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Isaiah 63:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, marching in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Who [is] this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this [that is] glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Who is this who comes from Edom, With garments of glowing colors from Bozrah, This One who is majestic in His apparel, Marching in the greatness of His strength? “It is I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Who [is] this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this [that is] glorious in his apparel, traveling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Who is this that cometh from Edom, with deep-red garments from Bozrah, this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength?—I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Who, is this, coming in from Edom, With bright-red garments, from Bozrah? This, made splendid in his raiment, Marching on in the greatness of his strength? I, speaking in righteousness, Mighty to save.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'Who [is] this coming from Edom? With dyed garments from Bozrah? This that is honourable in his clothing, Travelling in the abundance of his power?'—'I, speaking in righteousness, mighty to save.'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bosra, this beautiful one in his robe, walking in the greatness of his strength. I, that speak justice, and am a defender to save.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Who [is] this that commeth from Edom, with died garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, trauelling in the greatnesse of his strength? I that speake in righteousnesse, mightie to saue.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Who is this that is come from Edom, [with] red garments from Bezer{gr.Bosor}? thus fair in his apparel, with mighty strength? I speak of righteousness and saving judgment.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Who [is] this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Botzrah? this [that is] glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Who x4310
(4310) Complement
מִי
miy
{me}
An interrogitive pronoun of persons, as H4100 is of things, who? (occasionally, by a peculiar idiom, of things); also (indefinitely) whoever; often used in oblique construction with prefix or suffix.
[is] this x2088
(2088) Complement
זֶה
zeh
{zeh}
A primitive word; the masculine demonstrative pronoun, this or that.
that cometh 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
from m אֱדוֹם, 123
{0123} Prime
אֱדֹם
'Edom
{ed-ome'}
From H0122; red (see Genesis 25:25); Edom, the elder twin-brother of Jacob; hence the region (Idumaea) occuped by him.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
with dyed 2556
{2556} Prime
חָמַץ
chamets
{khaw-mates'}
A primitive root; to be pungent; that is, in taste (sour, that is, literally fermented, or figuratively harsh), in color (dazzling).
z8803
<8803> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Passive (See H8815)
Count - 1415
garments 899
{0899} Prime
בֶּגֶד
beged
{behg'-ed}
From H0898; a covering, that is, clothing; also treachery or pillage.
from Boxr בָּצרָה? 1224
{1224} Prime
בָּצְרָה
Botsrah
{bots-raw'}
The same as H1223; Botsrah, a place in Edom.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
this x2088
(2088) Complement
זֶה
zeh
{zeh}
A primitive word; the masculine demonstrative pronoun, this or that.
[that is] glorious 1921
{1921} Prime
הָדַר
hadar
{haw-dar'}
A primitive root; to swell up (literally or figuratively, actively or passively); by implication to favor or honour, be high or proud.
z8803
<8803> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Passive (See H8815)
Count - 1415
in his apparel, 3830
{3830} Prime
לְבוּשׁ
l@buwsh
{leb-oosh'}
From H3847; a garment (literally or figuratively); by implication (euphemistically) a wife.
travelling 6808
{6808} Prime
צָעָה
tsa`ah
{tsaw-aw'}
A primitive root; to tip over (for the purpose of spilling or pouring out), that is, (figuratively) depopulate; by implication to imprison or conquer; (reflexively) to lie down (for coition).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
in the greatness 7230
{7230} Prime
רֹב
rob
{robe}
From H7231; abundance (in any respect).
of his strength? 3581
{3581} Prime
כֹּחַ
koach
{ko'-akh}
From an unused root meaning to be firm; vigor, literally (force, in a good or a bad sense) or figuratively (capacity, means, produce); also (from its hardiness) a large lizard.
I x589
(0589) Complement
אֲנִי
'aniy
{an-ee'}
Contracted from H0595; I.
that speak 1696
{1696} Prime
דִּבֵּר
dabar
{daw-bar'}
A primitive root; perhaps properly to arrange; but used figuratively (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue.
z8764
<8764> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 685
in righteousness, 6666
{6666} Prime
צְדָקָה
ts@daqah
{tsed-aw-kaw'}
From H6663; rightness (abstractly), subjectively (rectitude), objectively (justice), morally (virtue) or figuratively (prosperity).
mighty 7227
{7227} Prime
רַב
rab
{rab}
By contraction from H7231; abundant (in quantity, size, age, number, rank, quality).
to save. 3467
{3467} Prime
יָשַׁע
yasha`
{yaw-shah'}
A primitive root; properly to be open, wide or free, that is, (by implication) to be safe; causatively to free or succor.
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 63:1

_ _ Isaiah 63:1-19. Messiah coming as the avenger, in answer to His people’s prayers.

