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Hebrews 12:23 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the Judge of all, and to the spirits of [the] righteous made perfect,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— To the general assembly and church of the first-born, who are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— the universal gathering; and to [the] assembly of the firstborn [who are] registered in heaven; and to God, judge of all; and to [the] spirits of just [men] made perfect;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— in high festival,—and unto an assembly of firstborn ones, enrolled in the heavens,—and unto God, judge of all,—and unto the spirits of righteous ones made perfect,—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— to the company and assembly of the first-born in heaven enrolled, and to God the judge of all, and to spirits of righteous men made perfect,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And to the church of the firstborn who are written in the heavens, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of the just made perfect,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— To the generall assembly, and Church of the first borne which are written in heauen, and to God the Iudge of all, and to the spirits of iust men made perfect:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— and to the church of the firstborn (ones) who are written in heaven, and to Aloha the Judge of all, and to the spirits of the just who are perfected,
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— and to the church of the first-born, who are enrolled in heaven and to God the judge of all; and to the spirits of the just, who are perfected;

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
To the general assembly 3831
{3831} Prime
πανήγυρις
paneguris
{pan-ay'-goo-ris}
From G3956 and a derivative of G0058; a mass meeting, that is, (figuratively) universal companionship.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
church 1577
{1577} Prime
ἐκκλησία
ekklesia
{ek-klay-see'-ah}
From a compound of G1537 and a derivative of G2564; a calling out, that is, (concretely) a popular meeting, especially a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Christian community of members on earth or saints in heaven or both).
of the firstborn, 4416
{4416} Prime
πρωτότοκος
prototokos
{pro-tot-ok'-os}
From G4413 and the alternate of G5088; first born (usually as noun, literally or figuratively).
which are written 583
{0583} Prime
ἀπογράφω
apographo
{ap-og-raf'-o}
From G0575 and G1125; to write off (a copy or list), that is, enrol.
z5772
<5772> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 463
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
heaven, 3772
{3772} Prime
οὐρανός
ouranos
{oo-ran-os'}
Perhaps from the same as G3735 (through the idea of elevation); the sky; by extension heaven (as the abode of God); by implication happiness, power, eternity; specifically the Gospel (Christianity).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to God 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
the Judge 2923
{2923} Prime
κριτής
krites
{kree-tace'}
From G2919; a judge (generally or specifically).
of all, 3956
{3956} Prime
πᾶς
pas
{pas}
Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to the spirits 4151
{4151} Prime
πνεῦμα
pneuma
{pnyoo'-mah}
From G4154; a current of air, that is, breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy or figuratively a spirit, that is, (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, daemon, or (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy spirit.
of just men 1342
{1342} Prime
δίκαιος
dikaios
{dik'-ah-yos}
From G1349; equitable (in character or act); by implication innocent, holy (absolutely or relatively).
made perfect, 5048
{5048} Prime
τελειόω
teleioo
{tel-i-o'-o}
From G5046; to complete, that is, (literally) accomplish, or (figuratively) consummate (in character).
z5772
<5772> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 463
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

See commentary on Hebrews 12:22-23.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Hebrews 12:18-29.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Hebrews 12:23

To the general assembly — The word properly signifies a stated convention on some festival occasion. And church — The whole body of true believers, whether on earth or in paradise. Of the first — born — The first — born of Israel were enrolled by Moses; but these are enrolled in heaven, as citizens there. It is observable, that in this beautiful gradation, these first — born are placed nearer to God than the angels. See James 1:18. And to God the Judge of all — Propitious to you, adverse to your enemies. And to the spirits — The separate souls. Of just men — It seems to mean, of New Testament believers. The number of these, being not yet large, is mentioned distinct from the innumerable company of just men whom their Judge hath acquitted. These are now made perfect in an higher sense than any who are still alive. Accordingly, St. Paul, while yet on earth, denies that he was thus made perfect, Philippians 3:12.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Hebrews 12:23

To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made (k) perfect,

(k) So he calls them that are taken up to heaven, although one part of them sleeps in the earth.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the general:

