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Isaiah 40:2 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem; and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned, that she hath received of Jehovah's hand double for all her sins.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned: for she hath received of the LORD'S hand double for all her sins.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “Speak kindly to Jerusalem; And call out to her, that her warfare has ended, That her iniquity has been removed, That she has received of the LORD’S hand Double for all her sins.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry to her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned: for she hath received from the LORD'S hand double for all her sins.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Speak to the heart of Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her time of suffering is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned; for she hath received of Jehovah's hand double for all her sins.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Speak ye unto the heart of Jerusalem, And cry unto her,—That accomplished, is her warfare, That accepted, is her punishment,—That she hath received, at the hand of Yahweh, According to the full measure of all her sins.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Speak to the heart of Jerusalem, and call to her, That her warfare hath been completed, That accepted hath been her punishment, That she hath received from the hand of Jehovah Double for all her sins.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Speak ye to the heart of Jerusalem, and call to her: for her evil is come to an end, her iniquity is forgiven: she hath received of the hand of the Lord double for all her sins.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Speake ye comfortably to Ierusalem, and cry vnto her, that her warrefare is accomplished, that her iniquitie is pardoned: for shee hath receiued of the LORDS hand double for all her sinnes.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Speak, ye priests, to the heart of Jerusalem; comfort her, for her humiliation is accomplished, her sin is put away: for she has received of the Lord's hand double [the amount of] her sins.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Speak ye comfortably to Yerushalaim, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned: for she hath received of Yahweh's hand double for all her sins.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Speak 1696
{1696} Prime
דִּבֵּר
dabar
{daw-bar'}
A primitive root; perhaps properly to arrange; but used figuratively (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue.
z8761
<8761> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 446
ye comfortably 3820
{3820} Prime
לֵב
leb
{labe}
A form of H3824; the heart; also used (figuratively) very widely for the feelings, the will and even the intellect; likewise for the centre of anything.
x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
to Yrlaim יְרוּשָׁלִַם, 3389
{3389} Prime
יְרוּשָׁלִַם
Y@ruwshalaim
{yer-oo-shaw-lah'-im}
A dual (in allusion to its two main hills (the true pointing, at least of the former reading, seems to be that of H3390)); probably from (the passive participle of) H3384 and H7999; founded peaceful; Jerushalaim or Jerushalem, the capital city of Palestine.
and cry 7121
{7121} Prime
קָרָא
qara'
{kaw-raw'}
A primitive root (rather identical with H7122 through the idea of accosting a person met); to call out to (that is, properly address by name, but used in a wide variety of applications).
z8798
<8798> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 2847
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
her, that x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
her warfare 6635
{6635} Prime
צָבָא
tsaba'
{tsaw-baw'}
From H6633; a mass of persons (or figurative things), especially regularly organized for war (an army); by implication a campaign, literally or figuratively (specifically hardship, worship).
is accomplished, 4390
{4390} Prime
מָלֵא
male'
{maw-lay'}
A primitive root, to fill or (intransitively) be full of, in a wide application (literally and figuratively).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
that x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
her iniquity 5771
{5771} Prime
עָוֹן
`avon
{aw-vone'}
From H5753; perversity, that is, (moral) evil.
is pardoned: 7521
{7521} Prime
רָצָה
ratsah
{raw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to be pleased with; specifically to satisfy a debt.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
she hath received 3947
{3947} Prime
לָקַח
laqach
{law-kakh'}
A primitive root; to take (in the widest variety of applications).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
of Yhw's יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
hand 3027
{3027} Prime
יָד
yad
{yawd}
A primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from H3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
double 3718
{3718} Prime
כֶּפֶל
kephel
{keh'-fel}
From H3717; a duplicate.
for all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
her sins. 2403
{2403} Prime
חַטָּאָה
chatta'ah
{khat-taw-aw'}
From H2398; an offence (sometimes habitual sinfulness), and its penalty, occasion, sacrifice, or expiation; also (concretely) an offender.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 40:2

_ _ comfortably — literally, “to the heart”; not merely to the intellect.

_ _ Jerusalem — Jerusalem though then in ruins, regarded by God as about to be rebuilt; her people are chiefly meant, but the city is personified.

_ _ cry — publicly and emphatically as a herald cries aloud (Isaiah 40:3).

_ _ warfare — or, the appointed time of her misery (Job 7:1, Margin; Job 14:14; Daniel 10:1). The ulterior and Messianic reference probably is the definite time when the legal economy of burdensome rites is at an end (Galatians 4:3, Galatians 4:4).

_ _ pardoned — The Hebrew expresses that her iniquity is so expiated that God now delights in restoring her.