_ _ Messiah, approaching Jerusalem after having avenged His people on His and their enemies, is represented under imagery taken from the destruction of “Edom,” the type of the last and most bitter foes of God and His people (see Isaiah 34:5, etc.).

_ _ Who — the question of the prophet in prophetic vision.

_ _ dyed — scarlet with blood (Isaiah 63:2, Isaiah 63:3; Revelation 19:13).

_ _ Bozrah — (See on Isaiah 34:6).

_ _ travelling — rather, stately; literally, “throwing back the head” [Gesenius].

_ _ speak in righteousness — answer of Messiah. I, who have in faithfulness given a promise of deliverance, am now about to fulfil it. Rather, speak of righteousness (Isaiah 45:19; Isaiah 46:13); salvation being meant as the result of His “righteousness” [Maurer].

_ _ save — The same Messiah that destroys the unbeliever saves the believer.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 63:1-6

_ _ It is a glorious victory that is here enquired into first and then accounted for. 1. It is a victory obtained by the providence of God over the enemies of Israel; over the Babylonians (say some), whom Cyrus conquered and God by him, and they will have the prophet to make the first discovery of him in his triumphant return when he is in the country of Edom: but this can by no means be admitted, because the country of Babylon is always spoken of as the land of the north, whereas Edom lay south from Jerusalem, so that the conqueror would not return through that country; the victory therefore is obtained over the Edomites themselves, who had triumphed in the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans (Psalms 137:7) and cut off those who, making their way as far as they could from the enemy, escaped to the Edomites (Obadiah 1:12, Obadiah 1:13), and were therefore reckoned with when Babylon was; for no doubt that prophecy was accomplished, though we do not meet in history with the accomplishment of it (Jeremiah 49:13), Bozrah shall become a desolation. Yet this victory over Edom is put as an instance or specimen of the like victories obtained over other nations that had been enemies to Israel. This over the Edomites is named for the sake of the old enmity of Esau against Jacob (Genesis 27:41) and perhaps with an allusion to David's glorious triumphs over the Edomites, by which it should seem, more than by any other of his victories, he got himself a name, Psalms 60:1-12, title, 2 Samuel 8:13, 2 Samuel 8:14. But this is not all: 2. It is a victory obtained by the grace of God in Christ over our spiritual enemies. We find the garments dipped in blood adorning him whose name is called The Word of God, Revelation 19:13. And who that is we know very well; for it is through him that we are more than conquerors over those principalities and powers which on the cross he spoiled and triumphed over.

_ _ In this representation of the victory we have,

_ _ I. An admiring question put to the conqueror, Isaiah 63:1, Isaiah 63:2. It is put by the church, or by the prophet in the name of the church. He sees a mighty hero returning in triumph from a bloody engagement, and makes bold to ask him two questions: — 1. Who he is. He observes him to come from the country of Edom, to come in such apparel as was glorious to a soldier, not embroidered or laced, but besmeared with blood and dirt. He observes that he does not come as one either frightened or fatigued, but that he travels in the greatness of his strength, altogether unbroken.

Triumphant and victorious he appears,
And honour in his looks and habit wears.
How strong he treads! how stately doth he go!
Pompous and solemn is his pace,
And full of majesty, as is his face;
Who is this mighty hero — who!
— Mr. Norris

_ _ The question, Who is this? perhaps means the same with that which Joshua put to the same person when he appeared to him with his sword drawn (Joshua 5:13): Art thou for us or for our adversaries? Or, rather, the same with that which Israel put in a way of adoration (Exodus 15:11): Who is a God like unto thee? 2. The other question it, “Wherefore art thou red in thy apparel? What hard service hast thou been engaged in, that thou carriest with thee these marks of toil and danger?” Is it possible that one who has such majesty and terror in his countenance should be employed in the mean and servile work of treading the wine-press? Surely it is not. That which is really the glory of the Redeemer seems, prim facieat first, a disparagement to him, as it would be to a mighty prince to do the work of the wine-dressers and husbandmen; for he took upon him the form of a servant, and carried with him the marks of servitude.

_ _ II. An admirable answer returned by him.

_ _ 1. He tells who he is: I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. He is the Saviour. God was Israel's Saviour out of the hand of their oppressors; the Lord Jesus is ours; his name, Jesus, signifies a Saviour, for he saves his people from their sins. In the salvation wrought he will have us to take notice, (1.) Of the truth of his promise, which is therein performed: He speaks in righteousness, and will therefore make good every word that he has spoken with which he will have us to compare what he does, that, setting the word and the work the one over against the other, what he does may ratify what he has said and what he has said may justify what he does. (2.) Of the efficacy of his power, which is therein exerted: He is mighty to save, able to bring about the promised redemption, whatever difficulties and oppositions may lie in the way of it.

