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Isaiah 50:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Thus saith Jehovah, Where is the bill of your mother's divorcement, wherewith I have put her away? or which of my creditors is it to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities were ye sold, and for your transgressions was your mother put away.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Thus saith the LORD, Where [is] the bill of your mother's divorcement, whom I have put away? or which of my creditors [is it] to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Thus says the LORD, “Where is the certificate of divorce By which I have sent your mother away? Or to whom of My creditors did I sell you? Behold, you were sold for your iniquities, And for your transgressions your mother was sent away.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Thus saith the LORD, Where [is] the bill of your mother's divorcement, whom I have put away? or which of my creditors [is it] to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Thus saith Jehovah: Where is the bill of your mother's divorce, whom I have put away? or which of my creditors is it to whom I have sold you? Behold, through your iniquities have ye sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Thus, saith Yahweh—Where then is the scroll of your mother's divorce, whom I have put away? Or, which of my creditors, is it, to whom I have sold you? Lo! for your iniquities, have ye been sold, And, for your transgressions, hath your mother been put away.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Thus said Jehovah: 'Where [is] this—the bill of your mother's divorce, Whom I sent away? Or to which of My creditors have I sold you? Lo, for your iniquities ye have been sold, And for your transgressions Hath your mother been sent away.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Thus saith the Lord: What is this bill of the divorce of your mother, with which I have put her away? or who is my creditor, to whom I sold you: behold you are sold for your iniquities, and for your wicked deeds have I put your mother away.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Thus saith the LORD, Where is the bill of your mothers diuorcement, whom I haue put away? or which of my creditours [is it] to whom I haue sold you? Behold, for your iniquities haue you solde your selues, and for your transgressions is your mother put away.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Thus saith the Lord, Of what kind is your mother's bill of divorcement, by which I put her away? or to which debtor have I sold you? Behold, ye are sold for your sins, and for your iniquities have I put your mother away.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Thus saith Yahweh, Where [is] the bill of your mother's divorcement, whom I have put away? or which of my creditors [is it] to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Thus x3541
(3541) Complement
כֹּה
koh
{ko}
From the prefix K and H1931; properly like this, that is, by implication (of manner) thus (or so); also (of place) here (or hither); or (of time) now.
saith 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
Where x335
(0335) Complement
אֵי
'ay
{ah'ee}
Perhaps from H0370; where? hence how?.
[is] the bill 5612
{5612} Prime
סֵפֶר
cepher
{say'-fer}
From H5608; properly writing (the art or a document); by implication a book.
of your mother's 517
{0517} Prime
אֵם
'em
{ame}
A primitive word; a mother (as the bond of the family); in a wide sense (both literally and figuratively); (like H0001).
divorcement, 3748
{3748} Prime
כְּרִיתוּת
k@riythuwth
{ker-ee-thooth'}
From H3772; a cutting (of the matrimonial bond), that is, divorce.
whom x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
I have put away? 7971
{7971} Prime
שָׁלַח
shalach
{shaw-lakh'}
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
or x176
(0176) Complement
אוֹ
'ow
{o}
The first form is presumed to be the 'constructive' or genitival form of the second form which is short for H0185; desire (and so probably in Proverbs 31:4); hence (by way of alternative) or, also if.
which x4310
(4310) Complement
מִי
miy
{me}
An interrogitive pronoun of persons, as H4100 is of things, who? (occasionally, by a peculiar idiom, of things); also (indefinitely) whoever; often used in oblique construction with prefix or suffix.
of my creditors 5383
{5383} Prime
נָשָׁה
nashah
{naw-shaw'}
A primitive root (rather identical with H5382, in the sense of H5378); to lend or (by reciprocity) borrow on security or interest.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
[is it] to whom x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
I have sold 4376
{4376} Prime
מָכַר
makar
{maw-kar'}
A primitive root; to sell, literally (as merchandise, a daughter in marriage, into slavery), or figuratively (to surrender).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
you? Behold, x2005
(2005) Complement
הֵן
hen
{hane}
A primitive particle; lo! also (as expressing surprise) if.
for your iniquities 5771
{5771} Prime
עָוֹן
`avon
{aw-vone'}
From H5753; perversity, that is, (moral) evil.
have ye sold y4376
[4376] Standard
מָכַר
makar
{maw-kar'}
A primitive root; to sell, literally (as merchandise, a daughter in marriage, into slavery), or figuratively (to surrender).
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
yourselves, x4376
(4376) Complement
מָכַר
makar
{maw-kar'}
A primitive root; to sell, literally (as merchandise, a daughter in marriage, into slavery), or figuratively (to surrender).
and for your transgressions 6588
{6588} Prime
פֶּשַׁע
pesha`
{peh'-shah}
From H6586; a revolt (national, moral or religious).
is your mother 517
{0517} Prime
אֵם
'em
{ame}
A primitive word; a mother (as the bond of the family); in a wide sense (both literally and figuratively); (like H0001).
put away. 7971
{7971} Prime
שָׁלַח
shalach
{shaw-lakh'}
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
z8795
<8795> Grammar
Stem - Pual (See H8849)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 199
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 50:1

