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Isaiah 1:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evil-doers, children that deal corruptly! they have forsaken Jehovah, they have despised the Holy One of Israel, they are estranged [and gone] backward.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken the LORD, they have provoked the Holy One of Israel unto anger, they are gone away backward.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Alas, sinful nation, People weighed down with iniquity, Offspring of evildoers, Sons who act corruptly! They have abandoned the LORD, They have despised the Holy One of Israel, They have turned away from Him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evil-doers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken the LORD, they have provoked the Holy One of Israel to anger, they are gone away backward.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that corrupt themselves! They have forsaken Jehovah; they have despised the Holy One of Israel; they are turned away backward.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Alas! a nation—committing sin, a people—burdened with iniquity, a seed—practising wickedness, sons—acting corruptly. They have, forsaken Yahweh, despised the Holy One of Israel,—Are estranged and gone back.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Ah, sinning nation, a people heavy [with] iniquity, A seed of evil doers, sons—corrupters! They have forsaken Jehovah, They have despised the Holy One of Israel, They have gone away backward.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Woe to the sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a wicked seed, ungracious children: they have forsaken the Lord, they have blasphemed the Holy One of Israel, they are gone away backwards.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Ah sinnefull nation, a people laden with iniquitie, a seede of euill doers, children that are corrupters: they haue forsaken the LORD, they haue prouoked the Holy one of Israel vnto anger, they are gone away backward.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Ah sinful nation, a people full of sins, an evil seed, lawless children: ye have forsaken the Lord, and provoked the Holy One of Israel.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken Yahweh, they have provoked the Holy One of Yisrael unto anger, they are gone away backward.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Ah 1945
{1945} Prime
הוֹי
howy
{hoh'ee}
A prolonged form of H1930 (akin to H0188); oh!.
sinful 2398
{2398} Prime
חטא
chata'
{khaw-taw'}
A primitive root; properly to miss; hence (figuratively and generally) to sin; by inference to forfeit, lack, expiate, repent, (causatively) lead astray, condemn.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
nation, 1471
{1471} Prime
גּוֹי
gowy
{go'-ee}
Apparently from the same root as H1465 (in the sense of massing); a foreign nation; hence a Gentile; also (figuratively) a troop of animals, or a flight of locusts.
a people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
laden 3515
{3515} Prime
כָּבֵד
kabed
{kaw-bade'}
From H3513; heavy; figuratively in a good sense (numerous) or in a bad sense (severe, difficult, stupid).
with iniquity, 5771
{5771} Prime
עָוֹן
`avon
{aw-vone'}
From H5753; perversity, that is, (moral) evil.
a seed 2233
{2233} Prime
זֶרַע
zera`
{zeh'-rah}
From H2232; seed; figuratively fruit, plant, sowing time, posterity.
of evildoers, 7489
{7489} Prime
רָעַע
ra`a`
{raw-ah'}
A primitive root; properly to spoil (literally by breaking to pieces); figuratively to make (or be) good for nothing, that is, bad (physically, socially or morally). (associate selves and show self friendly are by mistake for H7462.).
z8688
<8688> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 857
children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
that are corrupters: 7843
{7843} Prime
שָׁחַת
shachath
{shaw-khath'}
A primitive root; to decay, that is, (causatively) ruin (literally or figuratively).
z8688
<8688> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 857
they have forsaken 5800
{5800} Prime
עָזַב
`azab
{aw-zab'}
A primitive root; to loosen, that is, relinquish, permit, etc.
853
{0853} Prime
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
they have provoked 5006
{5006} Prime
נָאַץ
na'ats
{naw-ats'}
A primitive root; to scorn; or (Ecclesiastes 12:5) by interchange for H5132, to bloom.
853
{0853} Prime
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
the Holy One 6918
{6918} Prime
קָדוֹשׁ
qadowsh
{kaw-doshe'}
From H6942; sacred (ceremonially or morally); (as noun) God (by eminence), an angel, a saint, a sanctuary.
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
unto anger, y5006
[5006] Standard
נָאַץ
na'ats
{naw-ats'}
A primitive root; to scorn; or (Ecclesiastes 12:5) by interchange for H5132, to bloom.
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
they are gone away 2114
{2114} Prime
זוּר
zuwr
{zoor}
A primitive root; to turn aside (especially for lodging); hence to be a foreigner, strange, profane; specifically (active participle) to commit adultery.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
backward. 268
{0268} Prime
אָחוֹר
'achowr
{aw-khore'}
From H0299; the hinder part; hence (adverbially) behind, backward; also (as facing north) the West.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Isaiah 1:4

_ _ people — the peculiar designation of God’s elect nation (Hosea 1:10), that they should be “laden with iniquity” is therefore the more monstrous. Sin is a load (Psalms 38:4; Matthew 11:28).