_ _ double for all her sins — This can only, in a very restricted sense, hold good of Judah’s restoration after the first captivity. For how can it be said her “warfare was accomplished,” when as yet the galling yoke of Antiochus and also of Rome was before them? The “double for her sins” must refer to the twofold captivity, the Assyrian and the Roman; at the coming close of this latter dispersion, and then only, can her “iniquity” be said to be “pardoned,” or fully expiated [Houbigant]. It does not mean double as much as she deserved, but ample punishment in her twofold captivity. Messiah is the antitypical Israel (compare Matthew 2:15, with Hosea 11:1). He indeed has “received” of sufferings amply more than enough to expiate “for our sins” (Romans 5:15, Romans 5:17). Otherwise (cry unto her) “that she shall receive (blessings) of the Lord’s hand double to the punishment of all her sins” (so “sin” is used, Zechariah 14:19, Margin) [Lowth]. The English Version is simpler.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Isaiah 40:1-2.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 40:2

Warfare — The time of her captivity, and misery. Double — Not twice as much as her sins deserved, but abundantly enough to answer God's design in this chastisement, which was to humble and reform them, and to warn others by their example.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 40:2

Speak ye kindly to Jerusalem, and cry to her, that her (b) warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned: for she hath received from the LORD'S hand (c) double for all her sins.

(b) The time of her affliction.

(c) Meaning, sufficient as in (Isaiah 61:7) and full correction, or double grace, while she deserved double punishment.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
comfortably:
Heb. to the heart,
Genesis 34:3 And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake kindly unto the damsel.
2 Chronicles 30:22 And Hezekiah spake comfortably unto all the Levites that taught the good knowledge of the LORD: and they did eat throughout the feast seven days, offering peace offerings, and making confession to the LORD God of their fathers.
Hosea 2:14 Therefore, behold, I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak comfortably unto her.
*marg.

warfare:
or, appointed time,
Psalms 102:13-28 Thou shalt arise, [and] have mercy upon Zion: for the time to favour her, yea, the set time, is come. ... The children of thy servants shall continue, and their seed shall be established before thee.
Song of Songs 2:11-13 For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over [and] gone; ... The fig tree putteth forth her green figs, and the vines [with] the tender grape give a [good] smell. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away.
Jeremiah 29:11 For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the LORD, thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end.
Daniel 9:2 In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.
Daniel 9:24-27 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. ... And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
Daniel 11:35 And [some] of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make [them] white, [even] to the time of the end: because [it is] yet for a time appointed.
Daniel 12:4 But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, [even] to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.
Daniel 12:9 And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words [are] closed up and sealed till the time of the end.
Habakkuk 2:3 For the vision [is] yet for an appointed time, but at the end it shall speak, and not lie: though it tarry, wait for it; because it will surely come, it will not tarry.
Acts 1:7 And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power.
Galatians 4:4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,
Revelation 6:10-11 And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? ... And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they [were], should be fulfilled.
Revelation 11:15-18 And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become [the kingdoms] of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever. ... And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

that her iniquity:

Isaiah 12:1 And in that day thou shalt say, O LORD, I will praise thee: though thou wast angry with me, thine anger is turned away, and thou comfortedst me.
Isaiah 33:24 And the inhabitant shall not say, I am sick: the people that dwell therein [shall be] forgiven [their] iniquity.
Isaiah 43:25 I, [even] I, [am] he that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake, and will not remember thy sins.
Isaiah 44:22 I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions, and, as a cloud, thy sins: return unto me; for I have redeemed thee.
Isaiah 61:7 For your shame [ye shall have] double; and [for] confusion they shall rejoice in their portion: therefore in their land they shall possess the double: everlasting joy shall be unto them.
Psalms 32:1 [[[A Psalm] of David, Maschil.]] Blessed [is he whose] transgression [is] forgiven, [whose] sin [is] covered.
Jeremiah 31:33-34 But this [shall be] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. ... And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.
Jeremiah 33:8-9 And I will cleanse them from all their iniquity, whereby they have sinned against me; and I will pardon all their iniquities, whereby they have sinned, and whereby they have transgressed against me. ... And it shall be to me a name of joy, a praise and an honour before all the nations of the earth, which shall hear all the good that I do unto them: and they shall fear and tremble for all the goodness and for all the prosperity that I procure unto it.
1 Corinthians 6:9-11 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, ... And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.

double:

Isaiah 61:7 For your shame [ye shall have] double; and [for] confusion they shall rejoice in their portion: therefore in their land they shall possess the double: everlasting joy shall be unto them.
Job 42:10-12 And the LORD turned the captivity of Job, when he prayed for his friends: also the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before. ... So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning: for he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she asses.
Jeremiah 16:18 And first I will recompense their iniquity and their sin double; because they have defiled my land, they have filled mine inheritance with the carcases of their detestable and abominable things.
Jeremiah 17:18 Let them be confounded that persecute me, but let not me be confounded: let them be dismayed, but let not me be dismayed: bring upon them the day of evil, and destroy them with double destruction.
Daniel 9:12 And he hath confirmed his words, which he spake against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil: for under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem.
Zechariah 1:15 And I am very sore displeased with the heathen [that are] at ease: for I was but a little displeased, and they helped forward the affliction.
Zechariah 9:12 Turn you to the strong hold, ye prisoners of hope: even to day do I declare [that] I will render double unto thee;
Revelation 18:6 Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 34:3. 2Ch 30:22. Jb 42:10. Ps 32:1; 102:13. So 2:11. Is 12:1; 33:24; 43:25; 44:22; 61:7. Jr 16:18; 17:18; 29:11; 31:33; 33:8. Dn 9:2, 12, 24; 11:35; 12:4, 9. Ho 2:14. Hab 2:3. Zc 1:15; 9:12. Ac 1:7. 1Co 6:9. Ga 4:4. Rv 6:10; 11:15; 18:6.

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