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Hosea 10:11 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Ephraim is a heifer that is taught, that loveth to tread out [the grain]; but I have passed over upon her fair neck: I will set a rider on Ephraim; Judah shall plow, Jacob shall break his clods.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Ephraim [is as] an heifer [that is] taught, [and] loveth to tread out [the corn]; but I passed over upon her fair neck: I will make Ephraim to ride; Judah shall plow, [and] Jacob shall break his clods.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Ephraim is a trained heifer that loves to thresh, But I will come over her fair neck [with a yoke]; I will harness Ephraim, Judah will plow, Jacob will harrow for himself.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Ephraim [is as] a heifer [that is] taught, [and] loveth to tread out [the corn]; but I passed over upon her fair neck: I will make Ephraim to ride; Judah shall plow, [and] Jacob shall break his clods.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Ephraim is a trained heifer, that loveth to tread out [the corn]; I have passed over upon her fair neck: I will make Ephraim to draw; Judah shall plough, Jacob shall break his clods.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, Ephraim, shall be a heifer broken in, loving to tread out corn, when, I, have passed over upon her fair neck,—I will drive Ephraim, Judah, shall plow, Jacob, shall harrow to him.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Ephraim [is] a trained heifer—loving to thresh, And I—I have passed over on the goodness of its neck, I cause [one] to ride Ephraim, Plough doth Judah, harrow for him doth Jacob.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Ephraim is a heifer taught to love to tread out corn, but I passed over upon the beauty of her neck: I will ride upon Ephraim, Juda shall plough, Jacob shall break the furrows for himself.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Ephraim [is as] an heifer that is taught [and] loueth to tread out [the corne], but I passed ouer vpon her faire necke: I will make Ephraim to ride: Iudah shall plow, [and] Iacob shall breake his clods.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Ephraim is a heifer taught to love victory, but I will come upon the fairest part of her neck: I will mount Ephraim; I will pass over Judah{gr.Juda} in silence; Jacob shall prevail against him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Efrayim [is as] an heifer [that is] taught, [and] loveth to tread out [the corn]; but I passed over upon her fair neck: I will make Efrayim to ride; Yehudah shall plow, [and] Yaaqov shall break his clods.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And ´Efrayim אֶפרַיִם 669
{0669} Prime
אֶפְרַיִם
'Ephrayim
{ef-rah'-yim}
Dual of a masculine form of H0672; double fruit; Ephrajim, a son of Joseph; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
[is as] an heifer 5697
{5697} Prime
עֶגְלָה
`eglah
{eg-law'}
Feminine of H5695; a (female) calf, especially one nearly grown (that is, a heifer).
[that is] taught, 3925
{3925} Prime
לָמַד
lamad
{law-mad'}
A primitive root; properly to goad, that is, (by implication) to teach (the rod being an Oriental incentive).
z8794
<8794> Grammar
Stem - Pual (See H8849)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 194
[and] loveth 157
{0157} Prime
אָהַב
'ahab
{aw-hab'}
A primitive root; to have affection for (sexually or otherwise).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
to tread out 1758
{1758} Prime
דּוּשׁ
duwsh
{doosh}
A primitive root; to trample or thresh.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
[the corn]; but I x589
(0589) Complement
אֲנִי
'aniy
{an-ee'}
Contracted from H0595; I.
passed over 5674
{5674} Prime
עָבַר
`abar
{aw-bar'}
A primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literally or figuratively; transitively, intransitively, intensively or causatively); specifically to cover (in copulation).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
her fair 2898
{2898} Prime
טוּב
tuwb
{toob}
From H2895; good (as a noun), in the widest sense, especially goodness (superlatively concrete, the best), beauty, gladness, welfare.
neck: 6677
{6677} Prime
צַוָּאר
tsavva'r
{tsav-vawr'}
Intensive from H6696 in the sense of binding; the back of the neck (as that on which burdens are bound).
I will make ´Efrayim אֶפרַיִם 669
{0669} Prime
אֶפְרַיִם
'Ephrayim
{ef-rah'-yim}
Dual of a masculine form of H0672; double fruit; Ephrajim, a son of Joseph; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
to ride; 7392
{7392} Prime
רָכַב
rakab
{raw-kab'}
A primitive root; to ride (on an animal or in a vehicle); causatively to place upon (for riding or generally), to despatch.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
Yćhűđŕ יְהוּדָה 3063
{3063} Prime
יְהוּדָה
Y@huwdah
{yeh-hoo-daw'}
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
shall plow, 2790
{2790} Prime
חָרַשׁ
charash
{khaw-rash'}
A primitive root; to scratch, that is, (by implication) to engrave, plough; hence (from the use of tools) to fabricate (of any material); figuratively to devise (in a bad sense); hence (from the idea of secrecy) to be silent, to let alone; hence (by implication) to be deaf (as an accompaniment of dumbness).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
[and] Ya`áköv יַעֲקֹב 3290
{3290} Prime
יַעֲקֹב
Ya`aqob
{yah-ak-obe'}
From H6117; heel catcher (that is, supplanter); Jaakob, the Israelitish patriarch.
shall break his clods. 7702
{7702} Prime
שָׂדַד
sadad
{saw-dad'}
A primitive root; to abrade, that is, harrow a field.
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Hosea 10:11

