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Isaiah 6:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and his train filled the temple.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— In the year of King Uzziah’s death I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted, with the train of His robe filling the temple.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and elevated, and his train filled the temple.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— In the year of the death of king Uzziah, I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and his train filled the temple.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw My Lord, sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and, his skirts, did fill the temple.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— In the year of the death of king Uzziah—I see the Lord, sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and His train is filling the temple.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In the year that king Ozias died, I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and elevated: and his train filled the temple.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— In the yeere that King Uzziah died, I saw also the Lord sitting vpon a throne, high and lifted vp, and his traine filled the Temple.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass in the year in which king Uzziah{gr.Ozias} died, [that] I saw the Lord sitting on a high and exalted throne, and the house was full of his glory.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— In the year that king Uzziyyah died I saw also Yahweh sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
In the year 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
that king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
`Uzziyy עֻזִּיָּה 5818
{5818} Prime
עֻזִּיָּה
`Uzziyah
{ooz-zee-yaw'}
From H5797 and H3050; strength of Jah; Uzzijah, the name of five Israelites.
died 4194
{4194} Prime
מָוֶת
maveth
{maw'-veth}
From H4191; death (natural or violent); concretely the dead, their place or state (hades); figuratively pestilence, ruin.
I saw 7200
{7200} Prime
רָאָה
ra'ah
{raw-aw'}
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
also 853
{0853} Prime
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Yhw יָהוֶה 136
{0136} Prime
אֲדֹנָי
'Adonay
{ad-o-noy'}
An emphatic form of H0113; the Lord (used as a proper name of God only).
sitting 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
a throne, 3678
{3678} Prime
כִּסֵּא
kicce'
{kis-say'}
From H3680; properly covered, that is, a throne (as canopied).
high 7311
{7311} Prime
רוּם
ruwm
{room}
A primitive root; to be high actively to rise or raise (in various applications, literally or figuratively).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
and lifted up, 5375
{5375} Prime
נָשָׂא
nasa'
{naw-saw'}
A primitive root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, absolutely and relatively.
z8737
<8737> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 793
and his train 7757
{7757} Prime
שׁוּל
shuwl
{shool}
From an unused root meaning to hang down; a skirt; by implication a bottom edge.
filled 853
{0853} Prime
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
y4392
[4392] Standard
מָלֵא
male'
{maw-lay'}
From H4390; full (literally or figuratively) or filling (literally); also (concretely) fulness; adverbially fully.
x4390
(4390) Complement
מָלֵא
male'
{maw-lay'}
A primitive root, to fill or (intransitively) be full of, in a wide application (literally and figuratively).
the temple. 1964
{1964} Prime
הֵיכָל
heykal
{hay-kawl'}
Probably from H3201 (in the sense of capacity); a large public building, such as a palace or temple.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 6:1

_ _ Isaiah is outside, near the altar in front of the temple. The doors are supposed to open, and the veil hiding the Holy of Holies to be withdrawn, unfolding to his view a vision of God represented as an Eastern monarch, attended by seraphim as His ministers of state (1 Kings 22:19), and with a robe and flowing train (a badge of dignity in the East), which filled the temple. This assertion that he had seen God was, according to tradition (not sanctioned by Isaiah 1:1; see on Introduction), the pretext for sawing him asunder in Manasseh’s reign (Hebrews 11:37). Visions often occur in the other prophets: in Isaiah there is only this one, and it is marked by characteristic clearness and simplicity.

_ _ In ... year ... Uzziah died — Either literal death, or civil when he ceased as a leper to exercise his functions as king [Chaldee], (2 Chronicles 26:19-21). 754 b.c. [Calmet] 758 (Common Chronology). This is not the first beginning of Isaiah’s prophecies, but his inauguration to a higher degree of the prophetic office: Isaiah 6:9, etc., implies the tone of one who had already experience of the people’s obstinacy.

