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Isaiah 30:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Woe to the rebellious children, saith Jehovah, that take counsel, but not of me; and that make a league, but not of my Spirit, that they may add sin to sin,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Woe to the rebellious children, saith the LORD, that take counsel, but not of me; and that cover with a covering, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “Woe to the rebellious children,” declares the LORD, “Who execute a plan, but not Mine, And make an alliance, but not of My Spirit, In order to add sin to sin;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Woe to the rebellious children, saith the LORD, that take counsel, but not from me; and that cover with a covering, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Woe to the rebellious children, saith Jehovah, who take counsel, but not of me, and who make leagues, but not by my Spirit, that they may heap sin upon sin;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Alas! for sons who are rebellious, Declareth Yahweh. Executing a purpose, but not from me, And pouring out a libation, but not from my spirit,—That they may add sin to sin:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Woe [to] apostate sons, The affirmation of Jehovah! To do counsel, and not from Me, And to spread out a covering, and not of My spirit, So as to add sin to sin.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Woe to you, apostate children, saith the Lord, that you would take counsel, and not of me: and would begin a web, and not by my spirit, that you might add sin upon sin:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Woe to the rebellious children, sayth the LORD, that take counsell, but not of mee; and that couer with a couering, but not of my Spirit, that they may adde sinne to sinne:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Woe to the apostate children, saith the Lord: ye have framed counsel, not by me, and covenants not by my Spirit, to add sins to sins:
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Woe to the rebellious children, saith Yahweh, that take counsel, but not of me; and that cover with a covering, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin:

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Woe 1945
{1945} Prime
הוֹי
howy
{hoh'ee}
A prolonged form of H1930 (akin to H0188); oh!.
to the rebellious 5637
{5637} Prime
סָרַר
carar
{saw-rar'}
A primitive root; to turn away, that is, (morally) be refractory.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
children, 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
saith 5002
{5002} Prime
נְאֻם
n@'um
{neh-oom'}
From H5001; an oracle.
z8803
<8803> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Passive (See H8815)
Count - 1415
Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
that take 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
counsel, 6098
{6098} Prime
עֵצָה
`etsah
{ay-tsaw'}
From H3289; advice; by implication plan; also prudence.
but not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
of x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
me; and that cover 5258
{5258} Prime
נָסַךְ
nacak
{naw-sak'}
A primitive root; to pour out, especially a libation, or to cast (metal); by analogy to anoint a king.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
with a covering, 4541
{4541} Prime
מַסֵּכָה
maccekah
{mas-say-kaw'}
From H5258; properly a pouring over, that is, fusion of metal (especially a cast image); by implication a libation, that is, league; concretely a coverlet (as if poured out).
but not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
of my spirit, 7307
{7307} Prime
רוּחַ
ruwach
{roo'-akh}
From H7306; wind; by resemblance breath, that is, a sensible (or even violent) exhalation; figuratively life, anger, unsubstantiality; by extension a region of the sky; by resemblance spirit, but only of a rational being (including its expression and functions).
that x4616
(4616) Complement
לְמַעַן
ma`an
{mah'-an}
From H6030; properly heed, that is, purpose; used only adverbially, on account of (as a motive or an aim), teleologically in order that.
they may add 5595
{5595} Prime
סָפָה
caphah
{saw-faw'}
A primitive root; properly to scrape (literally to shave; but usually figuratively) together (that is, to accumulate or increase) or away (that is, to scatter, remove or ruin; intransitively to perish).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
sin 2403
{2403} Prime
חַטָּאָה
chatta'ah
{khat-taw-aw'}
From H2398; an offence (sometimes habitual sinfulness), and its penalty, occasion, sacrifice, or expiation; also (concretely) an offender.
to x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
sin: 2403
{2403} Prime
חַטָּאָה
chatta'ah
{khat-taw-aw'}
From H2398; an offence (sometimes habitual sinfulness), and its penalty, occasion, sacrifice, or expiation; also (concretely) an offender.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 30:1

_ _ Isaiah 30:1-32. The thirtieth through thirty-second chapters refer probably to the summer of 714 b.c., as the twenty-nith to the Passover of that year.