_ _ Isaiah 50:1-11. The judgments on Israel were provoked by their crimes, yet they are not finally cast off by God.

_ _ Where ... mothers divorcement — Zion is “the mother”; the Jews are the children; and God the Husband and Father (Isaiah 54:5; Isaiah 62:5; Jeremiah 3:14). Gesenius thinks that God means by the question to deny that He had given “a bill of divorcement” to her, as was often done on slight pretexts by a husband (Deuteronomy 24:1), or that He had “sold” His and her “children,” as a poor parent sometimes did (Exodus 21:7; 2 Kings 4:1; Nehemiah 5:5) under pressure of his “creditors”; that it was they who sold themselves through their own sins. Maurer explains, “Show the bill of your mother’s divorcement, whom ... ; produce the creditors to whom ye have been sold; so it will be seen that it was not from any caprice of Mine, but through your own fault, your mother has been put away, and you sold” (Isaiah 52:3). Horsley best explains (as the antithesis between “I” and “yourselves” shows, though Lowth translates, “Ye are sold”) I have never given your mother a regular bill of divorcement; I have merely “put her away” for a time, and can, therefore, by right as her husband still take her back on her submission; I have not made you, the children, over to any “creditor” to satisfy a debt; I therefore still have the right of a father over you, and can take you back on repentance, though as rebellious children you have sold yourselves to sin and its penalty (1 Kings 21:25).

_ _ bill ... whom — rather, “the bill with which I have put her away” [Maurer].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 50:1-3

_ _ Those who have professed to be the people of God, and yet seem to be dealt severely with, are apt to complain of God, and to lay the fault upon him, as if he had been hard with them. But, in answer to their murmurings, we have here,

_ _ I. A challenge given them to prove, or produce any evidence, that the quarrel began on God's side, Isaiah 50:1. They could not say that he had done them any wrong or had acted arbitrarily. 1. He had been a husband to them; and husbands were then allowed a power to put away their wives upon any little disgust: if their wives found not favour in their eyes, they made nothing of giving them a bill of divorce, Deuteronomy 24:1; Matthew 19:7. But they could not say that God had dealt so with them. It is true they were now separated from him, and had abode many days without ephod, altar, or sacrifice; but whose fault was that? They could not say that God had given their mother a bill of divorce; let them produce it if they can, for a bill of divorce was given into the hand of her that was divorced. 2. He had been a father to them; and fathers had then a power to sell their children for slaves to their creditors, in satisfaction for the debts they were not otherwise able to pay. Now it is true the Jews were sold to the Babylonians then, and afterwards to the Romans; but did God sell them for payment of his debts? No, he was not indebted to any of those to whom they were sold, or, if he had sold them, he did not increase his wealth by their price, Psalms 44:12. When God chastens his children, it is neither for his pleasure (Hebrews 12:10) nor for his profit. All that are saved are saved by a prerogative of grace, but those that perish are cut off by an act of divine holiness and justice, not of absolute sovereignty.

