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Hebrews 10:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— For the law having a shadow of the good [things] to come, not the very image of the things, can never with the same sacrifices year by year, which they offer continually, make perfect them that draw nigh.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— For the law having a shadow of good things to come, [and] not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— For the Law, since it has [only] a shadow of the good things to come [and] not the very form of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— For the law having a shadow of good things to come, [and] not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers to [them] perfect.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— For the law, having a shadow of the coming good things, not the image itself of the things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually yearly, perfect those who approach.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— For the law, having in a shadow of the destined good things, not the very image of the things, they can never, with the same sacrifices which year by year they offer evermore, make them who approach, perfect;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— For the law having a shadow of the coming good things—not the very image of the matters, every year, by the same sacrifices that they offer continually, is never able to make perfect those coming near,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— For the law, having a shadow of the good things to come, not the very image of the things, by the selfsame sacrifices which they offer continually every year, can never make the comers thereunto perfect.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— For the Law hauing a shadow of good things to come, and not the very Image of the things, can neuer with those sacrifices which they offered yeere by yeere continually, make the commers thereunto perfect:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— FOR there was in the law the shadow of good things to come, not the subsistence of the very things, therefore (though) every year the same sacrifices were offered they could never perfect those who offered them.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— For in the law there was a shadow of the good things to come; not the substance of the things themselves. Therefore, although the same sacrifices were every year offered, they could never perfect those who offered them.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
For 1063
{1063} Prime
γάρ
gar
{gar}
A primary particle; properly assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
law 3551
{3551} Prime
νόμος
nomos
{nom'-os}
From a primary word νέμω [[nemo]] (to parcel out, especially food or grazing to animals); law (through the idea of prescriptive usage), generally (regulation), specifically (of Moses [including the volume]; also of the Gospel), or figuratively (a principle).
having 2192
{2192} Prime
ἔχω
echo
{ekh'-o}
A primary verb (including an alternate form σχέω [[scheo]], {skheh'-o}; used in certain tenses only); to hold (used in very various applications, literally or figuratively, direct or remote; such as possession, ability, contiguity, relation or condition).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
a shadow 4639
{4639} Prime
σκιά
skia
{skee'-ah}
Apparently a primary word; 'shade' or a shadow (literally or figuratively [darkness of error or an adumbration]).
of good things 18
{0018} Prime
ἀγαθός
agathos
{ag-ath-os'}
A primary word; 'good' (in any sense, often as noun).
to come, 3195
{3195} Prime
μέλλω
mello
{mel'-lo}
A strengthened form of G3199 (through the idea of expectation); to intend, that is, be about to be, do, or suffer something (of persons or things, especially events; in the sense of purpose, duty, necessity, probability, possibility, or hesitation).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
[and] not 3756
{3756} Prime
οὐ
ou
{oo}
A primary word; the absolutely negative (compare G3361) adverb; no or not.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
very 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
image 1504
{1504} Prime
εἰκών
eikon
{i-kone'}
From G1503; a likeness, that is, (literally) statue, profile, or (figuratively) representation, resemblance.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
things, 4229
{4229} Prime
πρᾶγμα
pragma
{prag'-mah}
From G4238; a deed; by implication an affair; by extension an object (material).
can 1410
{1410} Prime
δύναμαι
dunamai
{doo'-nam-ahee}
Of uncertain affinity; to be able or possible.
z5736
<5736> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Middle or Passive Deponent (See G5790)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 618
never y3763
[3763] Standard
οὐδέποτε
oudepote
{oo-dep'-ot-eh}
From G3761 and G4218; not even at any time, that is, never at all.
x3762
(3762) Complement
οὐδείς
oudeis
{oo-dice'}
From G3761 and G1520; not even one (man, woman or thing), that is, none, nobody, nothing.
with those 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
sacrifices 2378
{2378} Prime
θυσία
thusia
{thoo-see'-ah}
From G2380; sacrifice (the act or the victim, literally or figuratively).
which 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
they offered 4374
{4374} Prime
προσφέρω
prosphero
{pros-fer'-o}
From G4314 and G5342 (including its alternate); to bear towards, that is, lead to, tender (especially to God), treat.
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
year by year 2596
{2596} Prime
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
1763
{1763} Prime
ἐνιαυτός
eniautos
{en-ee-ow-tos'}
Prolonged from a primary word ἔνος [[enos]] (a year); a year.
continually 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
1336
{1336} Prime
διηνεκής
dienekes
{dee-ay-nek-es'}
Neuter of a compound of G1223 and a derivative of an alternate of G5342; carried through, that is, (adverb with G1519 and G3588 prefixed) perpetually.
make y5048
[5048] Standard
τελειόω
teleioo
{tel-i-o'-o}
From G5046; to complete, that is, (literally) accomplish, or (figuratively) consummate (in character).
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
the comers thereunto y4334
[4334] Standard
προσέρχομαι
proserchomai
{pros-er'-khom-ahee}
From G4314 and G2064 (including its alternate); to approach, that is, (literally) come near, visit, or (figuratively) worship, assent to.
z5740
<5740> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Middle or Passive Deponent (See G5790)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 544
perfect. 5048
{5048} Prime
τελειόω
teleioo
{tel-i-o'-o}
From G5046; to complete, that is, (literally) accomplish, or (figuratively) consummate (in character).
z5658
<5658> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 516
x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
x4334
(4334) Complement
προσέρχομαι
proserchomai
{pros-er'-khom-ahee}
From G4314 and G2064 (including its alternate); to approach, that is, (literally) come near, visit, or (figuratively) worship, assent to.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Hebrews 10:1

