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Isaiah 48:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Because I knew that thou art obstinate, and thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Because I knew that thou [art] obstinate, and thy neck [is] an iron sinew, and thy brow brass;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “Because I know that you are obstinate, And your neck is an iron sinew And your forehead bronze,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Because I knew that thou [art] obstinate, and thy neck [is] an iron sinew, and thy brow brass;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Because I knew that thou art obstinate, and thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Because I knew that—Obstinate, thou wast,—And, a sinew of iron, was thy neck, And thy brow, brazen,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— From my knowing that thou art obstinate, And a sinew of iron thy neck, And thy forehead brass,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— For I knew that thou art stubborn, and thy neck is as an iron sinew, and thy forehead as brass.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Because I knew that thou art obstinate, and thy necke [is] an yron sinew, and thy brow brasse:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— I know that thou art stubborn, and thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy forehead brazen.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Because I knew that thou [art] obstinate, and thy neck [is] an iron sinew, and thy brow brass;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Because I knew y1847
[1847] Standard
דַּעַת
da`ath
{dah'-ath}
From H3045; knowledge.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x3045
(3045) Complement
ידע
yada`
{yaw-dah'}
A primitive root; to know (properly to ascertain by seeing); used in a great variety of senses, figuratively, literally, euphemistically and inferentially (including observation, care, recognition; and causatively instruction, designation, punishment, etc.).
that x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
thou x859
(0859) Complement
אַתָּה
'attah
{at-taw'}
A primitive pronoun of the second person; thou and thee, or (plural) ye and you.
[art] obstinate, 7186
{7186} Prime
קָשֶׁה
qasheh
{kaw-sheh'}
From H7185; severe (in various applications).
and thy neck 6203
{6203} Prime
עֹרֶף
`oreph
{o-ref'}
From H6202; the nape or back of the neck (as declining); hence the back generally (whether literally or figuratively).
[is] an iron 1270
{1270} Prime
בַּרְזֶל
barzel
{bar-zel'}
Perhaps from the root of H1269; iron (as cutting); by extension an iron implement.
sinew, 1517
{1517} Prime
גִּיד
giyd
{gheed}
Probably from H1464; a thong (as compressing); by analogy a tendon.
and thy brow 4696
{4696} Prime
מֵצַח
metsach
{may'-tsakh}
From an unused root meaning to be clear, that is, conspicuous; the forehead (as open and prominent).
brass; 5154
{5154} Prime
נְחוּשָׁה
n@chuwshah
{nekh-oo-shaw'}
Feminine of H5153; copper.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 48:4

_ _ obstinateHebrew, “hard” (Deuteronomy 9:27; Ezekiel 3:7, Margin).

_ _ iron sinew — inflexible (Acts 7:51).

_ _ brow brass — shameless as a harlot (see Jeremiah 6:28; Jeremiah 3:3; Ezekiel 3:7, Margin).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Isaiah 48:1-8.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 48:4

I knew — Therefore I gave thee clearer demonstrations of my nature and providence, because I knew thou wast an unbelieving nation. Thy neck — Will not bow down to receive my yoke. Thy brow — Thou wast impudent.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 48:4

Because I knew that (e) thou [art] obstinate, and thy neck [is] an iron sinew, and thy brow brass;

(e) I have done for you more than I promised, that your stubbornness and impudency might have been overcome.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
I knew:

Isaiah 46:12 Hearken unto me, ye stouthearted, that [are] far from righteousness:
Psalms 78:8 And might not be as their fathers, a stubborn and rebellious generation; a generation [that] set not their heart aright, and whose spirit was not stedfast with God.
Zechariah 7:11-12 But they refused to hearken, and pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their ears, that they should not hear. ... Yea, they made their hearts [as] an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts hath sent in his spirit by the former prophets: therefore came a great wrath from the LORD of hosts.