_ _ Lord — here Adonai, Jehovah in Isaiah 6:5; Jesus Christ is meant as speaking in Isaiah 6:10, according to John 12:41. Isaiah could only have “seen” the Son, not the divine essence (John 1:18). The words in Isaiah 6:10 are attributed by Paul (Acts 28:25, Acts 28:26) to the Holy Ghost. Thus the Trinity in unity is implied; as also by the thrice “Holy” (Isaiah 6:3). Isaiah mentions the robes, temple, and seraphim, but not the form of God Himself. Whatever it was, it was different from the usual Shekinah: that was on the mercy seat, this on a throne; that a cloud and fire, of this no form is specified: over that were the cherubim, over this the seraphim; that had no clothing, this had a flowing robe and train.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 6:1-4

_ _ The vision which Isaiah saw when he was, as is said of Samuel, established to be a prophet of the Lord (1 Samuel 3:20), was intended, 1. To confirm his faith, that he might himself be abundantly satisfied of the truth of those things which should afterwards be made known to him. This God opened the communications of himself to him; but such visions needed not to be afterwards repeated upon every revelation. Thus God appeared at first as a God of glory to Abraham (Acts 7:2), and to Moses, Exodus 3:2. Ezekiel's prophecies and St. John's, begin with visions of the divine glory. 2. To work upon his affections, that he might be possessed with such a reverence of God as would both quicken him and fix him to his service. Those who are to teach others the knowledge of God ought to be well acquainted with him themselves.

_ _ The vision is dated, for the greater certainty of it. It was in the year that king Uzziah died, who had reigned, for the most part, as prosperously and well as any of the kings of Judah, and reigned very long, above fifty years. About the time that he died, Isaiah saw this vision of God upon a throne; for when the breath of princes goes forth, and they return to their earth, this is our comfort, that the Lord shall reign for ever, Psalms 146:3, Psalms 146:4, Psalms 146:10. Israel's king dies, but Israel's God still lives. From the mortality of great and good men we should take occasion to look up with an eye of faith to the King eternal, immortal. King Uzziah died under a cloud, for he was shut up as a leper till the day of his death. As the lives of princes have their periods, so their glory is often eclipsed; but, as God is everliving, so his glory is everlasting. King Uzziah dies in an hospital, but the King of kings still sits upon his throne.

_ _ What the prophet here saw is revealed to us, that we, mixing faith with that revelation, may in it, as in a glass, behold the glory of the Lord; let us turn aside therefore, and see this great sight with humble reverence.

_ _ I. See God upon his throne, and that throne high and lifted up, not only above other thrones, as it transcends them, but over other thrones, as it rules and commands them. Isaiah saw not Jehovah — the essence of God (no man has seen that, or can see it), but Adonai — his dominion. He saw the Lord Jesus; so this vision is explained John 12:41, that Isaiah now saw Christ's glory and spoke of him, which is an incontestable proof of the divinity of our Saviour. He it is who when, after his resurrection, he sat down on the right hand of God, did but sit down where he was before, John 17:5. See the rest of the Eternal Mind: Isaiah saw the Lord sitting, Psalms 29:10. See the sovereignty of the Eternal Monarch: he sits upon a throne — a throne of glory, before which we must worship, — a throne of government, under which we must be subject, — and a throne of grace, to which we may come boldly. This throne is high, and lifted up above all competition and contradiction.

_ _ II. See his temple, his church on earth, filled with the manifestations of his glory. His throne being erected at the door of the temple (as princes sat in judgment at the gates), his train, the skirts of his robes, filled the temple, the whole world (for it is all God's temple, and, as the heaven is his throne, so the earth is his footstool), or rather the church, which is filled enriched, and beautified with the tokens of God's special presence.

