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Hebrews 7:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, who met Abraham as he was returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— For this Melchisedec, King of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from smiting the kings, and blessed him;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— For, this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him,—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— For this Melchisedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who did meet Abraham turning back from the smiting of the kings, and did bless him,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— For this Melchisedech was king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— For this Melchisedec king of Salem, Priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the Kings, and blessed him:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— FOR this Malki-Zedek is king of Sholim, the priest of Aloha the Most High. And he (it was who) met Abraham when he returned from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— Now this Melchisedec was king of Salem, a priest of the most high God: and he met Abraham, when returning from the slaughter of the kings; and blessed him.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
For 1063
{1063} Prime
γάρ
gar
{gar}
A primary particle; properly assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles).
this 3778
{3778} Prime
οὗτος
houtos
{hoo'-tos}
Including the nominative masculine plural (second form), nominative feminine signular (third form), and the nominate feminine plural, (fourth form). From the article G3588 and G0846; the he (she or it), that is, this or that (often with the article repeated).
Melchisedec, 3198
{3198} Prime
Μελχισέδεκ
Melchisedek
{mel-khis-ed-ek'}
Of Hebrew origin [H4442]; Melchisedek (that is, Malkitsedek), a patriarch.
king 935
{0935} Prime
βασιλεύς
basileus
{bas-il-yooce'}
Probably from G0939 (through the notion of a foundation of power); a sovereign (abstractly, relatively or figuratively).
of Salem, 4532
{4532} Prime
Σαλήμ
Salem
{sal-ame'}
Of Hebrew origin [H8004]; Salem (that is, Shalem), a place in Palestine.
priest 2409
{2409} Prime
ἱερεύς
hiereus
{hee-er-yooce'}
From G2413; a priest (literally or figuratively).
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
most high 5310
{5310} Prime
ὕψιστος
hupsistos
{hoop'-sis-tos}
Superlative from the base of G5311; highest, that is, (masculine singular) the Supreme (God), or (neuter plural) the heavens.
God, 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
who y3588
[3588] Standard

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
met 4876
{4876} Prime
συναντάω
sunantao
{soon-an-tah'-o}
From G4862 and a derivative of G0473; to meet with; figuratively to occur.
z5660
<5660> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 714
Abraham 11
{0011} Prime
Ἀβραάμ
Abraam
{ab-rah-am'}
Of Hebrew origin [H0085]; Abraham, the Hebrew patriarch. In Acts 7:16 the text should probably read Jacob.
returning 5290
{5290} Prime
ὑποστρέφω
hupostrepho
{hoop-os-tref'-o}
From G5259 and G4762; to turn under (behind), that is, to return (literally or figuratively).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
from 575
{0575} Prime
ἀπό
apo
{ap-o'}
A primary particle; 'off', that is, away (from something near), in various senses (of place, time, or relation; literally or figuratively).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
slaughter 2871
{2871} Prime
κοπή
kope
{kop-ay'}
From G2875; cutting, that is, carnage.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
kings, 935
{0935} Prime
βασιλεύς
basileus
{bas-il-yooce'}
Probably from G0939 (through the notion of a foundation of power); a sovereign (abstractly, relatively or figuratively).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
blessed 2127
{2127} Prime
εὐλογέω
eulogeo
{yoo-log-eh'-o}
From a compound of G2095 and G3056; to speak well of, that is, (religiously) to bless (thank or invoke a benediction upon, prosper).
z5660
<5660> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 714
him; 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Hebrews 7:1

_ _ Hebrews 7:1-28. Christ’s High Priesthood after the order of Melchisedec superior to Aaron’s.

_ _ this Melchisedec — (Hebrews 6:20; Psalms 110:4). The verb does not come till Hebrews 7:3, “abideth.”

_ _ king ... priest — Christ unites these offices in their highest sense, and so restores the patriarchal union of these offices.

_ _ Salem — Jerusalem, that is, seeing peace; others make Salem distinct, and to be that mentioned (Genesis 33:18; John 3:23).

_ _ the most high God — called also “Possessor of heaven and earth” (Genesis 14:19, Genesis 14:22). This title of God, “the Most High,” handed down by tradition from the primitive revelation, appears in the Phoenician god “Elion,” that is, Most High. It is used to imply that the God whom Melchisedec served is THE TRUE GOD, and not one of the gods of the nations around. So it is used in the only other cases in which it is found in the New Testament, namely in the address of the demoniac, and the divining damsel constrained to confess that her own gods were false, and God the only true God.

_ _ who met Abraham — in company with the king of Sodom (Genesis 14:17, Genesis 14:18).