obstinate:
Heb. hard,
Jeremiah 5:3 O LORD, [are] not thine eyes upon the truth? thou hast stricken them, but they have not grieved; thou hast consumed them, [but] they have refused to receive correction: they have made their faces harder than a rock; they have refused to return.
Ezekiel 3:4-7 And he said unto me, Son of man, go, get thee unto the house of Israel, and speak with my words unto them. ... But the house of Israel will not hearken unto thee; for they will not hearken unto me: for all the house of Israel [are] impudent and hardhearted.
Daniel 5:20 But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and they took his glory from him:
Romans 2:5 But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;
Hebrews 3:13 But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.
, and they,
Exodus 32:9 And the LORD said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it [is] a stiffnecked people:
Exodus 33:3 Unto a land flowing with milk and honey: for I will not go up in the midst of thee; for thou [art] a stiffnecked people: lest I consume thee in the way.
Exodus 33:5 For the LORD had said unto Moses, Say unto the children of Israel, Ye [are] a stiffnecked people: I will come up into the midst of thee in a moment, and consume thee: therefore now put off thy ornaments from thee, that I may know what to do unto thee.
Deuteronomy 10:16 Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked.
Deuteronomy 31:27 For I know thy rebellion, and thy stiff neck: behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the LORD; and how much more after my death?
2 Kings 17:14 Notwithstanding they would not hear, but hardened their necks, like to the neck of their fathers, that did not believe in the LORD their God.
2 Chronicles 30:8 Now be ye not stiffnecked, as your fathers [were, but] yield yourselves unto the LORD, and enter into his sanctuary, which he hath sanctified for ever: and serve the LORD your God, that the fierceness of his wrath may turn away from you.
2 Chronicles 36:13 And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto the LORD God of Israel.
Nehemiah 9:16-17 But they and our fathers dealt proudly, and hardened their necks, and hearkened not to thy commandments, ... And refused to obey, neither were mindful of thy wonders that thou didst among them; but hardened their necks, and in their rebellion appointed a captain to return to their bondage: but thou [art] a God ready to pardon, gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and forsookest them not.
Nehemiah 9:28 But after they had rest, they did evil again before thee: therefore leftest thou them in the hand of their enemies, so that they had the dominion over them: yet when they returned, and cried unto thee, thou heardest [them] from heaven; and many times didst thou deliver them according to thy mercies;
Psalms 75:5 Lift not up your horn on high: speak [not with] a stiff neck.
Proverbs 29:1 He, that being often reproved hardeneth [his] neck, shall suddenly be destroyed, and that without remedy.
Jeremiah 7:26 Yet they hearkened not unto me, nor inclined their ear, but hardened their neck: they did worse than their fathers.
Jeremiah 19:15 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will bring upon this city and upon all her towns all the evil that I have pronounced against it, because they have hardened their necks, that they might not hear my words.
Zechariah 7:12 Yea, they made their hearts [as] an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts hath sent in his spirit by the former prophets: therefore came a great wrath from the LORD of hosts.
Acts 7:51 Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers [did], so [do] ye.

thy brow:

Jeremiah 3:3 Therefore the showers have been withholden, and there hath been no latter rain; and thou hadst a whore's forehead, thou refusedst to be ashamed.
Ezekiel 3:7-9 But the house of Israel will not hearken unto thee; for they will not hearken unto me: for all the house of Israel [are] impudent and hardhearted. ... As an adamant harder than flint have I made thy forehead: fear them not, neither be dismayed at their looks, though they [be] a rebellious house.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 32:9; 33:3, 5. Dt 10:16; 31:27. 2K 17:14. 2Ch 30:8; 36:13. Ne 9:16, 28. Ps 75:5; 78:8. Pv 29:1. Is 46:12. Jr 3:3; 5:3; 7:26; 19:15. Ezk 3:4, 7. Dn 5:20. Zc 7:11, 12. Ac 7:51. Ro 2:5. He 3:13.

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