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Isaiah 21:13 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye caravans of Dedanites.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— The oracle about Arabia. In the thickets of Arabia you must spend the night, O caravans of Dedanites.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye traveling companies of Dedanim.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— The burden against Arabia. In the forest of Arabia shall ye lodge, [ye] caravans of Dedanites.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— The oracle on Arabia,—Among the shrubs in Arabia, must ye lodge, Ye caravans of Dedanites.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— The burden on Arabia. In a forest in Arabia ye lodge, O travellers of Dedanim.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The burden in Arabia. In the forest at evening you shall sleep, in the paths of Dedanim.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— The burden vpon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall yee lodge, O yee trauelling companies of Dedanim.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Thou mayest lodge in the forest in the evening, or in the way of Dedan{gr.Daedan}.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— The burden upon Arav. In the forest in Arav shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
The burden 4853
{4853} Prime
From H5375; a burden; specifically tribute, or (abstractly) porterage; figuratively an utterance, chiefly a doom, especially singing; mental, desire.
upon `rav עֲרַב. 6152
{6152} Prime
From H6150 in the figuratively sense of sterility; Arab (that is, Arabia), a country East of Palestine.
In the forest 3293
{3293} Prime
From an unused root probably meaning to thicken with verdure; a copse of bushes; hence a forest; hence honey in the comb (as hived in trees).
in `rav עֲרַב 6152
{6152} Prime
From H6150 in the figuratively sense of sterility; Arab (that is, Arabia), a country East of Palestine.
shall ye lodge, 3885
{3885} Prime
A primitive root; to stop (usually over night); by implication to stay permanently; hence (in a bad sense) to be obstinate (especially in words, to complain).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
O ye travelling companies 736
{0736} Prime
Feminine active participle of H0732; a caravan.
of Dnm דְּדָנִים. 1720
{1720} Prime
Plural of H1719 (as patrial); Dedanites, the descendants or inhabitants of Dedan.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 21:13

_ _ Isaiah 21:13-17. Prophecy that Arabia would be overrun by a foreign foe within a year.

_ _ Probably in the wars between Assyria and Egypt; Idumea and Arabia lay somewhat on the intermediate line of march.

_ _ upon — that is, respecting.

_ _ forest — not a grove of trees, but a region of thick underwood, rugged and inaccessible; for Arabia has no forest of trees.

_ _ travelling companies — caravans: ye shall be driven through fear of the foe to unfrequented routes (Isaiah 33:8; Judges 5:6; Jeremiah 49:8 is parallel to this passage).

_ _ Dedanim — In North Arabia (Genesis 25:3; Jeremiah 25:23; Ezekiel 25:13; Ezekiel 27:20; a different “Dedan” occurs Genesis 10:7).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 21:13-17

_ _ Arabia was a large country, that lay eastward and southward of the land of Canaan. Much of it was possessed by the posterity of Abraham. The Dedanim, here mentioned (Isaiah 21:13), descended from Dedan, Abraham's son by Keturah; the inhabitants of Tema and Kedar descended from Ishmael, Genesis 25:3, Genesis 25:13, Genesis 25:15. The Arabians generally lived in tents, and kept cattle, were a hardy people, inured to labour; probably the Jews depended upon them as a sort of a wall between them and the more warlike eastern nations; and therefore, to alarm them, they shall hear the burden of Arabia, and see it sinking under its own burden.

_ _ I. A destroying army shall be brought upon them, with a sword, with a drawn sword, with a bow ready bent, and with all the grievousness of war, Isaiah 21:15. It is probable that the king of Assyria, in some of the marches of his formidable and victorious army, took Arabia in his way, and, meeting with little resistance, made an easy prey of them. The consideration of the grievousness of war should make us thankful for the blessings of peace.

_ _ II. The poor country people will hereby be forced to flee for shelter wherever they can find a place; so that the travelling companies of Dedanium, which used to keep the high roads with their caravans, shall be obliged to quit them and lodge in the forest in Arabia (Isaiah 21:13), and shall not have the wonted convenience of their own tents, poor and weather-beaten as they are.