'Tis I who to my promise faithful stand,
I, who the powers of death, hell, and the grave,
Have foil'd with this all-conquering hand,
I, who most ready am, and mighty too, to save.
— Mr. Norris

_ _ 2. He tells how he came to appear in this hue (Isaiah 63:3): I have trodden the wine-press alone. Being compared to one that treads in the wine-fat, such is his condescension, in the midst of his triumphs, that he does not scorn the comparison, but admits it and carries it on. He does indeed tread the wine-press, but it is the great wine-press of the wrath of God (Revelation 14:19), in which we sinners deserved to be cast; but Christ was pleased to cast our enemies into it, and to destroy him that had the power of death, that he might deliver us. And of this the bloody work which God sometimes made among the enemies of the Jews, and which is here foretold, was a type and figure. Observe the account the conqueror gives of his victory.

_ _ (1.) He gains the victory purely by his own strength: I have trodden the wine-press alone, Isaiah 63:3. When God delivered his people and destroyed their enemies, if he made use of instruments, he did not need them. But among his people, for whom the salvation was to be wrought, no assistance offered itself; they were weak and helpless, and had no ability to do any thing for their own relief; they were desponding and listless, and had no heart to do any thing; they were not disposed to give the least stroke or struggle for liberty, neither the captives themselves nor any of their friends for them (Isaiah 63:5): “I looked, and there was none to help, as one would have expected, nothing of a bold active spirit appeared among them; nay, there was not only none to lead, but, which was more strange, there was none to uphold, none that would come in as a second, that had the courage to join with Cyrus against their oppressors; therefore my arm brought about the salvation; not by created might or power, but by the Spirit of the Lord of hosts, my own arm.” Note, God can help when all other helpers fail; nay, that is his time to help, and therefore for that very reason he will put forth his own power so much the more gloriously. But this is most fully applicable to Christ's victories over our spiritual enemies, which he obtained by a single combat. He trod the wine-press of his Father's wrath alone, and triumphed over principalities and powers in himself, Colossians 2:15. Of the people there was none with him; for, when he entered the lists with the powers of darkness, all his disciples forsook him and fled. There was non to help, none that could, none that durst; and he might well wonder that among the children of men, whose concern it was, there was not only none to uphold, but that there were so many to oppose and hinder it if they could.

_ _ (2.) He undertakes the war purely out of his own zeal. It is in his anger, it is in his fury, that he treads down his enemies (Isaiah 63:3), and that fury upholds him and carries him on in this enterprise, Isaiah 63:5. God wrought salvation for the oppressed Jews purely because he was very angry with the oppressing Babylonians, angry at their idolatries and sorceries, their pride and cruelty, and the injuries they did to his people, and, as they increased their abominations and grew more insolent and outrageous, his anger increased to fury. Our Lord Jesus wrought out our redemption in a holy zeal for the honour of his Father and the happiness of mankind, and a holy indignation at the daring attempts Satan had made upon both; this zeal and indignation upheld him throughout his whole undertaking. Two branches there were of this zeal that animated him: — [1.] He had a zeal against his and his people's enemies: The day of vengeance is in my heart (Isaiah 63:4), the day fixed in the eternal counsels for taking vengeance on them; this was written in his heart, so that he could not forget it, could not let it slip; his heart was full of it, and it lay as a charge, as a weight, upon him, which made him push on this holy war with so much vigour. Note, There is a day fixed for divine vengeance, which may be long deferred, but will come at last; and we may be content to wait for it, for the Redeemer himself does so, though his heart is upon it. [2.] He had a zeal for his people, and for all that he designed to make sharers in the intended salvation: “The year of my redeemed has come, the year appointed for their redemption.” There was a year fixed for the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, and God kept time to a day (Exodus 12:41); so there was for their release out of Babylon (Daniel 9:2); so there was for Christ's coming to destroy the works of the devil; so there is for all the deliverances of the church, and the deliverer has an eye to it. Observe, First, With what pleasure he speaks of his people; they are his redeemed; they are his own, dear to him. Though their redemption is not yet wrought out, yet he calls them his redeemed, because it shall as surely be done as if it were done already. Secondly, With what pleasure he speaks of his people's redemption; how glad he is that the time has come, though he is likely to meet with a sharp encounter. “Now that the year of my redeemed has come, Lo, I come; delay shall be no longer. Now will I arise, saith the Lord. Now thou shalt see what I will do to Pharaoh.” Note, The promised salvation must be patiently waited for till the time appointed comes; yet we must attend the promises with our prayers. Does Christ say, Surely I come quickly; let our hearts reply, Even so come; let the year of the redeemed come.

_ _ (3.) He will obtain a complete victory over them all. [1.] Much is already done; for he now appears red in his apparel; such abundance of blood is shed that the conqueror's garments are all stained with it. This was predicted, long before, by dying Jacob, concerning Shiloh (that is, Christ), that he should wash his garments in wine and his clothes in the blood of grapes, which perhaps this alludes to, Genesis 49:11.