_ _ seed — another appellation of God’s elect (Genesis 12:7; Jeremiah 2:21), designed to be a “holy seed” (Isaiah 6:13), but, awful to say, “evildoers!”

_ _ children — by adoption (Hosea 11:1), yet “evildoers”; not only so, but “corrupters” of others (Genesis 6:12); the climax. So “nation — people — seed children.”

_ _ provoked — literally, “despised,” namely, so as to provoke (Proverbs 1:30, Proverbs 1:31).

_ _ Holy One of Israel — the peculiar heinousness of their sin, that it was against their God (Amos 3:2).

_ _ gone ... backward — literally, “estranged” (Psalms 58:3).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Isaiah 1:2-9.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Isaiah 1:4

A seed — The children of wicked parents, whose guilt they inherit, and whose evil example they follow. Corrupters — Heb. that corrupt themselves, or others by their counsel and example. Backward — Instead of proceeding forward and growing in grace.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Isaiah 1:4

Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a (g) seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken the LORD, they have provoked the (h) Holy One of Israel to anger, they are gone away backward.

(g) They were not only wicked as were their fathers, but utterly corrupt and by their evil example infected others.

(h) That is, him that sanctifies Israel.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Ah sinful:

Isaiah 1:23 Thy princes [are] rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.
Isaiah 10:6 I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.
Isaiah 30:9 That this [is] a rebellious people, lying children, children [that] will not hear the law of the LORD:
Genesis 13:13 But the men of Sodom [were] wicked and sinners before the LORD exceedingly.
Matthew 11:28 Come unto me, all [ye] that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.
Acts 7:51-52 Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers [did], so [do] ye. ... Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? and they have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the Just One; of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers:
Revelation 18:5 For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

laden with iniquity:
Heb. of heaviness

a seed:

Isaiah 57:3-4 But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer and the whore. ... Against whom do ye sport yourselves? against whom make ye a wide mouth, [and] draw out the tongue? [are] ye not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood,
Numbers 32:14 And, behold, ye are risen up in your fathers' stead, an increase of sinful men, to augment yet the fierce anger of the LORD toward Israel.
Psalms 78:8 And might not be as their fathers, a stubborn and rebellious generation; a generation [that] set not their heart aright, and whose spirit was not stedfast with God.
Jeremiah 7:26 Yet they hearkened not unto me, nor inclined their ear, but hardened their neck: they did worse than their fathers.
Jeremiah 16:11-12 Then shalt thou say unto them, Because your fathers have forsaken me, saith the LORD, and have walked after other gods, and have served them, and have worshipped them, and have forsaken me, and have not kept my law; ... And ye have done worse than your fathers; for, behold, ye walk every one after the imagination of his evil heart, that they may not hearken unto me:
Matthew 3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
Matthew 23:33 [Ye] serpents, [ye] generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

children:

Jeremiah 2:33 Why trimmest thou thy way to seek love? therefore hast thou also taught the wicked ones thy ways.
Ezekiel 16:33 They give gifts to all whores: but thou givest thy gifts to all thy lovers, and hirest them, that they may come unto thee on every side for thy whoredom.

forsaken:

Deuteronomy 29:25 Then men shall say, Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD God of their fathers, which he made with them when he brought them forth out of the land of Egypt:
Deuteronomy 31:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; and this people will rise up, and go a whoring after the gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go [to be] among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them.
Judges 10:10 And the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, saying, We have sinned against thee, both because we have forsaken our God, and also served Baalim.
Jeremiah 2:13 For my people have committed two evils; they have forsaken me the fountain of living waters, [and] hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water.
Jeremiah 2:17 Hast thou not procured this unto thyself, in that thou hast forsaken the LORD thy God, when he led thee by the way?
Jeremiah 2:19 Thine own wickedness shall correct thee, and thy backslidings shall reprove thee: know therefore and see that [it is] an evil [thing] and bitter, that thou hast forsaken the LORD thy God, and that my fear [is] not in thee, saith the Lord GOD of hosts.

