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Genesis 18:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Jehovah appeared unto him by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the LORD appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now the LORD appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, while he was sitting at the tent door in the heat of the day.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the LORD appeared to him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Jehovah appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre. And he sat at the tent-door in the heat of the day.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And Yahweh appeared unto him, among the oaks of Mamre,—as, he, was sitting at the opening of the tent, in the heat of the day.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Jehovah appeareth unto him among the oaks of Mamre, and he is sitting at the opening of the tent, about the heat of the day;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the Lord appeared to him in the vale of Mambre as he was sitting at the door of his tent, in the very heat of the day.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the LORD appeared vnto him, in the plaines of Mamre: and he sate in the tent doore, in the heat of the day.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And God appeared to him by the oak of Mamre{gr.Mambre}, as he sat by the door of his tent at noon.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Yahweh appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
appeared 7200
{7200} Prime
רָאָה
ra'ah
{raw-aw'}
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
him in the plains 436
{0436} Prime
אֵלוֹן
'elown
{ay-lone'}
Prolonged from H0352; an oak or other strong tree.
of Mamr מַמרֵא: 4471
{4471} Prime
מַמְרֵא
Mamre'
{mam-ray'}
From H4754 (in the sense of vigor); lusty; Mamre, an Amorite.
and he x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
sat 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
in the tent 168
{0168} Prime
אֹהֶל
'ohel
{o'-hel}
From H0166; a tent (as clearly conspicuous from a distance).
door 6607
{6607} Prime
פֶּתַח
pethach
{peh'-thakh}
From H6605; an opening (literally), that is, door (gate) or entrance way.
in the heat 2527
{2527} Prime
חֹם
chom
{khome}
From H2552; heat.
of the day; 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Genesis 18:1

_ _ Genesis 18:1-8. Entertainment of angels.

_ _ the Lord appeared — another manifestation of the divine presence, more familiar than any yet narrated; and more like that in the fulness of time, when the Word was made flesh.

_ _ plains of Mamre — rather, terebinth or oak of Mamre; a tall-spreading tree or grove of trees.

_ _ sat in the tent door — The tent itself being too close and sultry at noon, the shaded open front is usually resorted to for the air that may be stirring.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Genesis 18:1-8

_ _ The appearance of God to Abraham seems to have had in it more of freedom and familiarity, and less of grandeur and majesty, than those we have hitherto read of; and therefore more resembles that great visit which, in the fullness of time, the Son of God was to make to the world, when the Word would be flesh, and appear as one of us. Observe here,

_ _ I. How Abraham expected strangers, and how richly his expectations were answered (Genesis 18:1): He sat in the tent-door, in the heat of the day; not so much to repose or divert himself as to seek an opportunity of doing good, by giving entertainment to strangers and travellers, there being perhaps no inns to accommodate them. Note, 1. We are likely to have the most comfort of those good works to which we are most free and forward. 2. God graciously visits those in whom he has first raised the expectation of him, and manifests himself to those that wait for him. When Abraham was thus sitting, he saw three men coming towards him. These three men were three spiritual heavenly beings, now assuming human bodies, that they might be visible to Abraham, and conversable with him. Some think that they were all created angels, others that one of them was the Son of God, the angel of the covenant, whom Abraham distinguished from the rest (Genesis 18:3), and who is called Jehovah, Genesis 18:13. The apostle improves this for the encouragement of hospitality, Hebrews 13:2. Those that have been forward to entertain strangers have entertained angels, to their unspeakable honour and satisfaction. Where, upon a prudent and impartial judgment, we see no cause to suspect ill, charity teaches us to hope well and to show kindness accordingly. It is better to feed five drones, or wasps, than to starve one bee.

