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Galatians 5:19 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are [these]: fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are [these]; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality, impurity, sensuality,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are [these], Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are fornication, uncleanness, licentiousness,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Manifest, however, are the works of the flesh, which, indeed, are—fornication, impurity, wantonness,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And manifest also are the works of the flesh, which are: Adultery, whoredom, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now the works of the flesh are manifest: which are fornication, uncleanness, immodesty, luxury,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Nowe the workes of the flesh are manifest, which are [these], adulterie, fornication, vncleannesse, lasciuiousnesse,
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— For the works of the flesh are known, which are (these), fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— For the works of the flesh are known, which are whoredom, impurity, lasciviousness,

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
works 2041
{2041} Prime
ἔργον
ergon
{er'-gon}
From ἔργω [[ergo]] (a primary but obsolete word; to work); toil (as an effort or occupation); by implication an act.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
flesh 4561
{4561} Prime
σάρξ
sarx
{sarx}
Probably from the base of G4563; flesh (as stripped of the skin), that is, (strictly) the meat of an animal (as food), or (by extension) the body (as opposed to the soul (or spirit), or as the symbol of what is external, or as the means of kindred, or (by implication) human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specifically) a human being (as such).
are 2076
{2076} Prime
ἐστί
esti
{es-tee'}
Third person singular present indicative of G1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
manifest, 5318
{5318} Prime
φανερός
phaneros
{fan-er-os'}
From G5316; shining, that is, apparent (literally or figuratively); neuter (as adverb) publicly, externally.
which 3748
{3748} Prime
ὅστις
hostis
{hos'-tis}
From G3739 and G5100; which some, that is, any that; also (definitely) which same.
are 2076
{2076} Prime
ἐστί
esti
{es-tee'}
Third person singular present indicative of G1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
[these]; Adultery, 3430
{3430} Prime
μοιχεία
moicheia
{moy-khi'-ah}
From G3431; adultery.
fornication, 4202
{4202} Prime
πορνεία
porneia
{por-ni'-ah}
From G4203; harlotry (including adultery and incest); figuratively idolatry.
uncleanness, 167
{0167} Prime
ἀκαθαρσία
akatharsia
{ak-ath-ar-see'-ah}
From G0169; impurity (the quality), physically or morally.
lasciviousness, 766
{0766} Prime
ἀσέλγεια
aselgeia
{as-elg'-i-a}
From a compound of G0001 (as a negative particle) and a presumed σελγής [[selges]] (of uncertain derivation, but apparently meaning continent); licentiousness (sometimes including other vices).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Galatians 5:19-23

_ _ Confirming Galatians 5:18, by showing the contrariety between the works of the flesh and the fruit of the Spirit.

_ _ manifest — The hidden fleshly principle betrays itself palpably by its works, so that these are not hard to discover, and leave no doubt that they come not from the Spirit.

_ _ which are theseGreek, “such as,” for instance.

_ _ Adultery — omitted in the oldest manuscripts.

_ _ lasciviousness — rather, “wantonness” petulance, capricious insolence; it may display itself in “lasciviousness,” but not necessarily or constantly so (Mark 7:21, Mark 7:22, where it is not associated with fleshly lusts) [Trench]. “Works” (in the plural) are attributed to the “flesh,” because they are divided, and often at variance with one another, and even when taken each one by itself, betray their fleshly origin. But the “fruit of the Spirit” (Galatians 5:23) is singular, because, however manifold the results, they form one harmonious whole. The results of the flesh are not dignified by the name “fruit”; they are but works (Ephesians 5:9, Ephesians 5:11). He enumerates those fleshly “works” (committed against our neighbor, against God, and against ourselves) to which the Galatians were most prone (the Celts have always been prone to disputations and internal strifes): and those manifestations of the fruit of the Spirit most needed by them (Galatians 5:13, Galatians 5:15). This passage shows that “the flesh” does not mean merely sensuality, as opposed to spirituality: for “divisions” in the catalogue here do not flow from sensuality. The identification of “the natural (Greek,animal-souled’) man,” with the “carnal” or fleshly man (1 Corinthians 2:14), shows that “the flesh” expresses human nature as estranged from God. Trench observes, as a proof of our fallen state, how much richer is every vocabulary in words for sins, than in those for graces. Paul enumerates seventeen “works of the flesh,” only nine manifestations of “the fruit of the Spirit” (compare Ephesians 4:31).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Galatians 5:13-26.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Galatians 5:19