_ _ III. They shall stand in need of refreshment, being ready to perish for want of it, in their flight from the invading army: “O you inhabitants of the land of Tema!” (who probably were next neighbours to the companies of Dedanim) “bring you water” (so the margin reads it) “to him that is thirsty, and prevent with your bread those that flee, for they are objects of your compassion; they do not wander for wandering sake, nor are they reduced to straits by any extravagance of their own, but they flee from the sword.” Tema was a country where water was sometimes a scarce commodity (as we find, Job 6:19), and we may conclude it would be in a particular manner acceptable to these poor distressed refugees. Let us learn hence. 1. To look for distress ourselves. We know not what straits we may be brought into before we die. Those that live in cities may be forced to lodge in forests; and those may know the want of necessary food who now eat bread to the full. Our mountain stands not so strong but that it may be moved, rises not so high but that it may be scaled. These Arabians would the better bear these calamities because in their way of living they had used themselves to hardships. 2. To look with compassion upon those that are in distress, and with all cheerfulness to relieve them, not knowing how soon their case may be ours: “Bring water to those that are thirsty, and not only give bread to those that need and ask it, but prevent those with it that have need; give it to them unasked.” Those that do so shall find it remembered to their praise, as (according to our reading) it is here remembered to the praise of the land of Tema that they did bring water to the thirsty and relieved even those that were on the falling side.

_ _ IV. All that which is the glory of Kedar shall vanish away and fail. Did they glory in their numerous herds and flocks? They shall all be driven away by the enemy. It seems they were famous about other nations for the use of the bow in battle; but their archers, instead of foiling the enemy, shall fall themselves; and the residue of their number, when they are reduced to a small number, shall be diminished (Isaiah 21:17); their mighty able-bodied men, and men of spirit too, shall become very few; for they, being most forward in the defence of their country, were most exposed, and fell first, either by the enemies' sword or into the enemies' hand. Note, Neither the skill of archers (though they be ever so good marksmen) nor the courage of mighty men can protect a people from the judgments of God, when they come with commission; they rather expose the undertakers. That is poor glory which will thus quickly come to nothing.

_ _ V. All this shall be done in a little time: “Within one year according to the years of a hireling (within one year precisely reckoned) this judgment shall come upon Kedar.” If this fixing of the time be of no great use to us now (because we find not either when the prophecy was delivered or when it was accomplished), yet it might be of great use to the Arabians then, to awaken them to repentance, that, like the men of Nineveh, they might prevent the judgment when they were thus told it was just at the door. Or, when it begins to be fulfilled, the business shall be done, be begun and ended in one year's time. God, when he please, can do a great work in a little time.

_ _ VI. It is all ratified by the truth of God (Isaiah 21:16); “Thus hath the Lord said to me; you may take my word for it that it is his word;” and we may be sure no word of his shall fall to the ground. And again (Isaiah 21:17): The Lord God of Israel hath spoken it, as the God of Israel, in pursuance of his gracious designs concerning them; and we may be sure the strength of Israel will not lie.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 21:13

Forest — Not as you used to do, in the houses or tents of the Arabians: whereby he implies, that that populous country should be a wilderness. Companies — In those parts travellers then did, and still do, go together in companies. Dedanim — These were merchants, who used to trade with Tyre, and their way lay thro' Arabia.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 21:13

The burden upon Arabia. In (r) the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim.

(r) For fear, the Arabians will flee into the woods and he appoints the way they will take.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

1 Kings 10:15 Beside [that he had] of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country.
Jeremiah 25:23-24 Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all [that are] in the utmost corners, ... And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert,
Jeremiah 49:28-33 Concerning Kedar, and concerning the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon shall smite, thus saith the LORD; Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and spoil the men of the east. ... And Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons, [and] a desolation for ever: there shall no man abide there, nor [any] son of man dwell in it.
Galatians 4:25 For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.

O ye:

Isaiah 13:20 It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there.
Genesis 25:3 And Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim.
1 Chronicles 1:9 And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan.
1 Chronicles 1:32 Now the sons of Keturah, Abraham's concubine: she bare Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. And the sons of Jokshan; Sheba, and Dedan.
Ezekiel 27:15 The men of Dedan [were] thy merchants; many isles [were] the merchandise of thine hand: they brought thee [for] a present horns of ivory and ebony.
Ezekiel 27:20-21 Dedan [was] thy merchant in precious clothes for chariots. ... Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, they occupied with thee in lambs, and rams, and goats: in these [were they] thy merchants.
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Gn 25:3. 1K 10:15. 1Ch 1:9, 32. Is 13:20. Jr 25:23; 49:28. Ezk 27:15, 20. Ga 4:25.

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