_ _ Jewish ambassadors were now on their way to Egypt to seek aid against Assyria (Isaiah 30:2-6, Isaiah 30:15; Isaiah 31:1). Isaiah denounces this reliance on Egypt rather than on Jehovah. God had prohibited such alliances with heathen nations, and it was a leading part of Jewish polity that they should be a separate people (Exodus 23:32; Deuteronomy 7:2).

_ _ take counsel — rather, as Isaiah 30:4, Isaiah 30:6 imply, “execute counsels.”

_ _ cover ... covering — that is, wrap themselves in reliances disloyal towards Jehovah. “Cover” thus answers to “seek to hide deeply their counsel from the Lord” (Isaiah 29:15). But the Hebrew is literally, “who pour out libations”; as it was by these that leagues were made (Exodus 24:8; Zechariah 9:11), translate, “who make a league.”

_ _ not of — not suggested by My Spirit” (Numbers 27:21; Joshua 9:14).

_ _ that they may add — The consequence is here spoken of as their intention, so reckless were they of sinning: one sin entails the commission of another (Deuteronomy 29:19).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 30:1-7

_ _ It was often the fault and folly of the people of the Jews that, when they were insulted by their neighbours on one side, they sought for succour from their neighbours on the other side, instead of looking up to God and putting their confidence in him. Against the Israelites they sought to the Syrians, 2 Chronicles 16:2, 2 Chronicles 16:3. Against the Syrians they sought to the Assyrians, 2 Kings 16:7. Against the Assyrians they here sought to the Egyptians, and Rabshakeh upbraided them with so doing, 2 Kings 18:21. Now observe here,

_ _ I. How this sin of theirs is described, and what there was in it that was provoking to God. When they saw themselves in danger and distress, 1. They would not consult God. They would do things of their own heads, and not advise with God, though they had a ready and certain way of doing it by Urim or prophets. They were so confident of the prudence of their own measures that they thought it needless to consult the oracle; nay, they were not willing to put it to that issue: “They take counsel among themselves, and one from another; but they do not ask counsel, much less will they take counsel, of me. They cover with a covering” (they think to secure themselves with one shelter or other, which may serve to cover them from the violence of the storm), “but not of my Spirit” (not such as God by his Spirit, in the mouth of his prophets, directed them to), “and therefore it will prove too short a covering, and a refuge of lies.” 2. They could not confide in God. They did not think it enough to have God on their side, nor were they at all solicitous to make him their friend, but they strengthened themselves in the strength of Pharaoh; they thought him a powerful ally, and doubted not but to be able to cope with the Assyrian while they had him for them. The shadow of Egypt (and it was but a shadow) was the covering in which they wrapped themselves.

_ _ II. What was the evil of this sin. 1. It bespoke them rebellious children; and a woe is here denounced against them under that character, Isaiah 30:1. They were, in profession, God's children; but, not trusting in him, they were justly stigmatized as rebellious; for, if we distrust God's providence, we do in effect withdraw ourselves from our allegiance. 2. They added sin to sin. It was sin that brought them into distress; and then, instead of repenting, they trespassed yet more against the Lord, 2 Chronicles 28:22. And those that had abused God's mercies to them, making them the fuel of their lusts, abused their afflictions too, making them an excuse for their distrust of God; and so they make bad worse, and add sin to sin; and those that do so, as they make their own chain heavy, so it is just with God to make their plagues wonderful. Now that which aggravated their sin was, (1.) That they took so much pains to secure the Egyptians for their allies: They walk to go down to Egypt, travel up and down to find an advantageous road thither; but they have not asked at my mouth, never considered whether God would allow and approve of it or no. (2.) That they were at such a vast expense to do it, Isaiah 30:6. They load the beasts of the south (horses fetched from Egypt, which lay south from Judea) with their riches, fancying, as it is common with people in a fright, that they were safer any where than where they were. Or they sent their riches thither as bribes to Pharaoh's courtiers, to engage them in their interests, or as pay for their army. God would have helped them gratis; but, if they will have help from the Egyptians, they must pay dearly for it, and they seem willing to do so. The riches that are so spent will turn to a bad account. They carried their effects to Egypt through a land (so it may be read) of trouble and anguish, that vast howling wilderness which lay between Canaan and Egypt, whence come the lion and fiery serpent, Deuteronomy 8:15. They would venture through that dangerous wilderness, to bring what they had to Egypt. Or it may be meant of Egypt itself, which had been to Israel a house of bondage and therefore a land of trouble and anguish, and which abounded in ravenous and venomous creatures. See what dangers men run into that forsake God, and what dangers they will run into in pursuance of their carnal confidences and their expectations from the creature.

