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Genesis 38:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name [was] Hirah.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— And it came about at that time, that Judah departed from his brothers and visited a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name [was] Hirah.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a man of Adullam whose name was Hirah.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, at that time, that Judah went down, away from his brethren,—and turned aside unto a certain Adullamite, whose, name, was Hirah.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass, at that time, that Judah goeth down from his brethren, and turneth aside unto a man, an Adullamite, whose name [is] Hirah;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— At that time Juda went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Odollamite, named Hiras.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe at that time, that Iudah went downe from his brethren, and turned in to a certaine Adullamite, whose name [was] Hirah:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass at that time that Judah{gr.Judas} went down from his brethren, and came as far as to a certain man of Adullam{gr.Odollam}, whose name was Iras.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass at that time, that Yehudah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullami, whose name [was] Chirah.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
at that x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
time, 6256
{6256} Prime
עֵת
`eth
{ayth}
From H5703; time, especially (adverbially with preposition) now, when, etc.
that Yh יְהוּדָה 3063
{3063} Prime
יְהוּדָה
Y@huwdah
{yeh-hoo-daw'}
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
went down 3381
{3381} Prime
יָרַד
yarad
{yaw-rad'}
A primitive root; to descend (literally to go downwards; or conventionally to a lower region, as the shore, a boundary, the enemy, etc.; or figuratively to fall); causatively to bring down (in all the above applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
from x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x854
(0854) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Probably from H0579; properly nearness (used only as a preposition or adverb), near; hence generally with, by, at, among, etc.
his brethren, 251
{0251} Prime
אָח
'ach
{awkh}
A primitive word; a brother (used in the widest sense of literal relationship and metaphorical affinity or resemblance (like H0001)).
and turned y5186
[5186] Standard
נָטָה
natah
{naw-taw'}
A primitive root; to stretch or spread out; by implication to bend away (including moral deflection); used in a great variety of applications.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
in x5186
(5186) Complement
נָטָה
natah
{naw-taw'}
A primitive root; to stretch or spread out; by implication to bend away (including moral deflection); used in a great variety of applications.
to x5704
(5704) Complement
עַד
`ad
{ad}
Properly the same as H5703 (used as a preposition, adverb or conjugation; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with).
a certain 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
`ullm עֲדֻלָּמִי, 5726
{5726} Prime
עֲדֻלָּמִי
`Adullamiy
{ad-ool-law-mee'}
Patrial from H5725; an Adullamite or native of Adullam.
whose name 8034
{8034} Prime
שֵׁם
shem
{shame}
A primitive word (perhaps rather from H7760 through the idea of definite and conspicuous position; compare H8064); an appellation, as a mark or memorial of individuality; by implication honor, authority, character.
[was] r חִירָה. 2437
{2437} Prime
חִירָה
Chiyrah
{khee-raw'}
From H2357 in the sense of splendor; Chirah, an Adullamite.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Genesis 38:1

_ _ Genesis 38:1-30. Judah and family.

_ _ at that time — a formula frequently used by the sacred writers, not to describe any precise period, but an interval near about it.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Genesis 38:1-11

