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Isaiah 30:28 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— and his breath is as an overflowing stream, that reacheth even unto the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of destruction: and a bridle that causeth to err [shall be] in the jaws of the peoples.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And his breath, as an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and [there shall be] a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing [them] to err.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— His breath is like an overflowing torrent, Which reaches to the neck, To shake the nations back and forth in a sieve, And to [put] in the jaws of the peoples the bridle which leads to ruin.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And his breath, as an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and [there shall be] a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing [them] to err.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— and his breath as an overflowing torrent, which reacheth even to the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of destruction, and [to put] a bridle into the jaws of the peoples, that causeth them to go astray.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, his breath, like an overflowing torrent, even unto the neck, doth reach, To sift nations, with a sieve of calamity,—A bridle leading to ruin, being upon the jaws of the peoples.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And His breath [is] as an overflowing stream, Unto the neck it divideth, To sift nations with a sieve of vanity, And a bridle causing to err, [Is] on the jaws of the peoples.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— His breath as a torrent overflowing even to the midst of the neck, to destroy the nations unto nothing, and the bridle of error that was in the jaws of the people.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And his breath as an ouerflowing streame, shall reach to the midst of the necke, to sift the nations with the sieue of vanitie: and [there shalbe] a bridle in the iawes of the people causing [them] to erre.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And his breath, as rushing water in a valley, shall reach as far as the neck, and be divided, to confound the nations for [their] vain error: error also shall pursue them, and overtake them.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And his breath, as an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and [there shall be] a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing [them] to err.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And his breath, 7307
{7307} Prime
רוּחַ
ruwach
{roo'-akh}
From H7306; wind; by resemblance breath, that is, a sensible (or even violent) exhalation; figuratively life, anger, unsubstantiality; by extension a region of the sky; by resemblance spirit, but only of a rational being (including its expression and functions).
as an overflowing 7857
{7857} Prime
שָׁטַף
shataph
{shaw-taf'}
A primitive root; to gush; by implication to inundate, cleanse; by analogy to gallop, conquer.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
stream, 5158
{5158} Prime
נַחַל
nachal
{nakh'-al}
From H5157 in its original sense; a stream, especially a winter torrent; (by implication) a (narrow) valley (in which a brook runs); also a shaft (of a mine).
shall reach to the midst 2673
{2673} Prime
חָצָה
chatsah
{khaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root (compare H2686); to cut or split in two; to halve.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
of x5704
(5704) Complement
עַד
`ad
{ad}
Properly the same as H5703 (used as a preposition, adverb or conjugation; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with).
the neck, 6677
{6677} Prime
צַוָּאר
tsavva'r
{tsav-vawr'}
Intensive from H6696 in the sense of binding; the back of the neck (as that on which burdens are bound).
to sift 5130
{5130} Prime
נוּף
nuwph
{noof}
A primitive root; to quiver (that is, vibrate up and down, or rock to and fro); used in a great variety of applications (including sprinkling, beckoning, rubbing, bastinadoing, sawing, waving, etc.).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
the nations 1471
{1471} Prime
גּוֹי
gowy
{go'-ee}
Apparently from the same root as H1465 (in the sense of massing); a foreign nation; hence a Gentile; also (figuratively) a troop of animals, or a flight of locusts.
with the sieve 5299
{5299} Prime
נָפָה
naphah
{naw-faw'}
From H5130 in the sense of lifting; a height; also a sieve.
of vanity: 7723
{7723} Prime
שָׁוְא
shav'
{shawv}
From the same as H7722 in the sense of desolating; evil (as destructive), literally (ruin) or morally (especially guile); figuratively idolatry (as false, subjectively), uselessness (as deceptive, objectively; also adverbially in vain).
and [there shall be] a bridle 7448
{7448} Prime
רֶסֶן
recen
{reh'-sen}
From an unused root meaning to curb; a halter (as restraining); by implication the jaw.
in x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the jaws 3895
{3895} Prime
לְחִי
l@chiy
{lekh-ee'}
From an unused root meaning to be soft; the cheek (from its fleshiness); hence the jaw bone.
of the people, 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
causing [them] to err. 8582
{8582} Prime
תָּעָה
ta`ah
{taw-aw'}
A primitive root; to vacillate, that is, reel or stray (literally or figuratively); also causatively of both.
z8688
<8688> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 857
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 30:28

_ _ (Isaiah 11:4; 2 Thessalonians 2:8).

_ _ reach ... neck — the most extreme danger; yet as the head, or capital of Judah, was to be spared (Isaiah 8:8), so the head, or sovereign of Assyria, Sennacherib, should escape.

_ _ sieve of vanity — Rather, “the winnowing fan of destruction” [Lowth] (Isaiah 41:16).

_ _ bridle in ... jaws — as prisoners are represented in the Assyrian inscriptions (Isaiah 37:29).

