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Isaiah 15:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— The burden of Moab. For in a night Ar of Moab is laid waste, [and] brought to nought; for in a night Kir of Moab is laid waste, [and] brought to nought.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— The burden of Moab. Because in the night Ar of Moab is laid waste, [and] brought to silence; because in the night Kir of Moab is laid waste, [and] brought to silence;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— The oracle concerning Moab. Surely in a night Ar of Moab is devastated [and] ruined; Surely in a night Kir of Moab is devastated [and] ruined.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— The burden of Moab. Because in the night Ar of Moab is laid waste, [and] brought to silence; because in the night Kir of Moab is laid waste, [and] brought to silence;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— The burden of Moab: For in the night of being laid waste, Ar of Moab is destroyed; for in the night of being laid waste, Kir of Moab is destroyed!
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— The oracle on Moab: Because, in a night, was laid waste Ar of Moab—destroyed! Because, in a night, was laid waste Kir of Moab—destroyed,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— The burden of Moab. Because in a night destroyed was Ar of Moab—It hath been cut off, Because in a night destroyed was Kir of Moab—It hath been cut off.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The burden of Moab. Because in the night Ar of Moab is laid waste, it is silent: because the wall of Moab is destroyed in the night, it is silent.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— The burden of Moab: because in the night Ar of Moab is laide waste [and] brought to silence; because in the night Kir of Moab is laide waste, [and] brought to silence:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— THE WORD AGAINST THE LAND OF MOAB. By night the land of Moab shall be destroyed; for by night the wall of the land of Moab shall be destroyed.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— The burden of Moav. Because in the night Ar of Moav is laid waste, [and] brought to silence; because in the night Qir of Moav is laid waste, [and] brought to silence;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
The burden 4853
{4853} Prime
מַשָּׂא
massa'
{mas-saw'}
From H5375; a burden; specifically tribute, or (abstractly) porterage; figuratively an utterance, chiefly a doom, especially singing; mental, desire.
of Mv מוֹאָב. 4124
{4124} Prime
מוֹאָב
Mow'ab
{mo-awb'}
From a prolonged form of the prepositional prefix 'm-' and H0001; from (her (the mother's)) father; Moab, an incestuous son of Lot; also his territory and descendants.
Because x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
in the night 3915
{3915} Prime
לַיִל
layil
{lah'-yil}
From the same as H3883; properly a twist (away of the light), that is, night; figuratively adversity.
`r עָר 6144
{6144} Prime
עָר
`Ar
{awr}
The same as H5892; a city; Ar, a place in Moab.
of Mv מוֹאָב 4124
{4124} Prime
מוֹאָב
Mow'ab
{mo-awb'}
From a prolonged form of the prepositional prefix 'm-' and H0001; from (her (the mother's)) father; Moab, an incestuous son of Lot; also his territory and descendants.
is laid waste, 7703
{7703} Prime
שָׁדַד
shadad
{shaw-dad'}
A primitive root; properly to be burly, that is, (figuratively) powerful (passively impregnable); by implication to ravage.
z8795
<8795> Grammar
Stem - Pual (See H8849)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 199
[and] brought to silence; 1820
{1820} Prime
דָּמַה
dama
{daw-ma'}
A primitive root; to be dumb or silent; hence to fail or perish; transitively to destroy.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
because x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
in the night 3915
{3915} Prime
לַיִל
layil
{lah'-yil}
From the same as H3883; properly a twist (away of the light), that is, night; figuratively adversity.
Kr קִיר 7024
{7024} Prime
קִיר
Qiyr
{keer}
The same as H7023; fortress; Kir, a place in Assyrian; also one in Moab.
of Mv מוֹאָב 4124
{4124} Prime
מוֹאָב
Mow'ab
{mo-awb'}
From a prolonged form of the prepositional prefix 'm-' and H0001; from (her (the mother's)) father; Moab, an incestuous son of Lot; also his territory and descendants.
is laid waste, 7703
{7703} Prime
שָׁדַד
shadad
{shaw-dad'}
A primitive root; properly to be burly, that is, (figuratively) powerful (passively impregnable); by implication to ravage.
z8795
<8795> Grammar
Stem - Pual (See H8849)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 199
[and] brought to silence; 1820
{1820} Prime
דָּמַה
dama
{daw-ma'}
A primitive root; to be dumb or silent; hence to fail or perish; transitively to destroy.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 15:1

_ _ Isaiah 15:1-9. The fifteenth and sixteenth chapters form one prophecy on Moab.

