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Hosea 3:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— For the children of Israel shall abide many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without pillar, and without ephod or teraphim:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and [without] teraphim:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— For the sons of Israel will remain for many days without king or prince, without sacrifice or [sacred] pillar and without ephod or household idols.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and [without] teraphim:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— For the children of Israel shall abide many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without statue, and without ephod and teraphim.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— For, many days, shall the sons of Israel tarry, without king, and without ruler, and without sacrifice, and without pillar; and without ephod, or household gods.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— For many days remain do the sons of Israel without a king, and there is no prince, and there is no sacrifice, and there is no standing pillar, and there is no ephod and teraphim.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— For the children of Israel shall sit many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without altar, and without ephod, and without theraphim.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— For the children of Israel shall abide many dayes without a King, and without a Prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an Ephod, and [without] Teraphim.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an altar, and without a priesthood, and without manifestations.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— For the children of Yisrael shall abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and [without] teraphim:

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
For x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
shall abide 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
many 7227
{7227} Prime
רַב
rab
{rab}
By contraction from H7231; abundant (in quantity, size, age, number, rank, quality).
days 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
without x369
(0369) Complement
אַיִן
'ayin
{ah'-yin}
As if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing or not exist; a non-entity; generally used as a negative particle.
a king, 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
and without x369
(0369) Complement
אַיִן
'ayin
{ah'-yin}
As if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing or not exist; a non-entity; generally used as a negative particle.
a prince, 8269
{8269} Prime
שַׂר
sar
{sar}
From H8323; a head person (of any rank or class).
and without x369
(0369) Complement
אַיִן
'ayin
{ah'-yin}
As if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing or not exist; a non-entity; generally used as a negative particle.
a sacrifice, 2077
{2077} Prime
זֶבַח
zebach
{zeh'-bakh}
From H2076; properly a slaughter, that is, the flesh of an animal; by implication a sacrifice (the victim or the act).
and without x369
(0369) Complement
אַיִן
'ayin
{ah'-yin}
As if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing or not exist; a non-entity; generally used as a negative particle.
an image, 4676
{4676} Prime
מַצֵּבָה
matstsebah
{mats-tsay-baw'}
Feminine (causative) participle of H5324; something stationed, that is, a column or (memorial stone); by analogy an idol.
and without x369
(0369) Complement
אַיִן
'ayin
{ah'-yin}
As if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing or not exist; a non-entity; generally used as a negative particle.
an ephod, 646
{0646} Prime
אֵפוֹד
'ephowd
{ay-fode'}
Second form is a rare form; probably of foreign derivation; a girdle; specifically the ephod or high priest's shoulder piece; also generally an image.
and [without] teraphim: 8655
{8655} Prime
תְּרָפִים
t@raphiym
{ter-aw-feme'}
Plural perhaps from H7495; a healer; Teraphim (singular or plural) a family idol.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Hosea 3:4

_ _ The long period here foretold was to be one in which Israel should have no civil polity, king, or prince, no sacrifice to Jehovah, and yet no idol, or false god, no ephod, or teraphim. Exactly describing their state for the last nineteen centuries, separate from idols, yet without any legal sacrifice to Jehovah, whom they profess to worship, and without being acknowledged by Him as His Church. So Kimichi, a Jew, explains it. The ephod was worn by the high priest above the tunic and robe. It consisted of two finely wrought pieces which hung down, the one in front over the breast, the other on the back, to the middle of the thigh; joined on the shoulders by golden clasps set in onyx stones with the names of the twelve tribes, and fastened round the waist by a girdle (Exodus 28:6-12). The common ephod worn by the lower priests, Levites, and any person performing sacred rites, was of linen (2 Samuel 6:14; 1 Chronicles 15:27). In the breast were the Urim and Thummim by which God gave responses to the Hebrews. The latter was one of the five things which the second temple lacked, and which the first had. It, as representing the divinely constituted priesthood, is opposed to the idolatrous “teraphim,” as “sacrifice” (to Jehovah) is to “an (idolatrous) image.” “Abide” answers to “thou shalt abide for me” (Hosea 3:3). Abide in solitary isolation, as a separated wife. The teraphim were tutelary household gods, in the shape of human busts, cut off at the waist (as the root of the Hebrew word implies) [Maurer], (Genesis 31:19, Genesis 31:30-35). They were supposed to give responses to consulters (2 Kings 23:24; Ezekiel 21:21, Margin; Zechariah 10:2). Saul’s daughter, Michal, putting one in a bed, as if it were David, proves the shape to have been that of a man.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Hosea 3:1-5.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Hosea 3:4

For — Now the parable is unfolded, it shall be with Israel as with such a woman, they and she were guilty of adultery, both punished long, both made slaves, kept hardly, and valued meanly, yet in mercy at last pardoned, and re — accepted tho' after a long time of probation. Without a king — None of their own royal line shall sit on the throne. A prince — Strangers shall be princes and governors over them. Without a sacrifice — Offered according to the law. An image — They could carry none of their images with them, and the Assyrians would not let them make new ones. Ephod — No priest as well as no ephod. And without teraphim — Idolatrous images kept in their private houses, like the Roman household gods; in one word, such should be the state of their captives; they should have nothing of their own either in religious or civil affairs, but be wholly under the power of their conquering enemies.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Hosea 3:4

For the children of Israel shall (e) abide many days without a king, and without a (f) prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and [without] teraphim:

(e) Meaning not only all the time of their captivity, but also until Christ.