_ _ III. See the bright and blessed attendants on his throne, in and by whom his glory is celebrated and his government served (Isaiah 6:2): Above the throne, as it were hovering about it, or nigh to the throne, bowing before it, with an eye to it, the seraphim stood, the holy angels, who are called seraphim-burners; for he makes his ministers a flaming fire, Psalms 104:4. They burn in love to God, and zeal for his glory and against sin, and he makes use of them as instruments of his wrath when he is a consuming fire to his enemies. Whether they were only two or four, or (as I rather think) an innumerable company of angels, that Isaiah saw, is uncertain; see Daniel 7:10. Note, It is the glory of the angels that they are seraphim, have heat proportionable to their light, have abundance, not only of divine knowledge, but of holy love. Special notice is taken of their wings (and of no other part of their appearance), because of the use they made of them, which is designed for instruction to us. They had each of them six wings, not stretched upwards (as those whom Ezekiel saw, Ezekiel 1:11), but, 1. Four were made use of for a covering, as the wings of a fowl, sitting, are; with the two upper wings, next to the head, they covered their faces, and with the two lowest wings they covered their feet, or lower parts. This bespeaks their great humility and reverence in their attendance upon God, for he is greatly feared in the assembly of those saints, Psalms 89:7. They not only cover their feet, those members of the body which are less honourable (1 Corinthians 12:23), but even their faces. Though angel's faces, doubtless, are much fairer than those of the children of men (Acts 6:15), yet in the presence of God, they cover them, because they cannot bear the dazzling lustre of the divine glory, and because, being conscious of an infinite distance from the divine perfection, they are ashamed to show their faces before the holy God, who charges even his angels with folly if they should offer to vie with him, Job 4:18. If angels be thus reverent in their attendance on God, with what godly fear should we approach his throne! Else we do not the will of God as the angels do it. Yet Moses, when he went into the mount with God, took the veil from off his face. See 2 Corinthians 3:18. 2. Two were made use of for flight; when they are sent on God's errands they fly swiftly (Daniel 9:21), more swiftly with their own wings than if they flew on the wings of the wind. This teaches us to do the work of God with cheerfulness and expedition. Do angels come upon the wing from heaven to earth, to minister for our good, and shall not we soar upon the wing from earth to heaven, to share with them in their glory? Luke 20:36.

_ _ IV. Hear the anthem, or song of praise, which the angels sing to the honour of him that sits on the throne, Isaiah 6:3. Observe,

_ _ 1. How this song was sung. With zeal and fervency — they cried aloud; and with unanimity — they cried to another, or one with another; they sang alternately, but in concert, and without the least jarring voice to interrupt the harmony.

_ _ 2. What the song was; it is the same with that which is sung by the four living creatures, Revelation 4:8. Note, Praising God always was, and will be to eternity, the work of heaven, and the constant employment of blessed spirits above, Psalms 84:4. Note further, The church above is the same in its praises; there is no change of times or notes there. Two things the seraphim here give God the praise of: —

_ _ (1.) His infinite perfections in himself. Here is one of his most glorious titles praised: he is the Lord of hosts, of their hosts, of all hosts; and one of his most glorious attributes, his holiness, without which his being the Lord of hosts (or, as it is in the parallel place, Revelation 4:8, the Lord God Almighty) could not be so much as it is the matter of our joy and praise; for power, without purity to guide it, would be a terror to mankind. None of all the divine attributes is so celebrated in scripture as this is. God's power was spoken twice (Psalms 62:11), but his holiness thrice, Holy, holy, holy. This bespeaks, [1.] The zeal and fervency of the angels in praising God; they even want words to express themselves, and therefore repeat the same again. [2.] The particular pleasure they take in contemplating the holiness of God; this is a subject they love to dwell upon, to harp upon, and are loth to leave. [3.] The superlative excellency of God's holiness, above that of the purest creatures. He is holy, thrice holy, infinitely holy, originally, perfectly, and eternally so. [4.] It may refer to the three person in the Godhead, Holy Father, Holy Son, and Holy Spirit (for it follows, Isaiah 6:8, Who will go for us?) or perhaps to that which was, and is, and is to come; for that title of God's honour is added to this song, Revelation 4:8. Some make the angels here to applaud the equity of that sentence which God was now about to pronounce upon the Jewish nation. Herein he was, and is, and will be, holy; his ways are equal.

_ _ (2.) The manifestation of these to the children of men: The earth is full of his glory, the glory of his power and purity; for he is holy in all his works, Psalms 145:17. The Jews thought the glory of God should be confined to their land; but it is here intimated that in the gospel times (which are pointed to in this chapter) the glory of God should fill all the earth, the glory of his holiness, which is indeed the glory of all his other attributes; this then filled the temple (Isaiah 6:1), but, in the latter days, the earth shall be full of it.

