4 The LORD [is] in his holy temple, the LORD'S throne [is] in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men.
Psalms 99:9 Exalt the LORD our God, and worship at his holy hill; for the LORD our God [is] holy.
Psalms 132:7 We will go into his tabernacles: we will worship at his footstool.
Matthew 5:34-35 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: ... Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.
Matthew 23:21-22 And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein. ... And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.
Acts 17:24 God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands;

where is the house:

2 Samuel 7:5-7 Go and tell my servant David, Thus saith the LORD, Shalt thou build me an house for me to dwell in? ... In all [the places] wherein I have walked with all the children of Israel spake I a word with any of the tribes of Israel, whom I commanded to feed my people Israel, saying, Why build ye not me an house of cedar?
Jeremiah 7:4-11 Trust ye not in lying words, saying, The temple of the LORD, The temple of the LORD, The temple of the LORD, [are] these. ... Is this house, which is called by my name, become a den of robbers in your eyes? Behold, even I have seen [it], saith the LORD.
Malachi 1:11 For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name [shall be] great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense [shall be] offered unto my name, and a pure offering: for my name [shall be] great among the heathen, saith the LORD of hosts.
Matthew 24:2 And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
John 4:20-21 Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship. ... Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father.
Acts 7:48-50 Howbeit the most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands; as saith the prophet, ... Hath not my hand made all these things?
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2S 7:5. 1K 8:27. 1Ch 28:2. 2Ch 6:18. Ps 11:4; 99:9; 132:7. Jr 7:4. Mal 1:11. Mt 5:34; 23:21; 24:2. Jn 4:20. Ac 7:48; 17:24.

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