_ _ taught — that is, accustomed.

_ _ loveth to tread out ... corn — a far easier and more self-indulgent work than ploughing. In treading corn, cattle were not bound together under a yoke, but either trod it singly with their feet, or drew a threshing sledge over it (Isaiah 28:27, Isaiah 28:28): they were free to eat some of the corn from time to time, as the law required they should be unmuzzled (Deuteronomy 25:4), so that they grew fat in this work. An image of Israel’s freedom, prosperity, and self-indulgence heretofore. But now God will put the Assyrian yoke upon her, instead of freedom, putting her to servile work.

_ _ I passed over upon — I put the yoke upon.

_ _ make ... to ride — as in Job 30:22; that is, hurry Ephraim away to a distant region [Calvin]. Lyra translates, “I will make (the Assyrian) to ride upon Ephraim.” Maurer, “I will make Ephraim to carry,” namely, a charioteer.

_ _ his clods — “the clods before him.”

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Hosea 10:9-15.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Hosea 10:11

Taught — Used to, and so skilled in. Passed over — I laid some lighter yoke upon her, brought some gentle afflictions upon that people to tame them, but this hath not prevailed. Ride — I will ride on Ephraim and tame him. Shall plow — Judah tho' less sinful hath been used to harder labour; hath plowed when Ephraim hath reaped. Break his clods — The same in another proverbial speech, their work at present is harder, but there is an harvest follows. Tho' they sow in tears when going to Babylon, they shall reap in joy at their return.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Hosea 10:11

And Ephraim [is as] an heifer [that is] taught, [and] loveth to (p) tread out [the corn]; but I passed over upon her (q) fair neck: I will make Ephraim to ride; Judah shall plow, [and] Jacob shall break his clods.

(p) In which is pleasure, whereas in plowing there is labour and pain.

(q) I will lay my yoke upon her fat neck.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
an heifer:

Hosea 4:16 For Israel slideth back as a backsliding heifer: now the LORD will feed them as a lamb in a large place.
Jeremiah 50:11 Because ye were glad, because ye rejoiced, O ye destroyers of mine heritage, because ye are grown fat as the heifer at grass, and bellow as bulls;

and loveth:

Hosea 2:5 For their mother hath played the harlot: she that conceived them hath done shamefully: for she said, I will go after my lovers, that give [me] my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, mine oil and my drink.
Hosea 3:1 Then said the LORD unto me, Go yet, love a woman beloved of [her] friend, yet an adulteress, according to the love of the LORD toward the children of Israel, who look to other gods, and love flagons of wine.
Hosea 9:1 Rejoice not, O Israel, for joy, as [other] people: for thou hast gone a whoring from thy God, thou hast loved a reward upon every cornfloor.
Deuteronomy 25:4 Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out [the corn].
Romans 16:18 For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

but:

Hosea 11:4 I drew them with cords of a man, with bands of love: and I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, and I laid meat unto them.

her fair neck:
Heb. the beauty of her neck

Judah:

2 Chronicles 28:5-8 Wherefore the LORD his God delivered him into the hand of the king of Syria; and they smote him, and carried away a great multitude of them captives, and brought [them] to Damascus. And he was also delivered into the hand of the king of Israel, who smote him with a great slaughter. ... And the children of Israel carried away captive of their brethren two hundred thousand, women, sons, and daughters, and took also away much spoil from them, and brought the spoil to Samaria.
Isaiah 28:24 Doth the plowman plow all day to sow? doth he open and break the clods of his ground?
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Dt 25:4. 2Ch 28:5. Is 28:24. Jr 50:11. Ho 2:5; 3:1; 4:16; 9:1; 11:4. Ro 16:18.

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