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Isaiah 36:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, [that] Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the defenced cities of Judah, and took them.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah, Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and seized them.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, [that] Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now it came to pass, in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up, against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass, in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, come up hath Sennacherib king of Asshur against all the fenced cities of Judah, and seizeth them.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Ezechias, that Sennacherib king of the Assyrians came up against all the fenced cities of Juda, and took them.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Nowe it came to passe in the fourteenth yeere of king Hezekiah, [that] Sennacherib king of Assyria came vp against all the defenced cities of Iudah, and tooke them.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of the reign of Hezekiah{gr.Ezekias}, [that] Sennacherib{gr.Sennacherim}, king of the Assyrians, came up against the strong cities of Judah{gr.Judea}, and took them.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Chizqiyyah, [that] Sancheriv king of Ashshur came up against all the defenced cities of Yehudah, and took them.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now it came to pass x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
in the fourteenth 702
{0702} Prime
אַרְבַּע
'arba`
{ar-bah'}
The second form is the masculine form; from H7251; four.
6240
{6240} Prime
עָשָׂר
`asar
{aw-sawr'}
For H6235; ten (only in combination), that is, the 'teens'; also (ordinal) a 'teenth'.
year 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
of king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
izkiyy חִזקִיָּה, 2396
{2396} Prime
חִזְקִיָּה
Chizqiyah
{khiz-kee-yaw'}
From H2388 and H3050; strengthened of Jah; Chizkijah, a king of Judah, also the name of two other Israelites.
[that] Sanrv סַנחֵרִיב 5576
{5576} Prime
סַנְחֵרִיב
Cancheriyb
{san-khay-reeb'}
Of foreign origin; Sancherib, an Assyrian king.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of Ar אַשּׁוּר 804
{0804} Prime
אַשּׁוּר
'Ashshuwr
{ash-shoor'}
Apparently from H0833 (in the sense of successful); Ashshur, the second son of Shem; also his descendants and the country occupied by them (that is, Assyria), its region and its empire.
came up 5927
{5927} Prime
עָלָה
`alah
{aw-law'}
A primitive root; to ascend, intransitively (be high) or active (mount); used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
against x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the defenced 1219
{1219} Prime
בָּצַר
batsar
{baw-tsar'}
A primitive root; to clip off; specifically (as denominative from H1210) to gather grapes; also to be isolated (that is, inaccessible by height or fortification).
z8803
<8803> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Passive (See H8815)
Count - 1415
cities 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
of Yh יְהוּדָה, 3063
{3063} Prime
יְהוּדָה
Y@huwdah
{yeh-hoo-daw'}
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
and took 8610
{8610} Prime
תָּפַשׂ
taphas
{taw-fas'}
A primitive root; to manipulate, that is, seize; chiefly to capture, wield; specifically to overlay; figuratively to use unwarrantably.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
them.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 36:1

_ _ Isaiah 36:1-22. Sennacherib’s invasion; Blasphemous solicitations; Hezekiah is told of them.

_ _ This and the thirty-seventh through thirty-ninth chapters form the historical appendix closing the first division of Isaiah’s prophecies, and were added to make the parts of these referring to Assyria more intelligible. So Jeremiah 52:1-34; compare 2 Kings 25:1-30. The section occurs almost word for word (2 Kings 18:13, 2 Kings 18:17-20; 2 Kings 19:1-37); 2 Kings 18:14-16, however, is additional matter. Hezekiah’s “writing” also is in Isaiah, not in Kings (Isaiah 38:9-20). We know from 2 Chronicles 32:32 that Isaiah wrote the acts of Hezekiah. It is, therefore, probable, that his record here (Isaiah 36:1-39:8) was incorporated into the Book of Kings by its compiler. Sennacherib lived, according to Assyrian inscriptions, more than twenty years after his invasion; but as Isaiah survived Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 32:32), who lived upwards of fifteen years after the invasion (Isaiah 38:5), the record of Sennacherib’s death (Isaiah 37:38) is no objection to this section having come from Isaiah; 2 Chronicles 32:1-33 is probably an abstract drawn from Isaiah’s account, as the chronicler himself implies (2 Chronicles 32:32). Pul was probably the last of the old dynasty, and Sargon, a powerful satrap, who contrived to possess himself of supreme power and found a new dynasty (see on Isaiah 20:1). No attempt was made by Judah to throw off the Assyrian yoke during his vigorous reign. The accession of his son Sennacherib was thought by Hezekiah the opportune time to refuse the long-paid tribute; Egypt and Ethiopia, to secure an ally against Assyria on their Asiatic frontier, promised help; Isaiah, while opposed to submission to Assyria, advised reliance on Jehovah, and not on Egypt, but his advice was disregarded, and so Sennacherib invaded Judea, 712 b.c. He was the builder of the largest of the excavated palaces, that of Koyunjik. Hincks has deciphered his name in the inscriptions. In the third year of his reign, these state that he overran Syria, took Sidon and other Phoenician cities, and then passed to southwest Palestine, where he defeated the Egyptians and Ethiopians (compare 2 Kings 18:21; 2 Kings 19:9). His subsequent retreat, after his host was destroyed by God, is of course suppressed in the inscriptions. But other particulars inscribed agree strikingly with the Bible; the capture of the “defensed cities of Judah,” the devastation of the country and deportation of its inhabitants; the increased tribute imposed on Hezekiah — thirty talents of gold — this exact number being given in both; the silver is set down in the inscriptions at eight hundred talents, in the Bible three hundred; the latter may have been the actual amount carried off, the larger sum may include the silver from the temple doors, pillars, etc. (2 Kings 18:16).