provoked:

Isaiah 3:8 For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen: because their tongue and their doings [are] against the LORD, to provoke the eyes of his glory.
Isaiah 65:3 A people that provoketh me to anger continually to my face; that sacrificeth in gardens, and burneth incense upon altars of brick;
Deuteronomy 32:19 And when the LORD saw [it], he abhorred [them], because of the provoking of his sons, and of his daughters.
Psalms 78:40 How oft did they provoke him in the wilderness, [and] grieve him in the desert!
Jeremiah 7:19 Do they provoke me to anger? saith the LORD: [do they] not [provoke] themselves to the confusion of their own faces?
1 Corinthians 10:22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than he?

the Holy:

Isaiah 5:19 That say, Let him make speed, [and] hasten his work, that we may see [it]: and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, that we may know [it]!
Isaiah 5:24 Therefore as the fire devoureth the stubble, and the flame consumeth the chaff, [so] their root shall be as rottenness, and their blossom shall go up as dust: because they have cast away the law of the LORD of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.
Isaiah 12:6 Cry out and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion: for great [is] the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.
Isaiah 29:19 The meek also shall increase [their] joy in the LORD, and the poor among men shall rejoice in the Holy One of Israel.
Isaiah 30:11-12 Get you out of the way, turn aside out of the path, cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from before us. ... Wherefore thus saith the Holy One of Israel, Because ye despise this word, and trust in oppression and perverseness, and stay thereon:
Isaiah 30:15 For thus saith the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel; In returning and rest shall ye be saved; in quietness and in confidence shall be your strength: and ye would not.
Isaiah 37:23 Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed? and against whom hast thou exalted [thy] voice, and lifted up thine eyes on high? [even] against the Holy One of Israel.
Isaiah 41:14 Fear not, thou worm Jacob, [and] ye men of Israel; I will help thee, saith the LORD, and thy redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.
Isaiah 41:16 Thou shalt fan them, and the wind shall carry them away, and the whirlwind shall scatter them: and thou shalt rejoice in the LORD, [and] shalt glory in the Holy One of Israel.
Isaiah 41:20 That they may see, and know, and consider, and understand together, that the hand of the LORD hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it.
Psalms 89:18 For the LORD [is] our defence; and the Holy One of Israel [is] our king.
Jeremiah 50:29 Call together the archers against Babylon: all ye that bend the bow, camp against it round about; let none thereof escape: recompense her according to her work; according to all that she hath done, do unto her: for she hath been proud against the LORD, against the Holy One of Israel.
Jeremiah 51:5 For Israel [hath] not [been] forsaken, nor Judah of his God, of the LORD of hosts; though their land was filled with sin against the Holy One of Israel.

gone away backward:
Heb. alienated, or separated,
Psalms 58:3 The wicked are estranged from the womb: they go astray as soon as they be born, speaking lies.
Jeremiah 2:5 Thus saith the LORD, What iniquity have your fathers found in me, that they are gone far from me, and have walked after vanity, and are become vain?
Jeremiah 2:31 O generation, see ye the word of the LORD. Have I been a wilderness unto Israel? a land of darkness? wherefore say my people, We are lords; we will come no more unto thee?
Romans 8:7 Because the carnal mind [is] enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.
Colossians 1:24 Who now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the church:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 13:13. Nu 32:14. Dt 29:25; 31:16; 32:19. Jg 10:10. Ps 58:3; 78:8, 40; 89:18. Is 1:23; 3:8; 5:19, 24; 10:6; 12:6; 29:19; 30:9, 11, 15; 37:23; 41:14, 16, 20; 57:3; 65:3. Jr 2:5, 13, 17, 19, 31, 33; 7:19, 26; 16:11; 50:29; 51:5. Ezk 16:33. Mt 3:7; 11:28; 23:33. Ac 7:51. Ro 8:7. 1Co 10:22. Col 1:24. Rv 18:5.

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