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Isaiah 29:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Ho Ariel, Ariel, the city where David encamped! add ye year to year; let the feasts come round:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city [where] David dwelt! add ye year to year; let them kill sacrifices.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Woe, O Ariel, Ariel the city [where] David [once] camped! Add year to year, observe [your] feasts on schedule.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city [where] David dwelt! add ye year to year; let them kill sacrifices.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city of David's encampment! Add ye year to year; let the feasts come round.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Alas for Ariel, Ariel, The city against which, David, encamped,—Add ye a year to a year, Let, the festivals, come round;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Woe [to] Ariel, Ariel, The city of the encampment of David! Add year to year, let festivals go round.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Woe to Ariel, to Ariel the city which David took: year is added to year. the solemnities are at an end.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Woe to Ariel, to Ariel the citie [where] Dauid dwelt: adde yee yeere to yeere; let them kill sacrifices.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Alas for the city of Ariel, which David besieged. Gather ye fruits year by year; eat ye, for ye shall eat with Moab.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city [where] Dawid dwelt! add ye year to year; let them kill sacrifices.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Woe 1945
{1945} Prime
A prolonged form of H1930 (akin to H0188); oh!.
to rl אֲרִיאֵל, 740
{0740} Prime
The same as H0739; Ariel, a symbolical name for Jerusalem, also the name of an Israelite.
to rl אֲרִיאֵל, 740
{0740} Prime
The same as H0739; Ariel, a symbolical name for Jerusalem, also the name of an Israelite.
the city 7151
{7151} Prime
From H7136 in the sense of flooring, that is, building; a city.
[where] Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
dwelt! 2583
{2583} Prime
A primitive root (compare H2603); properly to incline; by implication to decline (of the slanting rays of evening); specifically to pitch a tent; generally to encamp (for abode or siege).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
add 5595
{5595} Prime
A primitive root; properly to scrape (literally to shave; but usually figuratively) together (that is, to accumulate or increase) or away (that is, to scatter, remove or ruin; intransitively to perish).
<8798> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 2847
ye year 8141
{8141} Prime
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
to x5921
(5921) Complement
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
year; 8141
{8141} Prime
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
let them kill 5362
{5362} Prime
A primitive root; to strike with more or less violence (beat, fell, corrode); by implication (of attack) to knock together, that is, surround or circulate.
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
sacrifices. 2282
{2282} Prime
A festival, or a victim therefor.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 29:1

_ _ Isaiah 29:1-24. Coming invasion of Jerusalem: Its failure: Unbelief of the Jews.

_ _ This chapter opens the series of prophecies as to the invasion of Judea under Sennacherib, and its deliverance.

_ _ Ariel — Jerusalem; Ariel means “Lion of God,” that is, city rendered by God invincible: the lion is emblem of a mighty hero (2 Samuel 23:20). Otherwise “Hearth of God,” that is, place where the altar-fire continually burns to God (Isaiah 31:9; Ezekiel 43:15, Ezekiel 43:16).

_ _ add ... year to year — ironically; suffer one year after another to glide on in the round of formal, heartless “sacrifices.” Rather, “add yet another year” to the one just closed [Maurer]. Let a year elapse and a little more (Isaiah 32:10, Margin).

_ _ let ... kill sacrifices — rather, “let the beasts (of another year) go round” [Maurer]; that is, after the completion of a year “I will distress Ariel.”

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 29:1-8

_ _ That it is Jerusalem which is here called Ariel is agreed, for that was the city where David dwelt; that part of it which was called Zion was in a particular manner the city of David, in which both the temple and the palace were. But why it is so called is very uncertain: probably the name and the reason were then well known. Cities, as well as persons, get surnames and nicknames. Ariel signifies the lion of God, or the strong lion: as the lion is king among beasts, so was Jerusalem among the cities, giving law to all about her; it was the city of the great King (Psalms 48:1, Psalms 48:2); it was the head-city of Judah, who is called a lion's whelp (Genesis 49:9) and whose ensign was a lion; and he that is the lion of the tribe of Judah was the glory of it. Jerusalem was a terror sometimes to the neighbouring nations, and, while she was a righteous city, was bold as a lion. Some make Ariel to signify the altar of burnt-offerings, which devoured the beasts offered in sacrifice as the lion does his prey. Woe to that altar in the city where David dwelt; that was destroyed with the temple by the Chaldeans. I rather take it as a woe to Jerusalem, Jerusalem; it is repeated here, as it is Matthew 23:37, that it might be the more awakening. Here is,