_ _ II. How Abraham entertained those strangers, and how kindly his entertainment was accepted. The Holy Ghost takes particular notice of the very free and affectionate welcome Abraham gave to the strangers. 1. He was very complaisant and respectful to them. Forgetting his age and gravity, he ran to meet them in the most obliging manner, and with all due courtesy bowed himself towards the ground, though as yet he knew nothing of them but that they appeared graceful respectable men. Note, Religion does not destroy, but improve, good manners, and teaches us to honour all men. Decent civility is a great ornament to piety. 2. He was very earnest and importunate for their stay, and took it as a great favour, Genesis 18:3, Genesis 18:4. Note, (1.) It becomes those whom God has blessed with plenty to be liberal and open-hearted in their entertainments, according to their ability, and (not in compliment, but cordially) to bid their friends welcome. We should take a pleasure in showing kindness to any; for both God and man love a cheerful giver. Who would eat the bread of him that has an evil eye? Proverbs 23:6, Proverbs 23:7. (2.) Those that would have communion with God must earnestly desire it and pray for it. God is a guest worth entertaining. 3. His entertainment, though it was very free, was yet plain and homely, and there was nothing in it of the gaiety and niceness of our times. His dining-room was an arbour under a tree; no rich table-linen, no side-board set with plate. His feast was a joint or two of veal, and some cakes baked on the hearth, and both hastily dressed up. Here were no dainties, no varieties, no forced-meats, no sweet-meats, but good, plain, wholesome food, though Abraham was very rich and his guests were very honourable. Note, We ought not to be curious in our diet. Let us be thankful for food convenient, though it be homely and common; and not be desirous of dainties, for they are deceitful meat to those that love them and set their hearts upon them. 4. He and his wife were both of them very attentive and busy, in accommodating their guests with the best they had. Sarah herself is cook and baker; Abraham runs to fetch the calf, brings out the milk and butter, and thinks it not below him to wait at table, that he might show how heartily welcome his guests were. Note, (1.) Those that have real merit need not take state upon them, nor are their prudent condescensions any disparagement to them. (2.) Hearty friendship will stoop to any thing but sin. Christ himself has taught us to wash one another's feet, in humble love. Those that thus abase themselves shall be exalted. Here Abraham's faith showed itself in good works; and so must ours, else it is dead, James 2:21, James 2:26. The father of the faithful was famous for charity, and generosity, and good house-keeping; and we must learn of him to do good and to communicate. Job did not eat his morsel alone, Job 31:17.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Genesis 18:1

This appearance of God to Abraham seems to have had in it more of freedom and familiarity, and less of grandeur and majesty, than those we have hitherto read of, and therefore more resembles that great visit which in the fulness of time the Son of God was to make to the world. He sat in the tent — door in the heat of the day — Not so much to repose himself, as to seek an opportunity of doing good, by giving entertainment to strangers.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
appeared:

Genesis 15:1 After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I [am] thy shield, [and] thy exceeding great reward.
Genesis 17:1-3 And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I [am] the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect. ... And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying,
Genesis 17:22 And he left off talking with him, and God went up from Abraham.
Genesis 26:2 And the LORD appeared unto him, and said, Go not down into Egypt; dwell in the land which I shall tell thee of:
Genesis 48:3 And Jacob said unto Joseph, God Almighty appeared unto me at Luz in the land of Canaan, and blessed me,
Exodus 4:1 And Moses answered and said, But, behold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice: for they will say, The LORD hath not appeared unto thee.
2 Chronicles 1:7 In that night did God appear unto Solomon, and said unto him, Ask what I shall give thee.
Acts 7:2 And he said, Men, brethren, and fathers, hearken; The God of glory appeared unto our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he dwelt in Charran,

Mamre:

Genesis 13:18 Then Abram removed [his] tent, and came and dwelt in the plain of Mamre, which [is] in Hebron, and built there an altar unto the LORD.
Genesis 14:13 And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner: and these [were] confederate with Abram.

and he sat:
In these verses we have a delightful picture of genuine and primitive hospitality. A venerable father sits at the tent door, not only to enjoy the current of refreshing air, but that if he saw any weary and exhausted travellers, he might invite them to rest and refresh themselves during the heat of the day, and the same custom still continues in the east. It was not the custom, nor was there any necessity, for strangers to knock at the door, or to speak first, but to stand till they were invited.
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Gn 13:18; 14:13; 15:1; 17:1, 22; 26:2; 48:3. Ex 4:1. 2Ch 1:7. Ac 7:2.

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