_ _ Hebrews 10:1-39. Conclusion of the foregoing argument. The yearly recurring law sacrifices cannot perfect the worshipper, but Christ’s once-for-all offering can.

_ _ Instead of the daily ministry of the Levitical priests, Christ’s service is perfected by the one sacrifice, whence He now sits on the right hand of God as a Priest-King, until all His foes shall be subdued unto Him. Thus the new covenant (Hebrews 8:8-12) is inaugurated, whereby the law is written on the heart, so that an offering for sin is needed no more. Wherefore we ought to draw near the Holiest in firm faith and love; fearful of the awful results of apostasy; looking for the recompense to be given at Christ’s coming.

_ _ Previously the oneness of Christ’s offering was shown; now is shown its perfection as contrasted with the law sacrifices.

_ _ having — inasmuch as it has but “the shadow, not the very image,” that is, not the exact likeness, reality, and full revelation, such as the Gospel has. The “image” here means the archetype (compare Hebrews 9:24), the original, solid image [Bengel] realizing to us those heavenly verities, of which the law furnished but a shadowy outline before. Compare 2 Corinthians 3:13, 2 Corinthians 3:14, 2 Corinthians 3:18; the Gospel is the very setting forth by the Word and Spirit of the heavenly realities themselves, out of which it (the Gospel) is constructed. So Alford. As Christ is “the express image (Greek, ‘impress’) of the Father’s person” (Hebrews 1:3), so the Gospel is the heavenly verities themselves manifested by revelation — the heavenly very archetype, of which the law was drawn as a sketch, or outline copy (Hebrews 8:5). The law was a continual process of acted prophecy, proving the divine design that its counterparts should come; and proving the truth of those counterparts when they came. Thus the imperfect and continued expiatory sacrifices before Christ foretend, and now prove, the reality of, Christ’s one perfect antitypical expiation.

_ _ good things to come — (Hebrews 9:11); belonging to “the world (age) to come.” Good things in part made present by faith to the believer, and to be fully realized hereafter in actual and perfect enjoyment. Lessing says, “As Christ’s Church on earth is a prediction of the economy of the future life, so the Old Testament economy is a prediction of the Christian Church.” In relation to the temporal good things of the law, the spiritual and eternal good things of the Gospel are “good things to come.” Colossians 2:17 calls legal ordinances “the shadow,” and Christ “the body.”

_ _ never — at any time (Hebrews 10:11).

_ _ with those sacrifices — rather, “with the same sacrifices.

_ _ year by year — This clause in the Greek refers to the whole sentence, not merely to the words “which they the priests offered” (Greek, “offer”). Thus the sense is, not as English Version, but, the law year by year, by the repetition of the same sacrifices, testifies its inability to perfect the worshippers; namely, on the YEARLY day of atonement. The “daily” sacrifices are referred to, Hebrews 10:11.

_ _ continuallyGreek, “continuously,” implying that they offer a toilsome and ineffectual “continuousround of the “same” atonement-sacrifices recurring “year by year.”

_ _ comers thereunto — those so coming unto God, namely, the worshippers (the whole people) coming to God in the person of their representative, the high priest.