_ _ I. The distress of Jerusalem foretold. Though Jerusalem be a strong city, as a lion, though a holy city, as a lion of God, yet, if iniquity be found there, woe be to it. It was the city where David dwelt; it was he that brought that to it which was its glory, and which made it a type of the gospel church, and his dwelling in it was typical of Christ's residence in his church. This mentioned as an aggravation of Jerusalem's sin, that in it were set both the testimony of Israel and the thrones of the house of David. 1. Let Jerusalem know that her external performance of religious services will not serve as an exemption from the judgments of God (Isaiah 29:1): “Add year to year; go on in the road of your annual feasts, let all your males appear there three times a year before the Lord, and none empty, according to the law and custom, and let them never miss any of these solemnities: let them kill the sacrifices, as they used to do; but, as long as their lives are unreformed and their hearts unhumbled, let them not think thus to pacify an offended God and to turn away his wrath.” Note, Hypocrites may be found in a constant track of devout exercises, and treading around in them, and with these they may flatter themselves, but can never please God nor make their peace with him. 2. Let her know that God is coming forth against her in displeasure, that she shall be visited of the Lord of hosts (Isaiah 29:6); her sins shall be enquired into and punished: God will reckon for them with terrible judgments, with the frightful alarms and rueful desolations of war, which shall be like thunder and earthquakes, storms and tempests, and devouring fire, especially upon the account of the great noise. When a foreign enemy was not in the borders, but in the bowels of their country, roaring and ravaging, and laying all waste (especially such an army as that of the Assyrians, whose commanders being so very insolent, as appears by the conduct of Rabshakeh, the common soldiers, no doubt, were much more rude), they might see the Lord of those hosts visiting them with thunder and storm. Yet, this being here said to be a great noise, perhaps it is intimated that they shall be worse frightened than hurt. Particularly, (1.) Jerusalem shall be besieged, straitly besieged. He does not say, I will destroy Ariel, but I will distress Ariel; and she is therefore brought into distress, that, being thereby awakened to repent and reform, she may not be brought to destruction. I will (Isaiah 29:3) encamp against thee round about. It was the enemy's army that encamped against it; but God says that he will do it, for they are his hand, he does it by them. God had often and long, by a host of angels, encamped for them round about them for their protection and deliverance; but now he was turned to be their enemy and fought against them. The siege laid against them was of his laying, and the forts raised against them were of his raising. Note, When men fight against us we must, in them, see God contending with us. (2.) She shall be in grief to see the country laid waste and all the fenced cities of Judah in the enemies' hand: There shall be heaviness and sorrow (Isaiah 29:2), mourning and lamentation — so these two words are sometimes rendered. Those that are most merry and jovial are commonly, when they come to be in distress, most overwhelmed with heaviness and sorrow; their laughter is then turned into mourning. “All Jerusalem shall then be unto me as Ariel, as the altar, with fire upon it and slain victims about it:” so it was when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Chaldeans; and many, no doubt, were slain when it was besieged by the Assyrians. “the whole city shall be an altar, in which sinners, falling by the judgments that are abroad, shall be as victims to divine justice.” Or thus: — “There shall be heaviness and sorrow; they shall repent, and reform, and return to God, and then it shall be to me as Ariel. Jerusalem shall be like itself, shall become to me a Jerusalem again, a holy city,” Isaiah 1:26. (3.) She shall be humbled, and mortified, and made submissive (Isaiah 29:4): “Thou shalt be brought down from the height of arrogancy and insolence to which thou hast arrived: the proud looks and the proud language shall be brought down by one humbling providence after another.” Those that despise God's judgments shall be humbled by them; for the proudest sinners shall either bend or break before him. They had talked big, had lifted up the horn on high, and had spoken with a stiff neck (Psalms 75:5); but now thou shalt speak out of the ground, out of the dust, as one that has a familiar spirit, whispering out of the dust. This intimates, [1.] That they should be faint and feeble, not able to speak up, nor to say all they would say; but as those who are sick, or whose spirits are ready to fail, their speech shall be low and interrupted. [2.] That they should be fearful, and in consternation, forced to speak low as being afraid lest their enemies should overhear them and take advantage against them. [3.] That they should be tame, and obliged to submit to the conquerors. When Hezekiah submitted to the king of Assyria, saying, I have offended, that which thou puttest on me I will bear (2 Kings 18:14), then his speech was low, out of the dust. God can make those to crouch that have been most daring, and quite dispirit them.