With ornamental drops bedeck'd I stood,
And wrote my vict'ry with my en'my's blood.
— Mr. Norris

_ _ In the destruction of the antichristian powers we meet with abundance of blood shed (Revelation 14:20, Revelation 19:13), which yet, according to the dialect of prophecy, may be understood spiritually, and doubtless so may this here. [2.] More shall yet be done (Isaiah 63:6): I will tread down the people that yet stand it out against me, in my anger; for the victorious Redeemer, when the year of the redeemed shall have come, will go on conquering and to conquer, Revelation 6:2. When he begins he will also make an end. Observe how he will complete his victories over the enemies of his church. First, He will infatuate them; he will make them drunk, so that there shall be neither sense nor steadiness in their counsels; they shall drink of the cup of his fury, and that shall intoxicate them: or he will make them drunk with their own blood, Revelation 17:6. Let those that make themselves drunk with the cup of riot (and then they are in their fury) repent and reform, lest God make them drunk with the cup of trembling, the cup of his fury. Secondly, He will enfeeble them; he will bring down their strength, and so bring them down to the earth; for what strength can hold out against Omnipotence?

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 63:1

Who — The church makes enquiry, and that with admiration, who it is that appears in such a habit or posture? Edom — Idumea, where Esau dwelt. It is put for all the enemies of the church. Bozrah — The capital city of Idumea. Here is also an allusion to the garments of this conqueror, Edom signifying red, and Bozrah a vintage. Glorious — Such as generals march before their armies in. Righteousness — Here Christ gives an answer, wherein he both asserts his fidelity, that he will faithfully perform what he hath promised, and that he will truly execute justice. Mighty — I have power to accomplish salvation.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 63:1

Who [is] this that cometh (a) from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this [that is] glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? (b) I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.

(a) This prophecy is against the Idumeans and enemies who persecuted the Church, on whom God will take vengeance, and is here set forth all bloody after he has destroyed them in Bozrah, the chief city of the Idumeans: for these were their greatest enemies,and under the title of circumcision and the kindred of Abraham.

(b) God answers them that asked this question, "Who is this?" etc. and says "You see now performed in deed the vengeance which my prophets threatened."

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
is this:

Psalms 24:7-10 Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. ... Who is this King of glory? The LORD of hosts, he [is] the King of glory. Selah.
Song of Songs 3:6 Who [is] this that cometh out of the wilderness like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, with all powders of the merchant?
Song of Songs 6:10 Who [is] she [that] looketh forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, [and] terrible as [an army] with banners?
Song of Songs 8:5 Who [is] this that cometh up from the wilderness, leaning upon her beloved? I raised thee up under the apple tree: there thy mother brought thee forth: there she brought thee forth [that] bare thee.
Matthew 21:10 And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this?

from Edom:

Isaiah 34:5-6 For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment. ... The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, [and] with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea.
Psalms 137:7 Remember, O LORD, the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem; who said, Rase [it], rase [it, even] to the foundation thereof.

dyed:

Isaiah 63:2-3 Wherefore [art thou] red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? ... I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people [there was] none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment.
Isaiah 9:5 For every battle of the warrior [is] with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but [this] shall be with burning [and] fuel of fire.
Revelation 19:13 And he [was] clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God.

Bozrah:

Amos 1:11-12 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Edom, and for four, I will not turn away [the punishment] thereof; because he did pursue his brother with the sword, and did cast off all pity, and his anger did tear perpetually, and he kept his wrath for ever: ... But I will send a fire upon Teman, which shall devour the palaces of Bozrah.

glorious:
Heb. decked

travelling:

Psalms 45:3-4 Gird thy sword upon [thy] thigh, O [most] mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty. ... And in thy majesty ride prosperously because of truth and meekness [and] righteousness; and thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things.
Revelation 11:17-18 Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned. ... And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

speak:

Isaiah 45:19 I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth: I said not unto the seed of Jacob, Seek ye me in vain: I the LORD speak righteousness, I declare things that are right.
Isaiah 45:23 I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth [in] righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.
Numbers 23:19 God [is] not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent: hath he said, and shall he not do [it]? or hath he spoken, and shall he not make it good?

mighty:

John 10:28-30 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any [man] pluck them out of my hand. ... I and [my] Father are one.
Hebrews 7:25 Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.
1 Peter 1:5 Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
Jude 1:24-25 Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present [you] faultless before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy, ... To the only wise God our Saviour, [be] glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.
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Nu 23:19. Ps 24:7; 45:3; 137:7. So 3:6; 6:10; 8:5. Is 9:5; 34:5; 45:19, 23; 63:2. Am 1:11. Mt 21:10. Jn 10:28. He 7:25. 1P 1:5. Jde 1:24. Rv 11:17; 19:13.

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