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Genesis 21:9 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne unto Abraham, mocking.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, mocking.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had borne to Abraham, mocking.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, mocking.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian woman, whom she had borne to Abraham, laughing!
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and Sarah seeth the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she hath borne to Abraham, mocking,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And when Sara had seen the son of Agar, the Egyptian, playing with Isaac, her son, she said to Abraham:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Sarah saw the sonne of Hagar the Egyptian, which shee had borne vnto Abraham, mocking.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Sarah{gr.Sarrha} having seen the son of Hagar{gr.Agar} the Mizraimite{gr.Egyptian} who was born to Abraham{gr.Abraam}, sporting with Isaac her son,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Mitzri, which she had born unto Avraham, mocking.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And r שָׂרָה 8283
{8283} Prime
The same as H8282; Sarah, Abraham's wife.
saw 7200
{7200} Prime
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
(0853) Complement
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Hqr הָגָר 1904
{1904} Prime
Of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation; Hagar, the mother of Ishmael.
the Mixr מִצרִי, 4713
{4713} Prime
From H4714; a Mitsrite, or inhabitant of Mitsrajim.
which x834
(0834) Complement
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
she had born 3205
{3205} Prime
A primitive root; to bear young; causatively to beget; medically to act as midwife; specifically to show lineage.
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
unto Avrhm אַברָהָם, 85
{0085} Prime
Contracted from H0001 and an unused root (probably meaning to be populous); father of a multitude; Abraham, the later name of Abram.
mocking. 6711
{6711} Prime
A primitive root; to laugh outright (in merriment or scorn); by implication to sport.
<8764> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 685
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Genesis 21:9

_ _ Sarah saw the son of Hagar ... mocking — Ishmael was aware of the great change in his prospects, and under the impulse of irritated or resentful feelings, in which he was probably joined by his mother, treated the young heir with derision and probably some violence (Galatians 4:29).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Genesis 21:9-13

_ _ The casting out of Ishmael is here considered of, and resolved on.

_ _ I. Ishmael himself gave the occasion by some affronts he gave to Isaac his little brother, some think on the day that Abraham made the feast for joy that Isaac was safely weaned, which the Jews say was not till he was three years old, others say five. Sarah herself was an eye-witness of the abuse: she saw the son of the Egyptian mocking (Genesis 21:9), mocking Isaac, no doubt, for it is said, with reference to this (Galatians 4:29), that he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit. Ishmael is here called the son of the Egyptian, because, as some think, the 400 years' affliction of the seed of Abraham by the Egyptians began now, and was to be dated hence, Genesis 15:13. She saw him playing with Isaac, so the Septuagint, and, in play, mocking him. Ishmael was fourteen years older than Isaac; and, when children are together, the elder should be careful and tender of the younger: but it argued a very base and sordid disposition in Ishmael to be abusive to a child that was no way a match for him. Note, 1. God takes notice of what children say and do in their play, and will reckon with them if they say or do amiss, though their parents do not. 2. Mocking is a great sin, and very provoking to God. 3. There is a rooted remaining enmity in the seed of the serpent against the seed of the woman. The children of promise must expect to be mocked. This is persecution, which those that will live godly must count upon. 4. None are rejected and cast out from God but those who have first deserved it. Ishmael is continued in Abraham's family till he becomes a disturbance, grief, and scandal to it.

_ _ II. Sarah made the motion: Cast out this bond-woman, Genesis 21:10. This seems to be spoken in some heat, yet it is quoted (Galatians 4:30) as if it had been spoken by a spirit of prophecy; and it is the sentence passed on all hypocrites and carnal people, though they have a place and a name in the visible church. All that are born after the flesh and not born again, that rest in the law and reject the gospel promise, shall certainly be cast out. It is made to point particularly at the rejection of the unbelieving Jews, who, though they were the seed of Abraham, yet, because they submitted not to the gospel covenant, were unchurched and disfranchised: and that which, above any thing, provoked God to cast them off was their mocking and persecuting the gospel church, God's Isaac, in its infancy, 1 Thessalonians 2:16, Note, There are many who are familiarly conversant with the children of God in this world, and yet shall not partake with them in the inheritance of sons. Ishmael might be Isaac's play-fellow and school-fellow, yet not his fellow-heir.

_ _ III. Abraham was averse to it: The thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight, Genesis 21:11. 1. It grieved him that Ishmael had given such a provocation. Note, Children ought to consider that the more their parents love them the more they are grieved at their misconduct, and particularly at their quarrels among themselves. 2. It grieved him that Sarah insisted upon such a punishment. “Might it not suffice to correct him? would nothing less serve than to expel him?” Note, Even the needful extremities which must be used with wicked and incorrigible children are very grievous to tender parents, who cannot thus afflict willingly.