_ _ Lowth thinks it was delivered in the first years of Hezekiah’s reign and fulfilled in the fourth when Shalmaneser, on his way to invade Israel, may have seized on the strongholds of Moab. Moab probably had made common cause with Israel and Syria in a league against Assyria. Hence it incurred the vengeance of Assyria. Jeremiah has introduced much of this prophecy into his forty-eighth chapter.

_ _ Because — rather, “Surely”; literally, “(I affirm) that” [Maurer].

_ _ night — the time best suited for a hostile incursion (Isaiah 21:4; Jeremiah 39:4).

_ _ Ar — meaning in Hebrew, “the city”; the metropolis of Moab, on the south of the river Arnon.

_ _ Kir — literally, “a citadel”; not far from Ar, towards the south.

_ _ He — Moab personified.

_ _ Bajith — rather, “to the temple” [Maurer]; answering to the “sanctuary” (Isaiah 16:12), in a similar context.

_ _ to Dibon — Rather, as Dibon was in a plain north of the Arnon, “Dibon (is gone up) to the high places,” the usual places of sacrifice in the East. Same town as Dimon (Isaiah 15:9).

_ _ to weep — at the sudden calamity.

_ _ over Nebo — rather “in Nebo”; not “on account of” Nebo (compare Isaiah 15:3) [Maurer]. The town Nebo was adjacent to the mountain, not far from the northern shore of the Dead Sea. There it was that Chemosh, the idol of Moab, was worshipped (compare Deuteronomy 34:1).

_ _ Medeba — south of Heshbon, on a hill east of Jordan.

_ _ baldness ... beard cut off — The Orientals regarded the beard with peculiar veneration. To cut one’s beard off is the greatest mark of sorrow and mortification (compare Jeremiah 48:37).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Isaiah 15:1-5

_ _ The country of Moab was of small extent, but very fruitful. It bordered upon the lot of Reuben on the other side Jordan and upon the Dead Sea. Naomi went to sojourn there when there was a famine in Canaan. This is the country which (it is here foretold) should be wasted and grievously harassed, not quite ruined, for we find another prophecy of its ruin (Jer. 48), which was accomplished by Nebuchadnezzar. This prophecy here was to be fulfilled within three years (Isaiah 16:14), and therefore was fulfilled in the devastations made of that country by the army of the Assyrians, which for many years ravaged those parts, enriching themselves with spoil and plunder. It was done either by the army of Shalmaneser, about the time of the taking of Samaria, in the fourth year of Hezekiah (as is most probable), or by the army of Sennacherib, which, ten years after, invaded Judah. We cannot suppose that the prophet went among the Moabites to preach to them this sermon; but he delivered it to his own people, 1. To show them that, though judgment begins at the house of God, it shall not end there, — that there is a providence which governs the world and all the nations of it, — and that to the God of Israel the worshippers of false gods were accountable, and liable to his judgments. 2. To give them a proof of God's care of them and jealousy for them, and to convince them that God was an enemy to their enemies, for such the Moabites had often been. 3. That the accomplishment of this prophecy now shortly (within three years) might be a confirmation of the prophet's mission and of the truth of all his other prophecies, and might encourage the faithful to depend upon them.

_ _ Now concerning Moab it is here foretold,

_ _ I. That their chief cities should be surprised and taken in a night by the enemy, probably because the inhabitants, as the men of Laish, indulged themselves in ease and luxury, and dwelt securely (Isaiah 15:1): Therefore there shall be great grief, because in the night Air of Moab is laid waste and Kir of Moab, the two principal cities of that kingdom. In the night that they were taken, or sacked, Moab was cut off. The seizing of them laid the whole country open, and made all the wealth of it an easy prey to the victorious army. Note, 1. Great changes and very dismal ones may be made in a very little time. Here are two cities lost in a night, though that is the time of quietness. Let us therefore lie down as those that know not what a night may bring forth. 2. As the country feeds the cities, so the cities protect the country, and neither can say to the other, I have no need of thee.