_ _ slaughter — perhaps defeat, as Alford translates. So Genesis 14:17 (compare Genesis 14:15) may be translated. Arioch, king of Ellasar, lived and reigned after the disaster [Bengel]. However, if Chedorlaomer and Amraphel and Tidal were slain, though Arioch survived, “slaughter of the kings” would be correct.

_ _ blessed him — As priest he first blessed Abraham on God’s part; next he blessed God on Abraham’s part: a reciprocal blessing. Not a mere wish, but an authoritative and efficacious intercession as a priest. The Most High God’s prerogative as “Possessor of heaven and earth,” is made over to Abraham; and Abraham’s glory, from his victory over the foe, is made over to God. A blessed exchange for Abraham (Genesis 14:19, Genesis 14:20).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Hebrews 7:1-10

_ _ The foregoing chapter ended with a repetition of what had been cited once and again before out of Psalms 110:4, Jesus, a high priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec. Now this chapter is as a sermon upon that text; here the apostle sets before them some of the strong meat he had spoken of before, hoping they would by greater diligence be better prepared to digest it.

_ _ I. The great question that first offers itself is, Who was this Melchisedec? All the account we have of him in the Old Testament is in Genesis 14:18, etc., and in Psalms 110:4. Indeed we are much in the dark about him; God has thought fit to leave us so, that this Melchisedec might be a more lively type of him whose generation none can declare. If men will not be satisfied with what is revealed, they must rove about in the dark in endless conjectures, some fancying him to have been an angel, others the Holy Ghost; but,

_ _ 1. The opinions concerning him that are best worthy our consideration are these three: — (1.) Therabbin, and most of the Jewish writers, think he was Shem the son of Noah who was king and priest to their ancestors, after the manner of the other patriarchs; but it is not probable that he should thus change his name. Besides, we have no account of his settling in the land of Canaan. (2.) Many Christian writers have thought him to be Jesus Christ himself, appearing by a special dispensation and privilege to Abraham in the flesh, and who was known to Abraham by the name Melchisedec, which agrees very well to Christ, and to what is said, John 8:56, Abraham saw his day and rejoiced. Much may be said for this opinion, and what is said in Hebrews 7:3 does not seem to agree with any mere man; but then it seems strange to make Christ a type of himself. (3.) The most general opinion is that he was a Canaanite king, who reigned in Salem, and kept up religion and the worship of the true God; that he was raised to be a type of Christ, and was honoured by Abraham as such.

_ _ 2. But we shall leave these conjectures, and labour to understand, as far as we can, what is here said of him by the apostle, and how Christ is represented thereby, Hebrews 7:1-3. (1.) Melchisedec was a king, and so is the Lord Jesus — a king of God's anointing; the government is laid upon his shoulders, and he rules over all for the good of his people. (2.) That he was king of righteousness: his name signifies the righteous king. Jesus Christ is a rightful and a righteous king — rightful in his title, righteous in his government. He is the Lord our righteousness; he has fulfilled all righteousness, and brought in an everlasting righteousness, and he loves righteousness and righteous persons, and hates iniquity. (3.) He was king of Salem, that is, king of peace; first king of righteousness, and after that king of peace. So is our Lord Jesus; he by his righteousness made peace, the fruit of righteousness is peace. Christ speaks peace, creates peace, is our peace-maker. (4.) He was priest of the most high God, qualified and anointed in an extraordinary manner to be his priest among the Gentiles. So is the Lord Jesus; he is the priest of the most high God, and the Gentiles must come to God by him; it is only through his priesthood that we can obtain reconciliation and remission of sin. (5.) He was without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, Hebrews 7:3. This must not be understood according to the letter; but the scripture has chosen to set him forth as an extraordinary person, without giving us his genealogy, that he might be a fitter type of Christ, who as man was without father, as God without mother; whose priesthood is without descent, did not descend to him from another, nor from him to another, but is personal and perpetual. (6.) That he met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him. The incident is recorded Genesis 14:18, etc. He brought forth bread and wine to refresh Abraham and his servants when they were weary; he gave as a king, and blessed as a priest. Thus our Lord Jesus meets his people in their spiritual conflicts, refreshes them, renews their strength, and blesses them. (7.) That Abraham gave him a tenth part of all (Hebrews 7:2), that is, as the apostle explains it, of all the spoils; and this Abraham did as an expression of his gratitude for what Melchisedec had done for him, or as a testimony of his homage and subjection to him as a king, or as an offering vowed and dedicated to God, to be presented by his priest. And thus are we obliged to make all possible returns of love and gratitude to the Lord Jesus for all the rich and royal favours we receive from him, to pay our homage and subjection to him as our King, and to put all our offerings into his hands, to be presented by him to the Father in the incense of his own sacrifice. (8.) That this Melchisedec was made like unto the Son of God, and abideth a priest continually. He bore the image of God in his piety and authority, and stands upon record as an immortal high priest; the ancient type of him who is the eternal and only-begotten of the Father, who abideth a priest for ever.