_ _ IV. God determined it, Genesis 21:12, Genesis 21:13. We may well suppose Abraham to be greatly agitated about this matter, loth to displease Sarah, and yet loth to expel Ishmael; in this difficulty God tells him what his will is, and then he is satisfied. Note, A good man desires no more in doubtful cases than to know his duty, and what God would have him do; and, when he is clear in this, he is, or should be, easy. To make Abraham so, God sets this matter before him in a true light, and shows him, 1. That the casting out of Ishmael was necessary to the establishment of Isaac in the rights and privileges of the covenant: In Isaac shall thy seed be called. Both Christ and the church must descend from Abraham through the loins of Isaac; this is the entail of the promise upon Isaac, and is quoted by the apostle (Romans 9:7) to show that not all who come from Abraham's loins were the heirs of Abraham's covenant. Isaac, the promised son, must be the father of the promised seed; therefore, “Away with Ishmael, send him far enough, lest he corrupt the manners or attempt to invade the rights of Isaac.” It will be his security to have his rival banished. The covenant seed of Abraham must be a peculiar people, a people by themselves, from the very first, distinguished, not mingled with those that were out of covenant; for this reason Ishmael must be separated. Abraham was called alone, and so must Isaac be. See Isaiah 51:2. It is probable that Sarah little thought of this (John 11:51), but God took what she said, and turned it into an oracle, as afterwards, Genesis 27:10. 2. That the casting out of Ishmael should not be his ruin, Genesis 21:13. He shall be a nation, because he is thy seed. We are not sure that it was his eternal ruin. It is presumption to say that all those who are left out of the external dispensation from all his mercies: those may be saved who are not thus honoured. However, we are sure it was not his temporal ruin. Though he was chased out of the church, he was not chased out of the world. I will make him a nation. Note, (1.) Nations are of God's making: he founds them, he forms them, he fixes them. (2.) Many are full of the blessings of God's providence that are strangers to the blessings of his covenant. (3.) The children of this world often fare the better, as to outward things, for their relation to the children of God.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Genesis 21:9

Sarah saw the son of the Egyptian mocking — Mocking Isaac no doubt, for it is sad, with reference to this, Galatians 4:29, that he that was born after the flesh, persecuted him that was born after the spirit. Ishmael is here called the son of the Egyptian, because (as some think) the four hundred years affliction of the seed of Abraham by the Egyptians began now, and was to be dated from hence.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Genesis 21:9

And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, (c) mocking.

(c) He derided God's promise made to Isaac which the apostle calls persecution (Galatians 4:29).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Genesis 16:3-6 And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife. ... But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid [is] in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face.
Genesis 16:15 And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael.
Genesis 17:20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.


Genesis 16:1 Now Sarai Abram's wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name [was] Hagar.
Genesis 16:15 And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael.


2 Kings 2:23-24 And he went up from thence unto Bethel: and as he was going up by the way, there came forth little children out of the city, and mocked him, and said unto him, Go up, thou bald head; go up, thou bald head. ... And he turned back, and looked on them, and cursed them in the name of the LORD. And there came forth two she bears out of the wood, and tare forty and two children of them.
2 Chronicles 30:10 So the posts passed from city to city through the country of Ephraim and Manasseh even unto Zebulun: but they laughed them to scorn, and mocked them.
2 Chronicles 36:16 But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against his people, till [there was] no remedy.
Nehemiah 4:1-5 But it came to pass, that when Sanballat heard that we builded the wall, he was wroth, and took great indignation, and mocked the Jews. ... And cover not their iniquity, and let not their sin be blotted out from before thee: for they have provoked [thee] to anger before the builders.
Job 30:1 But now [they that are] younger than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to have set with the dogs of my flock.
Psalms 22:6 But I [am] a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people.
Psalms 42:10 [As] with a sword in my bones, mine enemies reproach me; while they say daily unto me, Where [is] thy God?
Psalms 44:13-14 Thou makest us a reproach to our neighbours, a scorn and a derision to them that are round about us. ... Thou makest us a byword among the heathen, a shaking of the head among the people.
Proverbs 20:11 Even a child is known by his doings, whether his work [be] pure, and whether [it be] right.
Lamentations 1:7 Jerusalem remembered in the days of her affliction and of her miseries all her pleasant things that she had in the days of old, when her people fell into the hand of the enemy, and none did help her: the adversaries saw her, [and] did mock at her sabbaths.
Galatians 4:22 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman.
Galatians 4:29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him [that was born] after the Spirit, even so [it is] now.
Hebrews 11:36 And others had trial of [cruel] mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment:
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Gn 16:1, 3, 15; 17:20. 2K 2:23. 2Ch 30:10; 36:16. Ne 4:1. Jb 30:1. Ps 22:6; 42:10; 44:13. Pv 20:11. Lm 1:7. Ga 4:22, 29. He 11:36.

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