(f) That is, they would neither have administration nor religion, and their idols also in which they put their confidence, would be destroyed.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
without a king:

Hosea 10:3 For now they shall say, We have no king, because we feared not the LORD; what then should a king do to us?
Genesis 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him [shall] the gathering of the people [be].
Jeremiah 15:4-5 And I will cause them to be removed into all kingdoms of the earth, because of Manasseh the son of Hezekiah king of Judah, for [that] which he did in Jerusalem. ... For who shall have pity upon thee, O Jerusalem? or who shall bemoan thee? or who shall go aside to ask how thou doest?
John 19:15 But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him], crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

without a sacrifice:

2 Chronicles 15:2 And he went out to meet Asa, and said unto him, Hear ye me, Asa, and all Judah and Benjamin; The LORD [is] with you, while ye be with him; and if ye seek him, he will be found of you; but if ye forsake him, he will forsake you.
Daniel 8:11-13 Yea, he magnified [himself] even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily [sacrifice] was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. ... Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain [saint] which spake, How long [shall be] the vision [concerning] the daily [sacrifice], and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?
Daniel 9:27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
Daniel 12:11 And from the time [that] the daily [sacrifice] shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, [there shall be] a thousand two hundred and ninety days.
Matthew 24:1-2 And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to [him] for to shew him the buildings of the temple. ... And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
Luke 21:24 And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.
Acts 6:13-14 And set up false witnesses, which said, This man ceaseth not to speak blasphemous words against this holy place, and the law: ... For we have heard him say, that this Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place, and shall change the customs which Moses delivered us.
Hebrews 10:26 For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins,

an image:
Heb. a standing, or statue, or pillar,
Isaiah 19:19-20 In that day shall there be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the LORD. ... And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto the LORD of hosts in the land of Egypt: for they shall cry unto the LORD because of the oppressors, and he shall send them a saviour, and a great one, and he shall deliver them.

ephod:

Exodus 28:4 And these [are] the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
Leviticus 8:7 And he put upon him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound [it] unto him therewith.
Judges 8:27 And Gideon made an ephod thereof, and put it in his city, [even] in Ophrah: and all Israel went thither a whoring after it: which thing became a snare unto Gideon, and to his house.
Judges 17:5 And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.
1 Samuel 2:18 But Samuel ministered before the LORD, [being] a child, girded with a linen ephod.
1 Samuel 14:3 And Ahiah, the son of Ahitub, Ichabod's brother, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, the LORD'S priest in Shiloh, wearing an ephod. And the people knew not that Jonathan was gone.
1 Samuel 21:9 And the priest said, The sword of Goliath the Philistine, whom thou slewest in the valley of Elah, behold, it [is here] wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod: if thou wilt take that, take [it]: for [there is] no other save that here. And David said, [There is] none like that; give it me.
1 Samuel 22:18 And the king said to Doeg, Turn thou, and fall upon the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell upon the priests, and slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod.
1 Samuel 23:6 And it came to pass, when Abiathar the son of Ahimelech fled to David to Keilah, [that] he came down [with] an ephod in his hand.
1 Samuel 23:9 And David knew that Saul secretly practised mischief against him; and he said to Abiathar the priest, Bring hither the ephod.
1 Samuel 30:7 And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray thee, bring me hither the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither the ephod to David.
2 Samuel 6:14 And David danced before the LORD with all [his] might; and David [was] girded with a linen ephod.

without teraphim:

Genesis 31:19 And Laban went to shear his sheep: and Rachel had stolen the images that [were] her father's.
*marg.
Judges 17:5 And the man Micah had an house of gods, and made an ephod, and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons, who became his priest.
Judges 18:17-24 And the five men that went to spy out the land went up, [and] came in thither, [and] took the graven image, and the ephod, and the teraphim, and the molten image: and the priest stood in the entering of the gate with the six hundred men [that were] appointed with weapons of war. ... And he said, Ye have taken away my gods which I made, and the priest, and ye are gone away: and what have I more? and what [is] this [that] ye say unto me, What aileth thee?
2 Kings 23:24 Moreover the [workers with] familiar spirits, and the wizards, and the images, and the idols, and all the abominations that were spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might perform the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD.
*marg.
Ezekiel 20:32 And that which cometh into your mind shall not be at all, that ye say, We will be as the heathen, as the families of the countries, to serve wood and stone.
Ezekiel 21:21 For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination: he made [his] arrows bright, he consulted with images, he looked in the liver.
*marg.
Micah 5:11-14 And I will cut off the cities of thy land, and throw down all thy strong holds: ... And I will pluck up thy groves out of the midst of thee: so will I destroy thy cities.
Zechariah 13:2 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD of hosts, [that] I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered: and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 31:19; 49:10. Ex 28:4. Lv 8:7. Jg 8:27; 17:5; 18:17. 1S 2:18; 14:3; 21:9; 22:18; 23:6, 9; 30:7. 2S 6:14. 2K 23:24. 2Ch 15:2. Is 19:19. Jr 15:4. Ezk 20:32; 21:21. Dn 8:11; 9:27; 12:11. Ho 10:3. Mi 5:11. Zc 13:2. Mt 24:1. Lk 21:24. Jn 19:15. Ac 6:13. He 10:26.

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