_ _ II. A charge exhibited against them, showing them that they were themselves the authors of their own ruin: “Behold, for your iniquities, for the pleasure of them and the gratification of your own base lusts, you have sold yourselves, for your iniquities you are sold; not as children are sold by their parents, to pay their debts, but as malefactors are sold by the judges, to punish them for their crimes. You sold yourselves to work wickedness, and therefore God justly sold you into the hands of your enemies, 2 Chronicles 12:5, 2 Chronicles 12:8. It is for your transgressions that your mother is put away, for her whoredoms and adulteries,” which were always allowed to be a just cause of divorce. The Jews were sent into Babylon for their idolatry, a sin which broke the marriage covenant, and were at last rejected for crucifying the Lord of glory; these were the iniquities for which they were sold and put away.

_ _ III. The confirmation of this challenge and this charge. 1. It is plain that it was owing to themselves that they were cast off; for God came and offered them his favour, offered them his helping hand, either to prevent their trouble or to deliver them out of it, but they slighted him and all the tenders of his grace. “Do you lay it upon me?” (says God); “tell me, then, wherefore, when I came, was there no man to meet me, when I called, was there none to answer me?Isaiah 50:2. God came to them by his servants the prophets, demanding the fruits of his vineyard (Matthew 21:34); he sent them his messengers, rising up betimes and sending them (Jeremiah 35:15); he called to them to leave their sins, and so prevent their own ruin: but was there no man, or next to none, that had any regard to the warnings which the prophets gave them, none that answered the calls of God, or complied with the messages he sent them; and this was it for which they were sold and put away. Because they mocked the messengers of the Lord, therefore, God brought upon them the king of the Chaldeans, 2 Chronicles 36:16, 2 Chronicles 36:17. Last of all he sent unto them his Son. He came to his own, but his own received him not; he called them to himself, but there were none that answered; he would have gathered Jerusalem's children together, but they would not; they knew not, because they would not know, the things that belonged to their peace, nor the day of their visitation, and for that transgression it was that they were put away and their house was left desolate, Matthew 21:41; Matthew 23:37, Matthew 23:38; Luke 19:41, Luke 19:42. When God calls men to happiness, and they will not answer, they are justly left to be miserable. 2. It is plain that it was not owing to a want of power in God, for he is almighty, and could have recovered them from so great a death; nor was it owing to a want of power in Christ, for he is able to save to the uttermost. The unbelieving Jews in Babylon thought they were not delivered because their God was not able to deliver them; and those in Christ's time were ready to ask, in scorn, Can this man save us? For himself he cannot save. “But” (says God) “is my hand shortened at all, or is it weakened?” Can any limits be set to Omnipotence? Cannot he redeem who is the great Redeemer? Has he no power to deliver whose all power is? To put to silence, and for ever to put to shame, their doubts concerning his power, he here gives unquestionable proofs of it. (1.) He can, when he pleases, dry up the seas, and make the rivers a wilderness. He did so for Israel when he redeemed them out of Egypt, and he can do so again for their redemption out of Babylon. It is done at his rebuke, as easily as with a word's speaking. He can so dry up the rivers as to leave the fish to die for want of water, and to putrefy. When God turned the waters of Egypt into blood he slew the fish, Psalms 105:29. The expression our Saviour sometimes used concerning the power of faith, that it will remove mountains and plant sycamores in the sea, is not unlike this; if their faith could do that, no doubt their faith would save them, and therefore they were inexcusable if they perished in unbelief. (2.) He can, when he pleases, eclipse the lights of heaven, clothe then with blackness, and make sackcloth their covering (Isaiah 50:3) by thick and dark clouds interposing, which he balances, Job 36:32; Job 37:16.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 50:1

Thus saith the Lord — The scope of this and the next chapter, is to vindicate God's justice and to convince the Jews that they were the causes of their own calamities. Behold — You can blame none but yourselves and your own sins, for all your captivities and miseries.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 50:1

Thus saith the LORD, Where [is] the (a) bill of your mother's divorcement, (b) whom I have put away? or which of my creditors [is it] (c) to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away.

