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Hosea 4:13 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and terebinths, because the shadow thereof is good: therefore your daughters play the harlot, and your brides commit adultery.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shadow thereof [is] good: therefore your daughters shall commit whoredom, and your spouses shall commit adultery.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— They offer sacrifices on the tops of the mountains And burn incense on the hills, Under oak, poplar and terebinth, Because their shade is pleasant. Therefore your daughters play the harlot And your brides commit adultery.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shade of them is agreeable: therefore your daughters shall be guilty of lewdness, and your spouses shall commit adultery.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— they sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oak and poplar and terebinth, because the shade thereof is good; therefore your daughters play the harlot and your daughters-in-law commit adultery.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— On the headlands of the mountains, they sacrifice, and, on the hills, burn they incense, under oak and poplar and terebinth, because, pleasant, is the shade thereof: For this cause, do your daughters, become unchaste, and, your brides, commit adultery.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— On tops of the mountains they do sacrifice, And on the hills they make perfume, Under oak, and poplar, and terebinth, For good [is] its shade.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— They offered sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burnt incense upon the hills: under the oak, and the poplar, and the turpentine tree, because the shadow thereof was good: therefore shall your daughters commit fornication, and your spouses shall be adulteresses.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— They sacrifice vpon the tops of the mountaines, and burne incense vpon the hilles vnder okes and poplars, and elmes, because the shadowe thereof [is] good: therefore your daughters shall commit whoredome, and your spouses shall commit adulterie.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— They have sacrificed on the tops of the mountains, and on the hills they have sacrificed under the oak and poplar, and under the shady tree, because the shade was good: therefore your daughters shall go a-whoring, and your daughters-in-law shall commit adultery.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shadow thereof [is] good: therefore your daughters shall commit whoredom, and your spouses shall commit adultery.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
They sacrifice 2076
{2076} Prime
זָבַח
zabach
{zaw-bakh'}
A primitive root; to slaughter an animal (usually in sacrifice).
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the tops 7218
{7218} Prime
רֹאשׁ
ro'sh
{roshe}
From an unused root apparently meaning to shake; the head (as most easily shaken), whether literally or figuratively (in many applications, of place, time, rank, etc.).
of the mountains, 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
and burn incense 6999
{6999} Prime
מֻקְטָר
qatar
{kaw-tar'}
A primitive root (rather identical with H7000 through the idea of fumigation in a close place and perhaps thus driving out the occupants); to smoke, that is, turn into fragrance by fire (especially as an act of worship).
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the hills, 1389
{1389} Prime
גִּבְעָה
gib`ah
{ghib-aw'}
Feminine from the same as H1387; a hillock.
under x8478
(8478) Complement
תַּחַת
tachath
{takh'-ath}
From the same as H8430; the bottom (as depressed); only adverbially below (often with prepositional prefix underneath), in lieu of, etc.
oaks 437
{0437} Prime
אַלּוֹן
'allown
{al-lone'}
A variation of H0436.
and poplars 3839
{3839} Prime
לִבְנֶה
libneh
{lib-neh'}
From H3835; some sort of whitish tree, perhaps the storax.
and elms, 424
{0424} Prime
אֵלָה
'elah
{ay-law'}
Feminine of H0352; an oak or other strong tree.
because x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
the shadow 6738
{6738} Prime
צֵל
tsel
{tsale}
From H6751; shade, whether literally or figuratively.
thereof [is] good: 2896
{2896} Prime
טוֹב
towb
{tobe}
From H2895; good (as an adjective) in the widest sense; used likewise as a noun, both in the masculine and the feminine, the singular and the plural (good, a good or good thing, a good man or woman; the good, goods or good things, good men or women), also as an adverb (well).
therefore x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
x3651
(3651) Complement
כֵּן
ken
{kane}
From H3559; properly set upright; hence (figuratively as adjective) just; but usually (as adverb or conjugation) rightly or so (in various applications to manner, time and relation; often with other particles).
your daughters 1323
{1323} Prime
בַּת
bath
{bath}
From H1129 (as feminine of H1121); a daughter (used in the same wide sense as other terms of relationship, literally and figuratively).
shall commit whoredom, 2181
{2181} Prime
זָנָה
zanah
{zaw-naw'}
A primitive root (highly fed and therefore wanton); to commit adultery (usually of the female, and less often of simple forniciation, rarely of involuntary ravishment); figuratively to commit idolatry (the Jewish people being regarded as the spouse of Jehovah).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and your spouses 3618
{3618} Prime
כַּלָּה
kallah
{kal-law'}
From H3634; a bride (as if perfect); hence a son's wife.
shall commit adultery. 5003
{5003} Prime
נָאַף
na'aph
{naw-af'}
A primitive root; to commit adultery; figuratively to apostatize.
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Hosea 4:13

