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Galatians 4:9 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— but now that ye have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, how turn ye back again to the weak and beggarly rudiments, whereunto ye desire to be in bondage over again?
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, how is it that you turn back again to the weak and worthless elemental things, to which you desire to be enslaved all over again?
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— But now, after ye have known God, or rather are known by God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, to which ye desire again to be in bondage?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— but now, knowing God, but rather being known by God, how do ye turn again to the weak and beggarly principles to which ye desire to be again anew in bondage?
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Whereas, now, having acknowledged God,—or rather, having been acknowledged by God, how turn ye back again unto the weak and beggarly elementary principles, unto which, over again, ye are wishing, to come into servitude?
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and now, having known God—and rather being known by God—how turn ye again unto the weak and poor elements to which anew ye desire to be in servitude?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— But now, after that you have known God, or rather are known by God: how turn you again to the weak and needy elements which you desire to serve again?
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— But now after that yee haue knowen God, or rather are knowen of God, how turne ye againe to the weak and beggerly Elements, whereunto ye desire againe to be in bondage?
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— but now that you have known Aloha, and especially that you have been acknowledged of Aloha, turn you again to those diseased and beggarly principles, and will to be subject to them afresh?
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— But now, since ye have known God, or rather, have been known by God, ye turn yourselves again to the weak and beggarly elements, and wish again to be under them!

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
But 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
now, 3568
{3568} Prime
νῦν
nun
{noon}
A primary particle of present time; 'now' (as adverb of date, a transition or emphasis); also as noun or adjective present or immediate.
after that ye have known 1097
{1097} Prime
γινώσκω
ginosko
{ghin-oce'-ko}
A prolonged form of a primary verb; to 'know' (absolutely), in a great variety of applications and with many implications (as shown at left, with others not thus clearly expressed).
z5631
<5631> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 889
God, 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
or 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
rather 3123
{3123} Prime
μᾶλλον
mallon
{mal'-lon}
Neuter of the comparative of the same as G3122; (adverb) more (in a greater degree) or rather.
are known 1097
{1097} Prime
γινώσκω
ginosko
{ghin-oce'-ko}
A prolonged form of a primary verb; to 'know' (absolutely), in a great variety of applications and with many implications (as shown at left, with others not thus clearly expressed).
z5685
<5685> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 215
of 5259
{5259} Prime
ὑπό
hupo
{hoop-o'}
A primary preposition; under, that is, (with the genitive) of place (beneath), or with verbs (the agency or means, through); (with the accusative) of place (whither [underneath] or where [below]) or time (when [at]).
God, 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
how 4459
{4459} Prime
πῶς
pos
{poce}
Adverb from the base of G4226; an interrogitive particle of manner; in what way? (sometimes the question is indirect, how?); also as exclamation, how much!.
turn x1994
(1994) Complement
ἐπιστρέφω
epistrepho
{ep-ee-stref'-o}
From G1909 and G4762; to revert (literally, figuratively or morally).
ye y1994
[1994] Standard
ἐπιστρέφω
epistrepho
{ep-ee-stref'-o}
From G1909 and G4762; to revert (literally, figuratively or morally).
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
again 3825
{3825} Prime
πάλιν
palin
{pal'-in}
Probably from the same as G3823 (through the idea of oscillatory repetition); (adverbially) anew, that is, (of place) back, (of time) once more, or (conjugationally) furthermore or on the other hand.
to 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
weak 772
{0772} Prime
ἀσθενής
asthenes
{as-then-ace'}
From G0001 (as a negative particle) and the base of G4599; strengthless (in various applications, literally, or figuratively and morally).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
beggarly 4434
{4434} Prime
πτωχός
ptochos
{pto-khos'}
From πτώσσω [[ptosso]] (to crouch; akin to G4422 and the alternate of G4098); a beggar (as cringing), that is, pauper (strictly denoting absolute or public mendicancy, although also used in a qualified or relative sense; whereas G3993 properly means only straitened circumstances in private), literally (often as noun) or figuratively (distressed).
elements, 4747
{4747} Prime
στοιχεῖον
stoicheion
{stoy-khi'-on}
Neuter of a presumed derivative of the base of G4748; something orderly in arrangement, that is, (by implication) a serial (basal, fundamental, initial) constituent (literally), proposition (figuratively).
whereunto 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
ye x3825
(3825) Complement
πάλιν
palin
{pal'-in}
Probably from the same as G3823 (through the idea of oscillatory repetition); (adverbially) anew, that is, (of place) back, (of time) once more, or (conjugationally) furthermore or on the other hand.
desire 2309
{2309} Prime
θέλω
thelo
{thel'-o}
In certain tenses θελέω [[theleo]], {thel-eh'-o}; and ἐθέλέω [[etheleo]], {eth-el-eh'-o}, which are otherwise obsolete; apparently strengthened from the alternate form of G0138; to determine (as an active voice option from subjective impulse; whereas G1014 properly denotes rather a passive voice acquiescence in objective considerations), that is, choose or prefer (literally or figuratively); by implication to wish, that is, be inclined to (sometimes adverbially gladly); impersonally for the future tense, to be about to; by Hebraism to delight in.
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
again 509
{0509} Prime
ἄνωθεν
anothen
{an'-o-then}
From G0507; from above; by analogy from the first; by implication anew.
y3825
[3825] Standard
πάλιν
palin
{pal'-in}
Probably from the same as G3823 (through the idea of oscillatory repetition); (adverbially) anew, that is, (of place) back, (of time) once more, or (conjugationally) furthermore or on the other hand.
to be in bondage? 1398
{1398} Prime
δουλεύω
douleuo
{dool-yoo'-o}
From G1401; to be a slave to (literally or figuratively, involuntarily or voluntarily).
z5721
<5721> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 647
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

See commentary on Galatians 4:8-11.