_ _ fourteenth — the third of Sennacherib’s reign. His ultimate object was Egypt, Hezekiah’s ally. Hence he, with the great body of his army (2 Chronicles 32:9), advanced towards the Egyptian frontier, in southwest Palestine, and did not approach Jerusalem.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 36:1-10

_ _ We shall here only observe some practical lessons. 1. A people may be in the way of their duty and yet meet with trouble and distress. Hezekiah was reforming, and his people were in some measure reformed; and yet their country is at that time invaded and a great part of it laid waste. Perhaps they began to grow remiss and cool in the work of reformation, were doing it by halves, and ready to sit down short of a thorough reformation; and then God visited them with this judgment, to put life into them and that good cause. We must not wonder if, when we are doing well, God sends afflictions to quicken us to do better, to do our best, and to press forward towards perfection. 2. That we must never be secure of the continuance of our peace in this world, nor think our mountain stands so strong that it cannot be moved. Hezekiah was not only a pious king, but prudent, both in his administration at home and in his treaties abroad. His affairs were in a good posture, and he seemed particularly to be upon good terms with the king of Assyria, for he had lately made his peace with him by a rich present (2 Kings 18:14), and yet that perfidious prince pours an army into his country all of a sudden and lays it waste. It is good for us therefore always to keep up an expectation of trouble, that, when it comes, it may be no surprise to us, and then it will be the less a terror. 3. God sometimes permits the enemies of his people, even those that are most impious and treacherous, to prevail far against them. The king of Assyria took all, or most, of the defenced cities of Judah, and then the country would of course be an easy prey to him. Wickedness may prosper awhile, but cannot prosper always. 4. Proud men love to talk big, to boast of what they are, and have, and have done, nay and of what they will do, to insult over others, and set all mankind at defiance, though thereby they render themselves ridiculous to all wise men and obnoxious to the wrath of that God who resists the proud. But thus they think to make themselves feared, though they make themselves hated, and to carry their point by great swelling words of vanity, Jude 1:16. 5. The enemies of God's people endeavour to conquer them by frightening them, especially by frightening them from their confidence in God. Thus Rabshakeh here, with noise and banter, runs down Hezekiah as utterly unable to cope with his master, or in the least to make head against him. It concerns us therefore, that we may keep our ground against the enemies of our souls, to keep up our spirits by keeping up our hope in God. 6. It is acknowledged, on all hands, that those who forsake God's service forfeit his protection. If that had been true which Rabshakeh alleged, that Hezekiah had thrown down God's altars, he might justly infer that he could not with any assurance trust in him for succour and relief, Isaiah 36:7, We may say thus to presuming sinners, who say that they trust in the Lord and in his mercy. Is not this he whose commandments they have lived in the contempt of, whose name they have dishonoured, and whose ordinances they have slighted? How then can they expect to find favour with him? 7. It is an easy thing, and very common, for those that persecute the church and people of God to pretend a commission from him for so doing. Rabshakeh could say, Have I now come up without the Lord? when really he had come up against the Lord, Isaiah 37:28. Those that kill the servants of the Lord think they do him service and say, Let the Lord be glorified. But, sooner or later, they will be made to know their error to their cost, to their confusion.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 36:1

Now it came to pass (a) in the (b) fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, [that] Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them.

(a) This history is rehearsed because it is as a seal and confirmation of the doctrine before, both for the threatenings and promises: that is, that God would permit his Church to be afflicted, but at length would send deliverance.

(b) When he had abolished superstition, and idolatry, and restored religion, yet God would exercise his Church to try their faith and patience.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
it came:

2 Kings 18:13 Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them.
2 Kings 18:17 And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which [is] in the highway of the fuller's field.
2 Chronicles 32:1 After these things, and the establishment thereof, Sennacherib king of Assyria came, and entered into Judah, and encamped against the fenced cities, and thought to win them for himself.

that Sennacherib:

Isaiah 1:7-8 Your country [is] desolate, your cities [are] burned with fire: your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and [it is] desolate, as overthrown by strangers. ... And the daughter of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, as a besieged city.
Isaiah 7:17 The LORD shall bring upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house, days that have not come, from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah; [even] the king of Assyria.
Isaiah 8:7-8 Now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, [even] the king of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks: ... And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over, he shall reach [even] to the neck; and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel.
Isaiah 10:28-32 He is come to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Michmash he hath laid up his carriages: ... As yet shall he remain at Nob that day: he shall shake his hand [against] the mount of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem.
Isaiah 33:7-8 Behold, their valiant ones shall cry without: the ambassadors of peace shall weep bitterly. ... The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man ceaseth: he hath broken the covenant, he hath despised the cities, he regardeth no man.
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2K 18:13, 17. 2Ch 32:1. Is 1:7; 7:17; 8:7; 10:28; 33:7.

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