_ _ II. The destruction of Jerusalem's enemies is foretold, for the comfort of all that were her friends and well-wishers in this distress (Isaiah 29:5, Isaiah 29:7): “Thou shalt be brought down (Isaiah 29:4), to speak out of the dust; so low thou shalt be reduced. But” (so it may be rendered) “the multitude of thy strangers and thy terrible ones, the numerous armies of the enemy, shall themselves be like small dust, not able to speak at all, or as much as whisper, but as chaff that passes away. Thou shalt be abased, but they shall be quite dispersed, smitten and slain after another manner (Isaiah 27:7); they shall pass away, yea it shall be in an instant, suddenly: the enemy shall be surprised with the destruction, and you with the salvation.” The army of the Assyrians was by an angel laid dead upon the spot, in an instant, suddenly. Such will be the destruction of the enemies of the gospel Jerusalem. In one hour shall their judgment come, Revelation 18:10. Again (Isaiah 29:6), “Thou shalt be visited, or (as it used to be rendered) She shall be visited with thunder and a great noise. Thou shalt be put into a fright which thou shalt soon recover. But (Isaiah 29:7) the multitude of the nations that fight against her shall be as a dream of a night-vision; they and their prosperity and success shall soon vanish past recall.” The multitude of the nations that fight against Zion shall be as a hungry man who dreams that he eats, but still is hungry; that is, 1. Whereas they hoped to make a prey of Jerusalem, and to enrich themselves with the plunder of that opulent city, their hopes shall prove vain dreams, with which their fancies may please and sport themselves for a while, but they shall be disappointed. They fancied themselves masters of Jerusalem, but shall never be so. 2. They themselves, and all their pomp, and power, and prosperity, shall vanish like a dream when one awakes, shall be of as little value and as short continuance. Psalms 73:20. He shall fly away as a dream Job 20:8. The army of Sennacherib vanished and was gone quickly, though it had filled the country as a dream fills a man's head, especially as a dream of meat fills the head of him that went to bed hungry. Many understand these verses as part of the threatening of wrath, when God comes to distress Jerusalem, and lay siege to her. (1.) The multitude of her friends, whom she relies upon for help shall do her no good; for, though they are terrible ones, they shall be like the small dust, and shall pass away. (2.) The multitude of her enemies shall never think they can do her mischief enough; but, when they have devoured her much, still they shall be but like a man who dreams he eats, hungry, and greedy to devour her more.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 29:1

The city — The royal city, and seat of David and his posterity. Set them — Go on in killing sacrifices from time to time, one year after another, whereby you think to appease me, but all shall be in vain.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 29:1

Woe to (a) Ariel, to Ariel, the city [where] David dwelt! add ye year to year; (b) let them kill sacrifices.

(a) Or Ariel: the Hebrew word Ariel signifies the Lion of God, and signifies the Altar, because the altar seemed to devour the sacrifice that was offered to God, as in (Ezekiel 43:16).

(b) Your vain confidence in your sacrifices will not last long.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 3292, bc 712

etc. or, O Ariel, that is, the lion of God,
Isaiah 31:9 And he shall pass over to his strong hold for fear, and his princes shall be afraid of the ensign, saith the LORD, whose fire [is] in Zion, and his furnace in Jerusalem.
Ezekiel 43:15-16 So the altar [shall be] four cubits; and from the altar and upward [shall be] four horns. ... And the altar [shall be] twelve [cubits] long, twelve broad, square in the four squares thereof.

the city:
or, of the city,
2 Samuel 5:9 So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from Millo and inward.


Isaiah 1:11-15 To what purpose [is] the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats. ... And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear: your hands are full of blood.
Jeremiah 7:21 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Put your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat flesh.
Hosea 5:6 They shall go with their flocks and with their herds to seek the LORD; but they shall not find [him]; he hath withdrawn himself from them.
Hosea 8:13 They sacrifice flesh [for] the sacrifices of mine offerings, and eat [it; but] the LORD accepteth them not; now will he remember their iniquity, and visit their sins: they shall return to Egypt.
Hosea 9:4 They shall not offer wine [offerings] to the LORD, neither shall they be pleasing unto him: their sacrifices [shall be] unto them as the bread of mourners; all that eat thereof shall be polluted: for their bread for their soul shall not come into the house of the LORD.
Amos 4:4-5 Come to Bethel, and transgress; at Gilgal multiply transgression; and bring your sacrifices every morning, [and] your tithes after three years: ... And offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving with leaven, and proclaim [and] publish the free offerings: for this liketh you, O ye children of Israel, saith the Lord GOD.
Hebrews 10:1 For the law having a shadow of good things to come, [and] not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.

Heb. cut off the heads,
Isaiah 66:3 He that killeth an ox [is as if] he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, [as if] he cut off a dog's neck; he that offereth an oblation, [as if he offered] swine's blood; he that burneth incense, [as if] he blessed an idol. Yea, they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations.
Micah 6:6-7 Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, [and] bow myself before the high God? shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old? ... Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, [or] with ten thousands of rivers of oil? shall I give my firstborn [for] my transgression, the fruit of my body [for] the sin of my soul?
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2S 5:9. Is 1:11; 31:9; 66:3. Jr 7:21. Ezk 43:15. Ho 5:6; 8:13; 9:4. Am 4:4. Mi 6:6. He 10:1.

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