Galatians 4:9

_ _ known God or rather are known of GodThey did not first know and love God, but God first, in His electing love, knew and loved them as His, and therefore attracted them to the saving knowledge of Him (Matthew 7:23; 1 Corinthians 8:3; 2 Timothy 2:19; compare Exodus 33:12, Exodus 33:17; John 15:16; Philippians 3:12). God’s great grace in this made their fall from it the more heinous.

_ _ how — expressing indignant wonder at such a thing being possible, and even actually occurring (Galatians 1:6). “How is it that ye turn back again?”

_ _ weak — powerless to justify: in contrast to the justifying power of faith (Galatians 3:24; compare Hebrews 7:18).

_ _ beggarly — contrasted with the riches of the inheritance of believers in Christ (Ephesians 1:18). The state of the “child” (Galatians 4:1) is weak, as not having attained manhood; “beggarly,” as not having attained the inheritance.

_ _ elements — “rudiments.” It is as if a schoolmaster should go back to learning the A, B, C’S [Bengel].

_ _ again — There are two Greek words in the original. “Ye desire again, beginning afresh, to be in bondage.” Though the Galatians, as Gentiles, had never been under the Mosaic yoke, yet they had been under “the elements of the world” (Galatians 4:3): the common designation for the Jewish and Gentile systems alike, in contrast to the Gospel (however superior the Jewish was to the Gentile). Both systems consisted in outward worship and cleaved to sensible forms. Both were in bondage to the elements of sense, as though these could give the justification and sanctification which the inner and spiritual power of God alone could bestow.

_ _ ye desire — or “will.” Will-worship is not acceptable to God (Colossians 2:18, Colossians 2:23).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Galatians 4:8-11.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Galatians 4:9

But now being known of God — As his beloved children. How turn ye back to the weak and poor elements — Weak, utterly unable to purge your conscience from guilt, or to give that filial confidence in God. Poor — incapable of enriching the soul with such holiness and happiness as ye are heirs to. Ye desire to be again in bondage — Though of another kind; now to these elements, as before to those idols.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Galatians 4:9

But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and (k) beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire (l) again to be in bondage?

(k) They are called impotent and beggarly ceremonies, being considered apart by themselves without Christ: and again, by that means they gave good testimony that they were beggars in Christ, for when men fall back from Christ to ceremonies, it is nothing else but to cast away riches and to follow beggary.

(l) By going backward.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
ye have:

1 Kings 8:43 Hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to thee for: that all people of the earth may know thy name, to fear thee, as [do] thy people Israel; and that they may know that this house, which I have builded, is called by thy name.
1 Chronicles 28:9 And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy father, and serve him with a perfect heart and with a willing mind: for the LORD searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all the imaginations of the thoughts: if thou seek him, he will be found of thee; but if thou forsake him, he will cast thee off for ever.
Psalms 9:10 And they that know thy name will put their trust in thee: for thou, LORD, hast not forsaken them that seek thee.
Proverbs 2:5 Then shalt thou understand the fear of the LORD, and find the knowledge of God.
Jeremiah 31:34 And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.
Habakkuk 2:14 For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea.
Matthew 11:27 All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and [he] to whomsoever the Son will reveal [him].
John 17:3 And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.
1 Corinthians 15:34 Awake to righteousness, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak [this] to your shame.
2 Corinthians 4:6 For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to [give] the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
Ephesians 1:17 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him:
2 Peter 2:20 For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than the beginning.
1 John 2:3-4 And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments. ... He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him.
1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, [even] in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.

are known:

Exodus 33:17 And the LORD said unto Moses, I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken: for thou hast found grace in my sight, and I know thee by name.
Psalms 1:6 For the LORD knoweth the way of the righteous: but the way of the ungodly shall perish.
John 10:14 I am the good shepherd, and know my [sheep], and am known of mine.
John 10:27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
Romans 8:29 For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate [to be] conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.
1 Corinthians 8:3 But if any man love God, the same is known of him.
1 Corinthians 13:12 For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.
2 Timothy 2:19 Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.

how:

Galatians 3:3 Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?
Romans 8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:
Colossians 2:20-23 Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances, ... Which things have indeed a shew of wisdom in will worship, and humility, and neglecting of the body; not in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh.
Hebrews 7:18 For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof.

again:
or, back,
Hebrews 10:38-39 Now the just shall live by faith: but if [any man] draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him. ... But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving of the soul.

elements:
or, rudiments,
Galatians 4:3 Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 33:17. 1K 8:43. 1Ch 28:9. Ps 1:6; 9:10. Pv 2:5. Jr 31:34. Hab 2:14. Mt 11:27. Jn 10:14, 27; 17:3. Ro 8:3, 29. 1Co 8:3; 13:12; 15:34. 2Co 4:6. Ga 3:3; 4:3. Ep 1:17. Col 2:20. 2Ti 2:19. He 7:18; 10:38. 2P 2:20. 1Jn 2:3; 5:20.

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