_ _ upon ... mountains — High places were selected by idolaters on which to sacrifice, because of their greater nearness to the heavenly hosts which they worshipped (Deuteronomy 12:2).

_ _ elms — rather, “terebinths” [Maurer].

_ _ shadow ... good — screening the lascivious worshippers from the heat of the sun.

_ _ daughters ... commit whoredom ... spouses ... adultery — in the polluted worship of Astarte, the Phoenician goddess of love.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Hosea 4:12-19.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Hosea 4:13

Good — Convenient for the sacrificers. Shall commit whoredom — Shall dishonour themselves, and their families, with fornicators.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Hosea 4:13

They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shadow thereof [is] good: therefore your daughters shall (p) commit whoredom, and your spouses shall commit adultery.

(p) Because they take away God's honour, and give it to idols: therefore he will give them up to their lusts, so that they will dishonour their own bodies; (Romans 1:28).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
sacrifice:

Isaiah 1:29 For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired, and ye shall be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen.
Isaiah 57:5 Enflaming yourselves with idols under every green tree, slaying the children in the valleys under the clifts of the rocks?
Isaiah 57:7 Upon a lofty and high mountain hast thou set thy bed: even thither wentest thou up to offer sacrifice.
Jeremiah 3:6 The LORD said also unto me in the days of Josiah the king, Hast thou seen [that] which backsliding Israel hath done? she is gone up upon every high mountain and under every green tree, and there hath played the harlot.
Jeremiah 3:13 Only acknowledge thine iniquity, that thou hast transgressed against the LORD thy God, and hast scattered thy ways to the strangers under every green tree, and ye have not obeyed my voice, saith the LORD.
Ezekiel 6:13 Then shall ye know that I [am] the LORD, when their slain [men] shall be among their idols round about their altars, upon every high hill, in all the tops of the mountains, and under every green tree, and under every thick oak, the place where they did offer sweet savour to all their idols.
Ezekiel 16:16 And of thy garments thou didst take, and deckedst thy high places with divers colours, and playedst the harlot thereupon: [the like things] shall not come, neither shall it be [so].
Ezekiel 16:25 Thou hast built thy high place at every head of the way, and hast made thy beauty to be abhorred, and hast opened thy feet to every one that passed by, and multiplied thy whoredoms.
Ezekiel 20:28-29 [For] when I had brought them into the land, [for] the which I lifted up mine hand to give it to them, then they saw every high hill, and all the thick trees, and they offered there their sacrifices, and there they presented the provocation of their offering: there also they made their sweet savour, and poured out there their drink offerings. ... Then I said unto them, What [is] the high place whereunto ye go? And the name thereof is called Bamah unto this day.

therefore:

2 Samuel 12:10-12 Now therefore the sword shall never depart from thine house; because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be thy wife. ... For thou didst [it] secretly: but I will do this thing before all Israel, and before the sun.
Job 31:9-10 If mine heart have been deceived by a woman, or [if] I have laid wait at my neighbour's door; ... [Then] let my wife grind unto another, and let others bow down upon her.
Amos 7:17 Therefore thus saith the LORD; Thy wife shall be an harlot in the city, and thy sons and thy daughters shall fall by the sword, and thy land shall be divided by line; and thou shalt die in a polluted land: and Israel shall surely go into captivity forth of his land.
Romans 1:23-28 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. ... And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

2S 12:10. Jb 31:9. Is 1:29; 57:5, 7. Jr 3:6, 13. Ezk 6:13; 16:16, 25; 20:28. Am 7:17. Ro 1:23.

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