_ _ II. Let us now consider (as the apostle advises) how great this Melchisedec was, and how far his priesthood was above that of the order of Aaron (Hebrews 7:4, Hebrews 7:5, etc.): Now consider how great this man was, etc. The greatness of this man and his priesthood appears, 1. From Abraham's paying the tenth of the spoils unto him; and it is well observed that Levi paid tithes to Melchisedec in Abraham, Hebrews 7:9. Now Levi received the office of the priesthood from God, and was to take tithes of the people, yet even Levi paid tithes to Melchisedec, as to a greater and higher priest than himself; therefore that high priest who should afterwards appear, of whom Melchisedec was a type, must be much superior to any of the Levitical priests, who paid tithes, in Abraham, to Melchisedec. And now by this argument of persons doing things that are matters of right or injury in the loins of their predecessors we have an illustration how we may be said to have sinned in Adam, and fallen with him in his first transgression. We were in Adam's loins when he sinned, and the guilt and depravity contracted by the human nature when it was in our first parents are equitably imputed and derived to the same nature as it is in all other persons naturally descended from them. They justly adhere to the nature, and it must be by an act of grace if ever they be taken away. 2. From Melchisedec's blessing of Abraham, who had the promises; and, without contradiction, the less is blessed of the greater, Hebrews 7:6, Hebrews 7:7. Here observe, (1.) Abraham's great dignity and felicity — that he had the promises. He was one in covenant with God, to whom God had given exceedingly great and precious promises. That man is rich and happy indeed who has an estate in bills and bonds under God's own hand and seal. These promises are both of the life that now is and of that which is to come; this honour have all those who receive the Lord Jesus, in whom all the promises are yea and amen. (2.) Melchisedec's greater honour — in that it was his place and privilege to bless Abraham; and it is an uncontested maxim that the less is blessed of the greater, Hebrews 7:7. He who gives the blessing is greater than he who receives it; and therefore Christ, the antitype of Melchisedec, the meriter and Mediator of all blessings to the children of men, must be greater than all the priests of the order of Aaron.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Hebrews 7:1

The sum of this chapter is, Christ, as appears from his type, Melchisedec, who was greater than Abraham himself, from whom Levi descended, has a priesthood altogether excellent, new, firm, perpetual. Genesis 14:18, &c.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Hebrews 7:1

For this (1) Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and (a) blessed him;

(1) Declaring those words, "According to the order of Melchizedek" upon which the comparison of the priesthood of Christ with the Levitical priesthood rests: first, Melchizedek himself is considered to be the type of Christ and these are the points of that comparison. Melchizedek was a king and a priest, as is Christ alone. He was a king of peace and righteousness as is Christ alone.

(a) With a solemn and priestly blessing.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
this:

Hebrews 6:20 Whither the forerunner is for us entered, [even] Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.
Genesis 14:18-20 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he [was] the priest of the most high God. ... And blessed be the most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all.

Salem:

Psalms 76:2 In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion.

the most:

Psalms 57:2 I will cry unto God most high; unto God that performeth [all things] for me.
Psalms 78:35 And they remembered that God [was] their rock, and the high God their redeemer.
Psalms 78:56 Yet they tempted and provoked the most high God, and kept not his testimonies:
Daniel 4:2 I thought it good to shew the signs and wonders that the high God hath wrought toward me.
Daniel 5:18 O thou king, the most high God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and majesty, and glory, and honour:
Daniel 5:21 And he was driven from the sons of men; and his heart was made like the beasts, and his dwelling [was] with the wild asses: they fed him with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven; till he knew that the most high God ruled in the kingdom of men, and [that] he appointeth over it whomsoever he will.
Micah 6:6 Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, [and] bow myself before the high God? shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old?
Mark 5:7 And cried with a loud voice, and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, [thou] Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, that thou torment me not.
Acts 16:17 The same followed Paul and us, and cried, saying, These men are the servants of the most high God, which shew unto us the way of salvation.

the slaughter:

Genesis 16:14-16 Wherefore the well was called Beerlahairoi; behold, [it is] between Kadesh and Bered. ... And Abram [was] fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram.
Isaiah 41:2-3 Who raised up the righteous [man] from the east, called him to his foot, gave the nations before him, and made [him] rule over kings? he gave [them] as the dust to his sword, [and] as driven stubble to his bow. ... He pursued them, [and] passed safely; [even] by the way [that] he had not gone with his feet.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 14:18; 16:14. Ps 57:2; 76:2; 78:35, 56. Is 41:2. Dn 4:2; 5:18, 21. Mi 6:6. Mk 5:7. Ac 16:17. He 6:20.

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