Psalms 89:7 God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints, and to be had in reverence of all [them that are] about him.
Psalms 111:1 Praise ye the LORD. I will praise the LORD with [my] whole heart, in the assembly of the upright, and [in] the congregation.
Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.
Ephesians 1:22 And hath put all [things] under his feet, and gave him [to be] the head over all [things] to the church,
Ephesians 5:24-27 Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so [let] the wives [be] to their own husbands in every thing. ... That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.
Colossians 1:24 Who now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the church:
1 Timothy 3:5 (For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?)

the firstborn:

Exodus 4:22 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel [is] my son, [even] my firstborn:
Exodus 13:2 Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, [both] of man and of beast: it [is] mine.
Deuteronomy 21:17 But he shall acknowledge the son of the hated [for] the firstborn, by giving him a double portion of all that he hath: for he [is] the beginning of his strength; the right of the firstborn [is] his.
Psalms 89:27 Also I will make him [my] firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth.
Jeremiah 31:9 They shall come with weeping, and with supplications will I lead them: I will cause them to walk by the rivers of waters in a straight way, wherein they shall not stumble: for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim [is] my firstborn.
James 1:18 Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of firstfruits of his creatures.
Revelation 14:4 These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, [being] the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb.

which:

Exodus 32:32 Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin--; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy book which thou hast written.
Psalms 69:28 Let them be blotted out of the book of the living, and not be written with the righteous.
Luke 10:20 Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rather rejoice, because your names are written in heaven.
Philippians 4:3 And I intreat thee also, true yokefellow, help those women which laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and [with] other my fellowlabourers, whose names [are] in the book of life.
Revelation 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.
Revelation 20:15 And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.

written:
or, enrolled

God:

Hebrews 6:10-12 For God [is] not unrighteous to forget your work and labour of love, which ye have shewed toward his name, in that ye have ministered to the saints, and do minister. ... That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises.
Hebrews 9:27 And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
Genesis 18:25 That be far from thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked: and that the righteous should be as the wicked, that be far from thee: Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?
Psalms 50:5-6 Gather my saints together unto me; those that have made a covenant with me by sacrifice. ... And the heavens shall declare his righteousness: for God [is] judge himself. Selah.
Psalms 94:2 Lift up thyself, thou judge of the earth: render a reward to the proud.
Psalms 96:13 Before the LORD: for he cometh, for he cometh to judge the earth: he shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with his truth.
Psalms 98:9 Before the LORD; for he cometh to judge the earth: with righteousness shall he judge the world, and the people with equity.
Matthew 25:31-34 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: ... Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:
John 5:27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.
2 Thessalonians 1:5-7 [Which is] a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer: ... And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels,
1 Peter 2:23 Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed [himself] to him that judgeth righteously:

the spirits:

Hebrews 11:4 By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh.
Hebrews 11:40 God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect.
Ecclesiastes 12:7 Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.
1 Corinthians 13:12 For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.
1 Corinthians 15:49 And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.
1 Corinthians 15:54 So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory.
2 Corinthians 5:8 We are confident, [I say], and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.
Philippians 1:21-23 For to me to live [is] Christ, and to die [is] gain. ... For I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better:
Philippians 3:12-21 Not as though I had already attained, either were already perfect: but I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus. ... Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.
Colossians 1:12 Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light:
Revelation 7:14-17 And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. ... For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 18:25. Ex 4:22; 13:2; 32:32. Dt 21:17. Ps 50:5; 69:28; 89:7, 27; 94:2; 96:13; 98:9; 111:1. Ec 12:7. Jr 31:9. Mt 25:31. Lk 10:20. Jn 5:27. Ac 20:28. 1Co 13:12; 15:49, 54. 2Co 5:8. Ep 1:22; 5:24. Php 1:21; 3:12; 4:3. Col 1:12, 24. 2Th 1:5. 1Ti 3:5. He 6:10; 9:27; 11:4, 40. Jm 1:18. 1P 2:23. Rv 7:14; 13:8; 14:4; 20:15.

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