_ _ II. That the Moabites, being hereby put into the utmost consternation imaginable, should have recourse to their idols for relief, and pour out their tears before them (Isaiah 15:2): He (that is, Moab, especially the king of Moab) has gone up to Bajith (or rather to the house or temple of Chemosh), and Dibon, the inhabitants of Dibon, have gone up to the high places, where they worshipped their idols, there to make their complaints. Note, It becomes a people in distress to seek to their God; and shall not we then thus walk in the name of the Lord our God, and call upon him in the time of trouble, before whom we shall not shed such useless profitless tears as they did before their gods?

_ _ III. That there should be the voice of universal grief all the country over. It is described here elegantly and very affectingly. Moab shall be a vale of tears — a little map of this world, Isaiah 15:2. The Moabites shall lament the loss of Nebo and Medeba, two considerable cities, which, it is likely, were plundered and burnt. They shall tear their hair for grief to such a degree that on all their heads shall be baldness, and they shall cut off their beards, according to the customary expressions of mourning in those times and countries. When they go abroad they shall be so far from coveting to appear handsome that in the streets they shall gird themselves with sackcloth (Isaiah 15:3), and perhaps being forced to use that poor clothing, the enemy having stripped them, and rifled their houses, and left them no other clothing. When they come home, instead of applying themselves to their business, they shall go up to the tops of their houses which were flat-roofed, and there they shall weep abundantly, nay, they shall howl, in crying to their gods. Those that cry not to God with their hearts do but howl upon their beds, Hosea 7:14; Amos 8:3. They shall come down with weeping (so the margin reads it); they shall come down from their high places and the tops of their houses weeping as much as they did when they went up. Prayer to the true God is heart's ease (1 Samuel 1:18), but prayers to false gods are not. Divers places are here named that should be full of lamentation (Isaiah 15:4), and it is but a poor relief to have so many fellow-sufferers, fellow-mourners; to a public spirit it is rather an aggravation socios habuisse doloristo have associates in woe.

_ _ IV. That the courage of their militia should fail them. Though they were bred soldiers, and were well armed, yet they shall cry out and shriek for fear, and every one of them shall have his life become grievous to him, though it is characteristic of a military life to delight in danger, Isaiah 15:4. See how easily God can dispirit the stoutest of men, and deprive a nation of benefit by those whom it most depended upon for strength and defence. The Moabites shall generally be so overwhelmed with grief that life itself shall be a burden to them. God can easily make weary of life those that are fondest of it.

_ _ V. That the outcry for these calamities should propagate grief to all the adjacent parts, Isaiah 15:5. 1. The prophet himself has very sensible impressions made upon his spirit by the prediction of it: “My heart shall cry out for Moab; though they are enemies to Israel, they are our fellow-creatures, of the same rank with us, and therefore it should grieve us to see them in such distress, the rather because we know not how soon it may be our own turn to drink of the same cup of trembling.” Note, It becomes God's ministers to be of a tender spirit, not to desire the woeful day, but to be like their master, who wept over Jerusalem even when he gave her up to ruin, like their God, who desires not the death of sinners. 2. All the neighbouring cities shall echo to the lamentations of Moab. The fugitives, who are making the best of their way to shift for their own safety, shall carry the cry to Zoar, the city to which their ancestor Lot fled for shelter from Sodom's flames and which was spared for his sake. They shall make as great a noise with their cry as a heifer of three years old does when she goes lowing for her calf, as 1 Samuel 6:12. They shall go up the hill of Luhith (as David went up the ascent of Mount Olivet, many a weary step and all in tears, 2 Samuel 15:30), and in the way of Horonaim (a dual termination), the way that leads to the two Beth-horons, the upper and the nether, which we read of, Joshua 16:3, Joshua 16:5. Thither the cry shall be carried, there it shall be raised, even at that great distance: A cry of destruction; that shall be the cry, like, “Fire, fire! we are all undone.” Grief is catching, so is fear, and justly, for trouble is spreading and when it begins who knows where it will end?