_ _ perfect — fully meet man’s needs as to justification and sanctification (see on Hebrews 9:9).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Hebrews 10:1-6

_ _ Here the apostle, by the direction of the Spirit of God, sets himself to lay low the Levitical dispensation; for though it was of divine appointment, and very excellent and useful in its time and place, yet, when it was set up in competition with Christ, to whom it was only designed to lead the people, it was very proper and necessary to show the weakness and imperfection of it, which the apostle does effectually, from several arguments. As,

_ _ I. That the law had a shadow, and but a shadow, of good things to come; and who would dote upon a shadow, though of good things, especially when the substance has come? Observe, 1. The things of Christ and the gospel are good things; they are the best things; they are best in themselves, and the best for us: they are realities of an excellent nature. 2. These good things were, under the Old Testament, good things to come, not clearly discovered, nor fully enjoyed. 3. That the Jews then had but the shadow of the good things of Christ, some adumbrations of them; we under the gospel have the substance.

_ _ II. That the law was not the very image of the good things to come. An image is an exact draught of the thing represented thereby. The law did not go so far, but was only a shadow, as the image of a person in a looking-glass is a much more perfect representation than his shadow upon the wall. The law was a very rough draught of the great design of divine grace, and therefore not to be so much doted on.

_ _ III. The legal sacrifices, being offered year by year, could never make the comers thereunto perfect; for then there would have been an end of offering them, Hebrews 10:1, Hebrews 10:2. Could they have satisfied the demands of justice, and made reconciliation for iniquity, — could they have purified and pacified conscience, — then they had ceased, as being no further necessary, since the offerers would have had no more sin lying upon their consciences. But this was not the case; after one day of atonement was over, the sinner would fall again into one fault or another, and so there would be need of another day of atonement, and of one every year, besides the daily ministrations. Whereas now, under the gospel, the atonement is perfect, and not to be repeated; and the sinner, once pardoned, is ever pardoned as to his state, and only needs to renew his repentance and faith, that he may have a comfortable sense of a continued pardon.

_ _ IV. As the legal sacrifices did not of themselves take away sin, so it was impossible they should, Hebrews 10:4. There was an essential defect in them. 1. They were not of the same nature with us who sinned. 2. They were not of sufficient value to make satisfaction for the affronts offered to the justice and government of God. They were not of the same nature that offended, and so could not be suitable. Much less were they of the same nature that was offended; and nothing less than the nature that was offended could make the sacrifice a full satisfaction for the offence. 3. The beasts offered up under the law could not consent to put themselves in the sinner's room and place. The atoning sacrifice must be one capable of consenting, and must voluntarily substitute himself in the sinner's stead: Christ did so.

_ _ V. There was a time fixed and foretold by the great God, and that time had now come, when these legal sacrifices would be no longer accepted by him nor useful to men. God never did desire them for themselves, and now he abrogated them; and therefore to adhere to them now would be resisting God and rejecting him. This time of the repeal of the Levitical laws was foretold by David (Psalms 40:6, Psalms 40:7), and is recited here as now come. Thus industriously does the apostle lay low the Mosaical dispensation.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Hebrews 10:1

From all that has been said it appears, that the law, the Mosaic dispensation, being a bare, unsubstantial shadow of good things to come, of the gospel blessings, and not the substantial, solid image of them, can never with the same kind of sacrifices, though continually repeated, make the comers thereunto perfect, either as to justification or sanctification. How is it possible, that any who consider this should suppose the attainments of David, or any who were under that dispensation, to be the proper measure of gospel holiness; and that Christian experience is to rise no higher than Jewish?

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Hebrews 10:1

For (1) the law having a shadow of good things to (a) come, [and] not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.

(1) He prevents a private objection. Why then were those sacrifices offered? The apostle answers, first concerning the yearly sacrifice which was the solemnest of all, in which (he says) there was made every year a remembrance again of all former sins. Therefore that sacrifice had no power to sanctify: for to what purpose should those sins which are purged be repeated again, and why should new sins come to be repeated every year, if those sacrifices abolished sin?

(a) Of things which are everlasting, which were promised to the fathers, and exhibited in Christ.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
having:

Hebrews 8:5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, [that] thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.
Hebrews 9:9 Which [was] a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience;
Hebrews 9:11 But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;
Hebrews 9:23 [It was] therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.
Colossians 2:17 Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body [is] of Christ.

with:

Hebrews 10:3-4 But in those [sacrifices there is] a remembrance again [made] of sins every year. ... For [it is] not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.
Hebrews 10:11-18 And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins: ... Now where remission of these [is, there is] no more offering for sin.
Hebrews 7:18-19 For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof. ... For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope [did]; by the which we draw nigh unto God.
Hebrews 9:8-9 The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing: ... Which [was] a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience;
Hebrews 9:25 Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others;

perfect:

Hebrews 10:14 For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.
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