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Isaiah 58:5 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Is such the fast that I have chosen? the day for a man to afflict his soul? Is it to bow down his head as a rush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to Jehovah?
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul? [is it] to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes [under him]? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to the LORD?
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “Is it a fast like this which I choose, a day for a man to humble himself? Is it for bowing one’s head like a reed And for spreading out sackcloth and ashes as a bed? Will you call this a fast, even an acceptable day to the LORD?
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul? [is it] to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes [under him]? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to the LORD?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Is such the fast that I have chosen, a day for a man to afflict his soul,—that he should bow down his head as a bulrush, and spread sackcloth and ashes [under him]? Wilt thou call this a fast, and a day acceptable to Jehovah?
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Like this, shall the fast be, that I choose, A day for the son of earth to humble his soul? Is it to bow down, as a rush, his head, And, sackcloth and ashes, to spread out? Is it, this, thou wilt call a fast, Or a day of acceptance with Yahweh?
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Like this is the fast that I choose? The day of a man's afflicting his soul? To bow as a reed his head, And sackcloth and ashes spread out? This dost thou call a fast, And a desirable day—to Jehovah?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Is this such a fast as I have chosen: for a man to afflict his soul for a day? is this it, to wind his head about like a circle, and to spread sackcloth and ashes? wilt thou call this a fast, and a day acceptable to the Lord?
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Is it such a fast [that] I haue chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soule? [Is it] to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackecloth and ashes vnder him? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to the LORD?
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— I have not chosen this fast, nor [such] a day for a man to afflict his soul; neither though thou shouldest bend down thy neck as a ring, and spread under thee sackcloth and ashes, neither thus shall ye call a fast acceptable.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul? [is it] to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes [under him]? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to Yahweh?

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Is x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
it such x2088
(2088) Complement
זֶה
zeh
{zeh}
A primitive word; the masculine demonstrative pronoun, this or that.
a fast 6685
{6685} Prime
צוֹם
tsowm
{tsome}
From H6684; a fast.
that I have chosen? 977
{0977} Prime
בָּחַר
bachar
{baw-khar'}
A primitive root; properly to try, that is, (by implication) select.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
a day 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
for a man 120
{0120} Prime
אָדָם
'adam
{aw-dawm'}
From H0119; ruddy, that is, a human being (an individual or the species, mankind, etc.).
to afflict 6031
{6031} Prime
עָנָה
`anah
{aw-naw'}
A primitive root (possibly rather identical with H6030 through the idea of looking down or browbeating); to depress literally or figuratively, transitively or intransitively (in various applications). (sing is by mistake for H6030.).
z8763
<8763> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 790
his soul? 5315
{5315} Prime
נֶפֶשׁ
nephesh
{neh'-fesh}
From H5314; properly a breathing creature, that is, animal or (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental).
[is it] to bow down 3721
{3721} Prime
כָּפַף
kaphaph
{kaw-faf'}
A primitive root; to curve.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
his head 7218
{7218} Prime
רֹאשׁ
ro'sh
{roshe}
From an unused root apparently meaning to shake; the head (as most easily shaken), whether literally or figuratively (in many applications, of place, time, rank, etc.).
as a bulrush, 100
{0100} Prime
אַגְמוֹן
'agmown
{ag-mone'}
From the same as H0098; a marshy pool (others from a different root, a kettle); by implication a rush (as growing there); collectively a rope of rushes.
and to spread 3331
{3331} Prime
יָצַע
yatsa`
{yaw-tsah'}
A primitive root; to strew as a surface.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
sackcloth 8242
{8242} Prime
שַׂק
saq
{sak}
From H8264; properly a mesh (as allowing a liquid to run through), that is, coarse loose cloth or sacking (used in mourning and for bagging); hence a bag (for grain, etc.).
and ashes 665
{0665} Prime
אֵפֶר
'epher
{ay'-fer}
From an unused root meaning to bestrew; ashes.
[under him]? wilt thou call 7121
{7121} Prime
קָרָא
qara'
{kaw-raw'}
A primitive root (rather identical with H7122 through the idea of accosting a person met); to call out to (that is, properly address by name, but used in a wide variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
this 2088
{2088} Prime
זֶה
zeh
{zeh}
A primitive word; the masculine demonstrative pronoun, this or that.
a fast, 6685
{6685} Prime
צוֹם
tsowm
{tsome}
From H6684; a fast.
and an acceptable 7522
{7522} Prime
רָצוֹן
ratsown
{raw-tsone'}
From H7521; delight.
day 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
to Yhw יָהוֶה? 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 58:5