_ _ Here is, 1. Judah's foolish friendship with a Canaanite-man. He went down from his brethren, and withdrew for a time from their society and his father's family, and got to be intimately acquainted with one Hirah, an Adullamite, Genesis 38:1. It is computed that he was now not much above fifteen or sixteen years of age, an easy prey to the tempter. Note, When young people that have been well educated begin to change their company, they will soon change their manners, and lose their good education. Those that go down from their brethren, that despise and forsake the society of the seed of Israel, and pick up Canaanites for their companions, are going down the hill apace. It is of great consequence to young people to choose proper associates; for these they will imitate, study to recommend themselves to, and, by their opinion of them, value themselves: an error in this choice is often fatal. 2. His foolish marriage with a Canaanite-woman, a match made, not by his father, who, it should seem, was not consulted, but by his new friend Hirah, Genesis 38:2. Many have been drawn into marriages scandalous and pernicious to themselves and their families by keeping bad company, and growing familiar with bad people: one wicked league entangles men in another. Let young people be admonished by this to take their good parents for their best friends, and to be advised by them, and not by flatterers, who wheedle them, to make a prey of them. 3. His children by this Canaanite, and his disposal of them. Three sons he had by her, Er, Onan, and Shelah. It is probable that she embraced the worship of the God of Israel, at least in profession, but, for aught that appears, there was little of the fear of God in the family. Judah married too young, and very rashly; he also married his sons too young, when they had neither wit nor grace to govern themselves, and the consequences were very bad. (1.) His first-born, Er, was notoriously wicked; he was so in the sight of the Lord, that is, in defiance of God and his law; or, if perhaps he was not wicked in the sight of God, to whom all men's wickedness is open; and what came of it? Why, God cut him off presently (Genesis 38:7): The Lord slew him. Note, Sometimes God makes quick work with sinners, and takes them away in his wrath, when they are but just setting out in a wicked course of life. (2.) The next son, Onan, was, according to the ancient usage, married to the widow, to preserve the name of his deceased brother that died childless. Though God had taken away his life for his wickedness, yet they were solicitous to preserve his memory; and their disappointment therein, through Onan's sin, was a further punishment of his wickedness. The custom of marrying the brother's widow was afterwards made one of the laws of Moses, Deuteronomy 25:5. Onan, though he consented to marry the widow, yet, to the great abuse of his own body, of the wife that he had married, and of the memory of his brother that was gone, he refused to raise up seed unto his brother, as he was in duty bound. This was so much the worse because the Messiah was to descend from Judah, and, had he not been guilty of this wickedness, he might have had the honour of being one of his ancestors. Note, Those sins that dishonour the body and defile it are very displeasing to God and evidences of vile affections. (3.) Shelah, the third son, was reserved for the widow (Genesis 38:11), yet with a design that he should not marry so young as his brothers had done, lest he die also. Some think that Judah never intended to marry Shelah to Tamar, but unjustly suspected her to have been the death of her two former husbands (whereas it was their own wickedness that slew them), and then sent her to her father's house, with a charge to remain a widow. If so, it was an inexcusable piece of prevarication that he was guilty of. However, Tamar acquiesced for the present, and waited the issue.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Genesis 38:1

Judah went down from his brethren — Withdrew for a time from his father's family, and got intimately acquainted with one Hirah an Adullamite. When young people that have been well educated begin to change their company, they will soon change their manners, and lose their good education. They that go down from their brethren, that forsake the society of the seed of Israel, and pick up Canaanites for their companions, are going down the hill apace.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Genesis 38:1

And it came to pass at that time, that (a) Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name [was] Hirah.

(a) Moses describes the genealogy of Judah, because the Messiah should come from him.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2265, bc 1739

it came:
As there cannot be above 23 years from the selling of Joseph, unto Israel's going down into Egypt; and as it is impossible that Judah should take a wife, and by her have three sons successively, and Shelah, the youngest, marriageable when Judah begat Pharez of Tamar, and Pharez be grown up, married, and have two sons, all within so short a period; Mr. Ainsworth conceives that the time here spoken of is soon after Jacob's coming to Shechem (
Genesis 33:1 And Jacob lifted up his eyes, and looked, and, behold, Esau came, and with him four hundred men. And he divided the children unto Leah, and unto Rachel, and unto the two handmaids.
). We have accordingly adapted the chronology to correspond with that time.

turned:

Genesis 19:2-3 And he said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay; but we will abide in the street all night. ... And he pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat.
Judges 4:18 And Jael went out to meet Sisera, and said unto him, Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned in unto her into the tent, she covered him with a mantle.
2 Kings 4:8 And it fell on a day, that Elisha passed to Shunem, where [was] a great woman; and she constrained him to eat bread. And [so] it was, [that] as oft as he passed by, he turned in thither to eat bread.
Proverbs 9:6 Forsake the foolish, and live; and go in the way of understanding.
Proverbs 13:20 He that walketh with wise [men] shall be wise: but a companion of fools shall be destroyed.

Adullamite:
An inhabitant of Adullam, a city of Canaan, afterwards given to Judah, situated in the southern part of that tribe, west of Hebron.
Joshua 12:15 The king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one;
Joshua 15:35 Jarmuth, and Adullam, Socoh, and Azekah,
1 Samuel 22:1 David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], they went down thither to him.
2 Samuel 23:13 And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim.
Micah 1:15 Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah: he shall come unto Adullam the glory of Israel.
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Gn 19:2; 33:1. Jsh 12:15; 15:35. Jg 4:18. 1S 22:1. 2S 23:13. 2K 4:8. Pv 9:6; 13:20. Mi 1:15.

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