_ _ causing ... to err — (Isaiah 63:17). “People,” Hebrew, “peoples,” namely, the various races composing the Assyrian armies (Isaiah 5:26).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Isaiah 30:27-33.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 30:28

His breath — God's anger. A stream — Coming from him as vehemently, as a mighty torrent of waters. To sift — To shake and scatter, as it were with a sieve. The nations — The Assyrian army, which was made up of several nations. With — Not with an ordinary sieve, which casteth away the chaff only, but with a sieve, which should shake them so long and so vehemently, as to cast away altogether. A bridle — God will over — rule them by his powerful providence. To err — Whereas other bridles guide into the right way, this shall turn them out of the way, by giving them up to their own foolish counsels, which shall bring them to certain ruin.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 30:28

And his breath, as an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of (a) vanity: and [there shall be] a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing [them] to err.

(a) To drive you to nothing: and thus God consumes the wicked by that means, by which he cleanses his.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
his breath:

Isaiah 11:4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
Psalms 18:15 Then the channels of waters were seen, and the foundations of the world were discovered at thy rebuke, O LORD, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils.
Luke 22:31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired [to have] you, that he may sift [you] as wheat:
2 Thessalonians 2:8 And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming:
Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God [is] quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and [is] a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
Revelation 1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance [was] as the sun shineth in his strength.
Revelation 2:16 Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of my mouth.

an overflowing:

Isaiah 8:8 And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over, he shall reach [even] to the neck; and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel.
Isaiah 28:17-18 Judgment also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place. ... And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with hell shall not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down by it.
Isaiah 29:6 Thou shalt be visited of the LORD of hosts with thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, with storm and tempest, and the flame of devouring fire.
Habakkuk 3:12-15 Thou didst march through the land in indignation, thou didst thresh the heathen in anger. ... Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses, [through] the heap of great waters.

to sift:
Bp. Lowth renders, "to toss the nations with the van of perdition;" that is, says Kimchi nothing useful shall remain behind, but all shall come to nothing and perish. The van of the ancients was a large instrument, somewhat like a shovel, with a long handle, with which they tossed the corn mixed with the chaff and chopped straw into the air, that the wind might separate them.
Isaiah 19:12 Where [are] they? where [are] thy wise [men]? and let them tell thee now, and let them know what the LORD of hosts hath purposed upon Egypt.
Isaiah 19:14 The LORD hath mingled a perverse spirit in the midst thereof: and they have caused Egypt to err in every work thereof, as a drunken [man] staggereth in his vomit.
Isaiah 33:10-12 Now will I rise, saith the LORD; now will I be exalted; now will I lift up myself. ... And the people shall be [as] the burnings of lime: [as] thorns cut up shall they be burned in the fire.
Hosea 13:3 Therefore they shall be as the morning cloud, and as the early dew that passeth away, as the chaff [that] is driven with the whirlwind out of the floor, and as the smoke out of the chimney.
Amos 9:9 For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, like as [corn] is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth.
Matthew 3:12 Whose fan [is] in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.

a bridle:

Isaiah 37:29 Because thy rage against me, and thy tumult, is come up into mine ears, therefore will I put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou camest.
2 Kings 19:28 Because thy rage against me and thy tumult is come up into mine ears, therefore I will put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou camest.
Psalms 32:9 Be ye not as the horse, [or] as the mule, [which] have no understanding: whose mouth must be held in with bit and bridle, lest they come near unto thee.
Proverbs 26:3 A whip for the horse, a bridle for the ass, and a rod for the fool's back.

causing:

Isaiah 19:3 And the spirit of Egypt shall fail in the midst thereof; and I will destroy the counsel thereof: and they shall seek to the idols, and to the charmers, and to them that have familiar spirits, and to the wizards.
Isaiah 19:13-14 The princes of Zoan are become fools, the princes of Noph are deceived; they have also seduced Egypt, [even they that are] the stay of the tribes thereof. ... The LORD hath mingled a perverse spirit in the midst thereof: and they have caused Egypt to err in every work thereof, as a drunken [man] staggereth in his vomit.
2 Samuel 17:14 And Absalom and all the men of Israel said, The counsel of Hushai the Archite [is] better than the counsel of Ahithophel. For the LORD had appointed to defeat the good counsel of Ahithophel, to the intent that the LORD might bring evil upon Absalom.
1 Kings 22:20-22 And the LORD said, Who shall persuade Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramothgilead? And one said on this manner, and another said on that manner. ... And the LORD said unto him, Wherewith? And he said, I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And he said, Thou shalt persuade [him], and prevail also: go forth, and do so.
Job 39:17 Because God hath deprived her of wisdom, neither hath he imparted to her understanding.
Ezekiel 14:7-9 For every one of the house of Israel, or of the stranger that sojourneth in Israel, which separateth himself from me, and setteth up his idols in his heart, and putteth the stumblingblock of his iniquity before his face, and cometh to a prophet to enquire of him concerning me; I the LORD will answer him by myself: ... And if the prophet be deceived when he hath spoken a thing, I the LORD have deceived that prophet, and I will stretch out my hand upon him, and will destroy him from the midst of my people Israel.
2 Thessalonians 2:11 And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie:
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2S 17:14. 1K 22:20. 2K 19:28. Jb 39:17. Ps 18:15; 32:9. Pv 26:3. Is 8:8; 11:4; 19:3, 12, 13, 14; 28:17; 29:6; 33:10; 37:29. Ezk 14:7. Ho 13:3. Am 9:9. Hab 3:12. Mt 3:12. Lk 22:31. 2Th 2:8, 11. He 4:12. Rv 1:16; 2:16.

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