Now the works of the flesh — By which that inward principle is discovered. Are manifest — Plain and undeniable. Works are mentioned in the plural because they are distinct from, and often inconsistent with, each other. But "the fruit of the Spirit" is mentioned in the singular, Galatians 5:22, as being all consistent and connected together. Which are these — He enumerates those "works of the flesh" to which the Galatians were most inclined; and those parts of "the fruit of the Spirit" of which they stood in the greatest need. Lasciviousness — The Greek word means anything inward or outward that is contrary to chastity, and yet short of actual uncleanness.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Galatians 5:19

(16) Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are [these]; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

(16) He sets out that particularly of which he spoke generally, reckoning up some principal effects of the flesh, and opposing them to the fruits of the Spirit, that no man may pretend ignorance.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the works:

Galatians 5:13 For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only [use] not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.
Galatians 5:17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.
Galatians 6:8 For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.
Psalms 17:4 Concerning the works of men, by the word of thy lips I have kept [me from] the paths of the destroyer.
John 3:6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
Romans 7:5 For when we were in the flesh, the motions of sins, which were by the law, did work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death.
Romans 7:18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but [how] to perform that which is good I find not.
Romans 7:25 I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.
Romans 8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:
Romans 8:5 For they that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit.
Romans 8:9 But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
Romans 8:13 For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.
1 Corinthians 3:3 For ye are yet carnal: for whereas [there is] among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk as men?
1 Peter 4:2 That he no longer should live the rest of [his] time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God.

Adultery:

Ezekiel 22:6-13 Behold, the princes of Israel, every one were in thee to their power to shed blood. ... Behold, therefore I have smitten mine hand at thy dishonest gain which thou hast made, and at thy blood which hath been in the midst of thee.
Matthew 15:18-19 But those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the heart; and they defile the man. ... For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies:
Mark 7:21-23 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, ... All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.
Romans 1:21-32 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified [him] not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. ... Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
1 Corinthians 6:9-10 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, ... Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.
2 Corinthians 12:20-21 For I fear, lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I would, and [that] I shall be found unto you such as ye would not: lest [there be] debates, envyings, wraths, strifes, backbitings, whisperings, swellings, tumults: ... [And] lest, when I come again, my God will humble me among you, and [that] I shall bewail many which have sinned already, and have not repented of the uncleanness and fornication and lasciviousness which they have committed.
Ephesians 4:17-19 This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind, ... Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness.
Ephesians 5:3-6 But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints; ... Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.
Colossians 3:5-8 Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry: ... But now ye also put off all these; anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth.
1 Timothy 1:9-10 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, ... For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine;
Titus 3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, [and] hating one another.
James 3:14-15 But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth. ... This wisdom descendeth not from above, but [is] earthly, sensual, devilish.
1 Peter 4:3-4 For the time past of [our] life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries: ... Wherein they think it strange that ye run not with [them] to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of [you]:
Revelation 21:8 But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.
Revelation 22:15 For without [are] dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie.
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Ps 17:4. Ezk 22:6. Mt 15:18. Mk 7:21. Jn 3:6. Ro 1:21; 7:5, 18, 25; 8:3, 5, 9, 13. 1Co 3:3; 6:9. 2Co 12:20. Ga 5:13, 17; 6:8. Ep 4:17; 5:3. Col 3:5. 1Ti 1:9. Tit 3:3. Jm 3:14. 1P 4:2, 3. Rv 21:8; 22:15.

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