_ _ III. What would be the consequence of it. 1. The Egyptians would receive their ambassadors, would address them very respectfully, and be willing to treat with them (Isaiah 30:4): His princes were at Zoan, at Pharaoh's court there, and had their audience of the king, who encouraged them to depend upon his friendship and the succours he would send them. But, 2. They would not answer their expectation: They could not profit them, Isaiah 30:5. For God says, They shall not profit them (Isaiah 30:6), and every creature is that to us (and no more) which he makes it to be. The forces they were to furnish them with could not be raised in time; or, when they were raised, they were not fit for service, and they would not venture any of their veteran troops in the expedition; or the march was so long that they could not come up when they had occasion for them; or the Egyptians would not be cordial to Israel, but would secretly incline to the Assyrians, upon some account or other: The Egyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose, Isaiah 30:7. They shall hinder and hurt, instead of helping. And therefore, 3. These people, that were now so fond of the Egyptians, would at length be ashamed of them, and of all their expectations from them and confidence in them (Isaiah 30:3): “The strength of Pharaoh, which was your pride, shall be your shame; all your neighbours will upbraid you, and you will upbraid yourselves, with your folly in trusting to it. And the shadow of Egypt, that land shadowing with wings (Isaiah 18:1), which was your confidence, shall be your confusion; it will not only disappoint you, and be the matter of your shame, but it will weaken all your other supports, and be an occasion of mischief to you.” God afterwards threatens the ruin of Egypt for this very thing, because they had dealt treacherously with Israel and been a staff of a reed to them, Ezekiel 29:6, Ezekiel 29:7. The princes and ambassadors of Israel, who were so forward to court an alliance with them, when they come among them shall see so much of their weakness, or rather of their baseness, that they shall all be ashamed of a people that could not be a help or profit to them, but a shame and reproach, Isaiah 30:5. Those that trust in God, in his power, providence, and promise, are never made ashamed of their hope; but those that put confidence in any creature will sooner or later find it a reproach to them. God is true, and may be trusted, but every man a liar, and must be suspected. The Creator is a rock of ages, the creature a broken reed. We cannot expect too little from man nor too much from God.

_ _ IV. The use and application of all this (Isaiah 30:7): “Therefore have I cried concerning this matter, this project of theirs. I have published it, that all might take notice of it. I have pressed it as one in earnest. Their strength is to sit still, in a humble dependence upon God and his goodness and a quiet submission to his will, and not to wander about and put themselves to great trouble to seek help from this and the other creature.” If we sit still in a day of distress, hoping and quietly waiting for the salvation of the Lord, and using only lawful regular methods for our own preservation, this will be the strength of our souls both for services and sufferings, and it will engage divine strength for us. We weaken ourselves, and provoke God to withdraw from us, when we make flesh our arm, for then our hearts depart from the Lord. When we have tired ourselves by seeking for help from creatures we shall find it the best way of recruiting ourselves to repose in the Creator. Here I am, let him do with me as he pleases.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 30:1

The rebellious — The Jews. Take counsel — That consult together. Cover — That seek protection. But not — Not such as by my spirit, speaking in my word, I have required them to do. That they may add — That unto all their sins, they may add distrust of my power and mercy, and put confidence in an arm of flesh.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 30:1

Woe to the (a) rebellious children, saith the LORD, that take counsel, but not from me; and that (b) cover with a covering, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin:

(a) Who contrary to their promise take not me for their protector and contrary to my commandment seek help from strangers.