_ _ for a man to afflict his soul — The pain felt by abstinence is not the end to be sought, as if it were meritorious; it is of value only in so far as it leads us to amend our ways (Isaiah 58:6, Isaiah 58:7).

_ _ bow ... head ... sackcloth — to affect the outward tokens, so as to “appear to men to fast” (Matthew 6:17, Matthew 6:18; 1 Kings 21:27; Esther 4:3).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Isaiah 58:3-7.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 58:5

Chosen — Approve of, accept, or delight in, by a metonymy, because we delight in what we freely chuse. For a day — This may be understood, either for a man to take a certain time to afflict his soul in, and that either from even to even, Leviticus 23:32, or from morning to evening, or for a little time. Wilt thou call — Canst thou suppose it to be so? A fast — It being such an one as has nothing in it, but the dumb signs of a fast, nothing of deep humiliation appearing in it, or, real reformation proceeding from it. Acceptable day — A day that God will approve of.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
it such:

2 Chronicles 20:3 And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek the LORD, and proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah.
Ezra 10:6 Then Ezra rose up from before the house of God, and went into the chamber of Johanan the son of Eliashib: and [when] he came thither, he did eat no bread, nor drink water: for he mourned because of the transgression of them that had been carried away.
Nehemiah 9:1-2 Now in the twenty and fourth day of this month the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with sackclothes, and earth upon them. ... And the seed of Israel separated themselves from all strangers, and stood and confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers.
Esther 4:3 And in every province, whithersoever the king's commandment and his decree came, [there was] great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes.
Esther 4:16 Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which [is] not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish.
Daniel 9:3-19 And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes: ... O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God: for thy city and thy people are called by thy name.
Zechariah 7:5 Speak unto all the people of the land, and to the priests, saying, When ye fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh [month], even those seventy years, did ye at all fast unto me, [even] to me?

a day for a man to afflict his soul:
or, to afflict his soul for a day,
Isaiah 58:3 Wherefore have we fasted, [say they], and thou seest not? [wherefore] have we afflicted our soul, and thou takest no knowledge? Behold, in the day of your fast ye find pleasure, and exact all your labours.
Leviticus 16:29 And [this] shall be a statute for ever unto you: [that] in the seventh month, on the tenth [day] of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, [whether it be] one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you:

to spread:

1 Kings 21:27-29 And it came to pass, when Ahab heard those words, that he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went softly. ... Seest thou how Ahab humbleth himself before me? because he humbleth himself before me, I will not bring the evil in his days: [but] in his son's days will I bring the evil upon his house.
2 Kings 6:30 And it came to pass, when the king heard the words of the woman, that he rent his clothes; and he passed by upon the wall, and the people looked, and, behold, [he had] sackcloth within upon his flesh.
Job 2:8 And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself withal; and he sat down among the ashes.
Jonah 3:5-8 So the people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least of them. ... But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that [is] in their hands.

an acceptable:

Isaiah 49:8 Thus saith the LORD, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee: and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, to establish the earth, to cause to inherit the desolate heritages;
Isaiah 61:2 To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn;
Psalms 69:13 But as for me, my prayer [is] unto thee, O LORD, [in] an acceptable time: O God, in the multitude of thy mercy hear me, in the truth of thy salvation.
Luke 4:19 To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.
Romans 12:2 And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what [is] that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.
1 Peter 2:5 Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Lv 16:29. 1K 21:27. 2K 6:30. 2Ch 20:3. Ezr 10:6. Ne 9:1. Es 4:3, 16. Jb 2:8. Ps 69:13. Is 49:8; 58:3; 61:2. Dn 9:3. Jna 3:5. Zc 7:5. Lk 4:19. Ro 12:2. 1P 2:5.

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