_ _ V. Observe the marks and tokens of terror with which the temple was filled, upon this vision of the divine glory, Isaiah 6:4. 1. The house was shaken; not only the door, but even the posts of the door, which were firmly fixed, moved at the voice of him that cried, at the voice of God, who called to judgment (Psalms 50:4), at the voice of the angel, who praised him. There are voices in heaven sufficient to drown all the noises of the many waters in this lower world, Psalms 93:3, Psalms 93:4. This violent concussion of the temple was an indication of God's wrath and displeasure against the people for their sins; it was an earnest of the destruction of it and the city by the Babylonians first, and afterwards by the Romans; and it was designed to strike an awe upon us. Shall walls and posts tremble before God, and shall we not tremble? 2. The house was darkened; it was filled with smoke, which was as a cloud spread upon the face of his throne (Job 26:9); we cannot take a full view of it, nor order our speech concerning it, by reason of darkness. In the temple above there will be no smoke, but everything will be seen clearly. There God dwells in light; here he makes darkness his pavilion, 2 Chron, Romans 6:1.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 6:1

I saw — In a vision. The Lord — The Divine Majesty as he subsisteth in three persons. His train — His royal and judicial robe; for he is represented as a judge.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 6:1

In the year that king Uzziah died (a) I saw also the Lord sitting upon a (b) throne, high and lifted up, and his (c) train filled the temple.

(a) God does not show himself to man in his majesty but according as man's capacity to comprehend him, that is, by visible signs as John the Baptist saw the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove.

(b) As a judge ready to give sentence.

(c) Of his garment, or of his throne.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 3245, bc 759

the year:

2 Kings 15:7 So Azariah slept with his fathers; and they buried him with his fathers in the city of David: and Jotham his son reigned in his stead.
, Azariah,
2 Chronicles 26:22-23 Now the rest of the acts of Uzziah, first and last, did Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amoz, write. ... So Uzziah slept with his fathers, and they buried him with his fathers in the field of the burial which [belonged] to the kings; for they said, He [is] a leper: and Jotham his son reigned in his stead.

I saw also:

Exodus 24:10-11 And they saw the God of Israel: and [there was] under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in [his] clearness. ... And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink.
Numbers 12:8 With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD shall he behold: wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against my servant Moses?
Ezekiel 1:1 Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth [month], in the fifth [day] of the month, as I [was] among the captives by the river of Chebar, [that] the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God.
Ezekiel 1:25-28 And there was a voice from the firmament that [was] over their heads, when they stood, [and] had let down their wings. ... As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so [was] the appearance of the brightness round about. This [was] the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw [it], I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spake.
John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared [him].
John 12:41 These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him.
1 Timothy 6:16 Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom [be] honour and power everlasting. Amen.

sitting:

Isaiah 66:1 Thus saith the LORD, The heaven [is] my throne, and the earth [is] my footstool: where [is] the house that ye build unto me? and where [is] the place of my rest?
1 Kings 22:19 And he said, Hear thou therefore the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left.
Ezekiel 10:1 Then I looked, and, behold, in the firmament that was above the head of the cherubims there appeared over them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne.
Daniel 7:9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment [was] white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne [was like] the fiery flame, [and] his wheels [as] burning fire.
Matthew 25:31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:
Revelation 3:21 To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne.
Revelation 4:2 And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and [one] sat on the throne.
Revelation 4:10 The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying,
Revelation 5:1 And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals.
Revelation 5:7 And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne.
Revelation 6:16 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:
Revelation 7:15-17 Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple: and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them. ... For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes.

high:

Isaiah 12:4 And in that day shall ye say, Praise the LORD, call upon his name, declare his doings among the people, make mention that his name is exalted.
Isaiah 57:15 For thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name [is] Holy; I dwell in the high and holy [place], with him also [that is] of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones.
Psalms 46:10 Be still, and know that I [am] God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth.
Psalms 108:5 Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens: and thy glory above all the earth;
Psalms 113:5 Who [is] like unto the LORD our God, who dwelleth on high,
Ephesians 1:20-21 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set [him] at his own right hand in the heavenly [places], ... Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:

his train:
or, the skirts thereof

filled:

1 Kings 8:10-11 And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy [place], that the cloud filled the house of the LORD, ... So that the priests could not stand to minister because of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of the LORD.
Revelation 15:8 And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from his power; and no man was able to enter into the temple, till the seven plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 24:10. Nu 12:8. 1K 8:10; 22:19. 2K 15:7. 2Ch 26:22. Ps 46:10; 108:5; 113:5. Is 12:4; 57:15; 66:1. Ezk 1:1, 25; 10:1. Dn 7:9. Mt 25:31. Jn 1:18; 12:41. Ep 1:20. 1Ti 6:16. Rv 3:21; 4:2, 10; 5:1, 7; 6:16; 7:15; 15:8.

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