(b) They seek shifts to cloak their doings and not godly means.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am cir, 3291, bc cir, 713

the rebellious:

Isaiah 30:9 That this [is] a rebellious people, lying children, children [that] will not hear the law of the LORD:
Isaiah 1:2 Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth: for the LORD hath spoken, I have nourished and brought up children, and they have rebelled against me.
Isaiah 63:10 But they rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, [and] he fought against them.
Isaiah 65:2 I have spread out my hands all the day unto a rebellious people, which walketh in a way [that was] not good, after their own thoughts;
Deuteronomy 9:7 Remember, [and] forget not, how thou provokedst the LORD thy God to wrath in the wilderness: from the day that thou didst depart out of the land of Egypt, until ye came unto this place, ye have been rebellious against the LORD.
Deuteronomy 9:24 Ye have been rebellious against the LORD from the day that I knew you.
Deuteronomy 29:19 And it come to pass, when he heareth the words of this curse, that he bless himself in his heart, saying, I shall have peace, though I walk in the imagination of mine heart, to add drunkenness to thirst:
Jeremiah 4:17 As keepers of a field, are they against her round about; because she hath been rebellious against me, saith the LORD.
Jeremiah 5:23 But this people hath a revolting and a rebellious heart; they are revolted and gone.
Ezekiel 2:3 And he said unto me, Son of man, I send thee to the children of Israel, to a rebellious nation that hath rebelled against me: they and their fathers have transgressed against me, [even] unto this very day.
Ezekiel 3:9 As an adamant harder than flint have I made thy forehead: fear them not, neither be dismayed at their looks, though they [be] a rebellious house.
Ezekiel 3:26-27 And I will make thy tongue cleave to the roof of thy mouth, that thou shalt be dumb, and shalt not be to them a reprover: for they [are] a rebellious house. ... But when I speak with thee, I will open thy mouth, and thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; He that heareth, let him hear; and he that forbeareth, let him forbear: for they [are] a rebellious house.
Ezekiel 12:2-3 Son of man, thou dwellest in the midst of a rebellious house, which have eyes to see, and see not; they have ears to hear, and hear not: for they [are] a rebellious house. ... Therefore, thou son of man, prepare thee stuff for removing, and remove by day in their sight; and thou shalt remove from thy place to another place in their sight: it may be they will consider, though they [be] a rebellious house.
Hosea 7:13 Woe unto them! for they have fled from me: destruction unto them! because they have transgressed against me: though I have redeemed them, yet they have spoken lies against me.
Acts 7:51-52 Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers [did], so [do] ye. ... Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? and they have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the Just One; of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers:

that take:

Isaiah 8:19 And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter: should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead?
Isaiah 29:15 Woe unto them that seek deep to hide their counsel from the LORD, and their works are in the dark, and they say, Who seeth us? and who knoweth us?
1 Chronicles 10:13-14 So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the LORD, [even] against the word of the LORD, which he kept not, and also for asking [counsel] of [one that had] a familiar spirit, to enquire [of it]; ... And enquired not of the LORD: therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse.
Hosea 4:10-12 For they shall eat, and not have enough: they shall commit whoredom, and shall not increase: because they have left off to take heed to the LORD. ... My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto them: for the spirit of whoredoms hath caused [them] to err, and they have gone a whoring from under their God.

cover:

Isaiah 4:5 And the LORD will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: for upon all the glory [shall be] a defence.
*marg.
Isaiah 28:15 Because ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell are we at agreement; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not come unto us: for we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood have we hid ourselves:
Isaiah 28:20 For the bed is shorter than that [a man] can stretch himself [on it]: and the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself [in it].
Isaiah 32:2 And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land.
Psalms 61:4 I will abide in thy tabernacle for ever: I will trust in the covert of thy wings. Selah.
Psalms 91:1-4 He that dwelleth in the secret place of the most High shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty. ... He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust: his truth [shall be thy] shield and buckler.

add:

Isaiah 1:5 Why should ye be stricken any more? ye will revolt more and more: the whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint.
Isaiah 5:18 Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope:
Numbers 32:14 And, behold, ye are risen up in your fathers' stead, an increase of sinful men, to augment yet the fierce anger of the LORD toward Israel.
Hosea 13:2 And now they sin more and more, and have made them molten images of their silver, [and] idols according to their own understanding, all of it the work of the craftsmen: they say of them, Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves.
Romans 2:5 But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;
2 Timothy 3:13 But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived.
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Nu 32:14. Dt 9:7, 24; 29:19. 1Ch 10:13. Ps 61:4; 91:1. Is 1:2, 5; 4:5; 5:18; 8:19; 28:15, 20; 29:15; 30:9; 32:2; 63:10; 65:2. Jr 4:17; 5:23. Ezk 2:3; 3:9, 26; 12:2. Ho 4:10; 7:13; 13:2. Ac 7:51. Ro 2:5. 2Ti 3:13.

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