(a) Meaning, that he has not forsaken her, but through her own opportunity as in (Hosea 2:2).

(b) Who would declare that I have cut her off: meaning, that they could show no one.

(c) Signifying, that he sold them not for any debt or poverty, but that they sold themselves to sins to buy their own lusts and pleasures.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the bill:

Deuteronomy 24:1-4 When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give [it] in her hand, and send her out of his house. ... Her former husband, which sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that [is] abomination before the LORD: and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee [for] an inheritance.
Jeremiah 3:1 They say, If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man's, shall he return unto her again? shall not that land be greatly polluted? but thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; yet return again to me, saith the LORD.
Jeremiah 3:8 And I saw, when for all the causes whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given her a bill of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah feared not, but went and played the harlot also.
Hosea 2:2-4 Plead with your mother, plead: for she [is] not my wife, neither [am] I her husband: let her therefore put away her whoredoms out of her sight, and her adulteries from between her breasts; ... And I will not have mercy upon her children; for they [be] the children of whoredoms.
Mark 10:4-12 And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put [her] away. ... And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be married to another, she committeth adultery.

or which:

Exodus 21:7 And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do.
Leviticus 25:39 And if thy brother [that dwelleth] by thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee; thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bondservant:
Deuteronomy 32:30 How should one chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock had sold them, and the LORD had shut them up?
2 Kings 4:1 Now there cried a certain woman of the wives of the sons of the prophets unto Elisha, saying, Thy servant my husband is dead; and thou knowest that thy servant did fear the LORD: and the creditor is come to take unto him my two sons to be bondmen.
Nehemiah 5:5 Yet now our flesh [is] as the flesh of our brethren, our children as their children: and, lo, we bring into bondage our sons and our daughters to be servants, and [some] of our daughters are brought unto bondage [already]: neither [is it] in our power [to redeem them]; for other men have our lands and vineyards.
Esther 7:4 For we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my tongue, although the enemy could not countervail the king's damage.
Psalms 44:12 Thou sellest thy people for nought, and dost not increase [thy wealth] by their price.
Matthew 18:25 But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made.

Behold:
Husbands often sent bills of divorcement to their wives on slight occasions; and fathers, oppressed with debt, sold their children till the year of release. But this, saith God, cannot be my case: I am not governed by any such motives, nor am I urged by any such necessity. Your captivity and afflictions are the fruits of your own folly and wickedness.

for your iniquities:

Isaiah 52:3 For thus saith the LORD, Ye have sold yourselves for nought; and ye shall be redeemed without money.
Isaiah 59:1-2 Behold, the LORD'S hand is not shortened, that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear: ... But your iniquities have separated between you and your God, and your sins have hid [his] face from you, that he will not hear.
1 Kings 21:25 But there was none like unto Ahab, which did sell himself to work wickedness in the sight of the LORD, whom Jezebel his wife stirred up.
2 Kings 17:17 And they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire, and used divination and enchantments, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke him to anger.
Jeremiah 3:8 And I saw, when for all the causes whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given her a bill of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah feared not, but went and played the harlot also.
Jeremiah 4:18 Thy way and thy doings have procured these [things] unto thee; this [is] thy wickedness, because it is bitter, because it reacheth unto thine heart.
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Ex 21:7. Lv 25:39. Dt 24:1; 32:30. 1K 21:25. 2K 4:1; 17:17. Ne 5:5. Es 7:4. Ps 44:12. Is 52:3; 59:1. Jr 3:1, 8; 4:18. Ho 2:2. Mt 18:25. Mk 10:4.

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