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Isaiah 44:18 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— They know not, neither do they consider: for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see; and their hearts, that they cannot understand.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— They have not known nor understood: for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see; [and] their hearts, that they cannot understand.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— They do not know, nor do they understand, for He has smeared over their eyes so that they cannot see and their hearts so that they cannot comprehend.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— They have not known nor understood: for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see; [and] their hearts, that they cannot understand.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— They have no knowledge, and understand not; for he hath plastered their eyes, that they may not see; and their hearts, that they may not understand.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— They have not taken note, neither can they perceive,—He hath besmeared—past seeing—their eyes, Past understanding, their hearts;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— They have not known, nor do they understand, For He hath daubed their eyes from seeing, Their heart from acting wisely.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— They have not known, nor understood: for their eyes are covered that they may not see, and that they may not understand with their heart.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— They haue not knowen, nor vnderstood: for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see; [and] their hearts, that they cannot vnderstand.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— They have no understanding to perceive; for they have been blinded so that they should not see with their eyes, nor perceive with their heart.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— They have not known nor understood: for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see; [and] their hearts, that they cannot understand.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
They have not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
known 3045
{3045} Prime
ידע
yada`
{yaw-dah'}
A primitive root; to know (properly to ascertain by seeing); used in a great variety of senses, figuratively, literally, euphemistically and inferentially (including observation, care, recognition; and causatively instruction, designation, punishment, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
nor x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
understood: 995
{0995} Prime
בִּין
biyn
{bene}
A primitive root; to separate mentally (or distinguish), that is, (generally) understand.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
he hath shut 2902
{2902} Prime
טוּחַ
tuwach
{too'-akh}
A primitive root; to smear, especially with lime.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
their eyes, 5869
{5869} Prime
עַיִן
`ayin
{ah'-yin}
Probably a primitive word; an eye (literally or figuratively); by analogy a fountain (as the eye of the landscape).
that they cannot see; 7200
{7200} Prime
רָאָה
ra'ah
{raw-aw'}
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
[and] their hearts, y3826
[3826] Standard
לִבָּה
libbah
{lib-baw'}
Feminine of H3820; the heart.
x3820
(3820) Complement
לֵב
leb
{labe}
A form of H3824; the heart; also used (figuratively) very widely for the feelings, the will and even the intellect; likewise for the centre of anything.
that they cannot understand. 7919
{7919} Prime
שָׂכַל
sakal
{saw-kal'}
A primitive root; to be (causeatively make or act) circumspect and hence intelligent.
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 44:18

_ _ he, etc. — God hath given them over to judicial blindness; not His direct physical, but His providential agency in administering His moral government, is meant (Isaiah 6:9, Isaiah 6:10). “Shut,” literally, “daubed,” plastered up; it is an Eastern custom in some cases to seal up the eyes of offenders.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Isaiah 44:9-20.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 44:18

Not known — This shews that they have not the understanding of a man. For he — God. Not as if God did make men wicked; he only permits them so to be, and orders, and over — rules their wickedness to his own glorious ends.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 44:18

They have not known nor understood: (y) for he hath shut their eyes, that they cannot see; [and] their hearts, that they cannot understand.

(y) The prophet gives here an answer to all them who wonder how it is possible that any would be so blind as to commit such abomination, saying that God has blinded their eyes, and hardened their hearts.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
have not:

Isaiah 44:9 They that make a graven image [are] all of them vanity; and their delectable things shall not profit; and they [are] their own witnesses; they see not, nor know; that they may be ashamed.
Isaiah 44:20 He feedeth on ashes: a deceived heart hath turned him aside, that he cannot deliver his soul, nor say, [Is there] not a lie in my right hand?
Isaiah 45:20 Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ye [that are] escaped of the nations: they have no knowledge that set up the wood of their graven image, and pray unto a god [that] cannot save.
Isaiah 46:7-8 They bear him upon the shoulder, they carry him, and set him in his place, and he standeth; from his place shall he not remove: yea, [one] shall cry unto him, yet can he not answer, nor save him out of his trouble. ... Remember this, and shew yourselves men: bring [it] again to mind, O ye transgressors.
Jeremiah 10:8 But they are altogether brutish and foolish: the stock [is] a doctrine of vanities.
Jeremiah 10:14 Every man is brutish in [his] knowledge: every founder is confounded by the graven image: for his molten image [is] falsehood, and [there is] no breath in them.
Romans 1:21-23 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified [him] not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. ... And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.

for he hath:

Isaiah 6:10 Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.
Isaiah 29:10 For the LORD hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes: the prophets and your rulers, the seers hath he covered.
Psalms 81:12 So I gave them up unto their own hearts' lust: [and] they walked in their own counsels.
Matthew 13:14-15 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive: ... For this people's heart is waxed gross, and [their] ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with [their] eyes, and hear with [their] ears, and should understand with [their] heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
Acts 14:16 Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.
Romans 1:28 And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
Romans 11:8-10 (According as it is written, God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day. ... Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway.
2 Corinthians 4:3-4 But if our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost: ... In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.
2 Thessalonians 2:9-12 [Even him], whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, ... That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

shut:
Heb. daubed

cannot:

Isaiah 56:11 Yea, [they are] greedy dogs [which] can never have enough, and they [are] shepherds [that] cannot understand: they all look to their own way, every one for his gain, from his quarter.
Psalms 92:6 A brutish man knoweth not; neither doth a fool understand this.
Proverbs 2:5-9 Then shalt thou understand the fear of the LORD, and find the knowledge of God. ... Then shalt thou understand righteousness, and judgment, and equity; [yea], every good path.
Proverbs 28:5 Evil men understand not judgment: but they that seek the LORD understand all [things].
Jeremiah 5:21 Hear now this, O foolish people, and without understanding; which have eyes, and see not; which have ears, and hear not:
Daniel 12:10 Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand.
Hosea 14:9 Who [is] wise, and he shall understand these [things]? prudent, and he shall know them? for the ways of the LORD [are] right, and the just shall walk in them: but the transgressors shall fall therein.
Matthew 12:34 O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.
John 5:44 How can ye believe, which receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour that [cometh] from God only?
John 8:43 Why do ye not understand my speech? [even] because ye cannot hear my word.
John 12:39-40 Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again, ... He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with [their] eyes, nor understand with [their] heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.
2 Peter 2:14 Having eyes full of adultery, and that cannot cease from sin; beguiling unstable souls: an heart they have exercised with covetous practices; cursed children:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ps 81:12; 92:6. Pv 2:5; 28:5. Is 6:10; 29:10; 44:9, 20; 45:20; 46:7; 56:11. Jr 5:21; 10:8, 14. Dn 12:10. Ho 14:9. Mt 12:34; 13:14. Jn 5:44; 8:43; 12:39. Ac 14:16. Ro 1:21, 28; 11:8. 2Co 4:3. 2Th 2:9. 2P 2:14.

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