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 15:1

The burden — A prophecy of the destruction of the Moabites, the inveterate enemies of the Jews, begun by the Assyrian, and finished by the Babylonian emperors. In a night — Suddenly and unexpectedly. Ar — The chief city of Moab. Kir — Another eminent city of Moab.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 15:1

The (a) burden of Moab. Because in the night (b) Ar of Moab is laid waste, [and] brought to silence; because in the night Kir of Moab is laid waste, [and] brought to silence;

(a) See Isaiah 13:1

(b) The chief city by which the whole country was meant.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
burden:
This and the following chapter form one entire prophecy; which was most probably delivered, as Bp. Lowth supposes, soon after the foregoing (
Isaiah 14:28-32 In the year that king Ahaz died was this burden. ... What shall [one] then answer the messengers of the nation? That the LORD hath founded Zion, and the poor of his people shall trust in it.
), in the first year of Hezekiah, and accomplished in his fourth year when Shalmaneser invaded Israel.
Isaiah 13:1 The burden of Babylon, which Isaiah the son of Amoz did see.
Isaiah 14:28 In the year that king Ahaz died was this burden.

Moab:

Isaiah 11:14 But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them.
Isaiah 25:10 For in this mountain shall the hand of the LORD rest, and Moab shall be trodden down under him, even as straw is trodden down for the dunghill.
Jeremiah 9:26 Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all [that are] in the utmost corners, that dwell in the wilderness: for all [these] nations [are] uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel [are] uncircumcised in the heart.
Jeremiah 48:1-47 Against Moab thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Woe unto Nebo! for it is spoiled: Kiriathaim is confounded [and] taken: Misgab is confounded and dismayed. ... Yet will I bring again the captivity of Moab in the latter days, saith the LORD. Thus far [is] the judgment of Moab.
Ezekiel 25:8-11 Thus saith the Lord GOD; Because that Moab and Seir do say, Behold, the house of Judah [is] like unto all the heathen; ... And I will execute judgments upon Moab; and they shall know that I [am] the LORD.
Amos 2:1-3 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Moab, and for four, I will not turn away [the punishment] thereof; because he burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime: ... And I will cut off the judge from the midst thereof, and will slay all the princes thereof with him, saith the LORD.
Zephaniah 2:8-11 I have heard the reproach of Moab, and the revilings of the children of Ammon, whereby they have reproached my people, and magnified [themselves] against their border. ... The LORD [will be] terrible unto them: for he will famish all the gods of the earth; and [men] shall worship him, every one from his place, [even] all the isles of the heathen.

in the:

Exodus 12:29-30 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that [was] in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. ... And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for [there was] not a house where [there was] not one dead.
1 Thessalonians 5:1-3 But of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I write unto you. ... For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape.

Ar:

Numbers 21:28 For there is a fire gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon: it hath consumed Ar of Moab, [and] the lords of the high places of Arnon.
Deuteronomy 2:9 And the LORD said unto me, Distress not the Moabites, neither contend with them in battle: for I will not give thee of their land [for] a possession; because I have given Ar unto the children of Lot [for] a possession.
Deuteronomy 2:18 Thou art to pass over through Ar, the coast of Moab, this day:

brought to silence:
or, cut off

Kir:

Isaiah 16:7 Therefore shall Moab howl for Moab, every one shall howl: for the foundations of Kirhareseth shall ye mourn; surely [they are] stricken.
, Kir-hareseth,
Isaiah 16:11 Wherefore my bowels shall sound like an harp for Moab, and mine inward parts for Kirharesh.
, Kir-haresh,
2 Kings 3:25 And they beat down the cities, and on every good piece of land cast every man his stone, and filled it; and they stopped all the wells of water, and felled all the good trees: only in Kirharaseth left they the stones thereof; howbeit the slingers went about [it], and smote it.
, Kir-haraseth,
Jeremiah 48:31 Therefore will I howl for Moab, and I will cry out for all Moab; [mine heart] shall mourn for the men of Kirheres.
Jeremiah 48:36 Therefore mine heart shall sound for Moab like pipes, and mine heart shall sound like pipes for the men of Kirheres: because the riches [that] he hath gotten are perished.
, Kir-heres
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Ex 12:29. Nu 21:28. Dt 2:9, 18. 2K 3:25. Is 11:14; 13:1; 14:28; 16:7, 11; 25:10. Jr 9:26; 48:1, 31, 36. Ezk 25:8. Am 2:1. Zp 2:8. 1Th 5:1.

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