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Galatians 4:23 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Howbeit the [son] by the handmaid is born after the flesh; but the [son] by the freewoman [is born] through promise.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— But he [who was] of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman [was] by promise.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— But the son by the bondwoman was born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman through the promise.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— But he [who was] of the bond-woman, was born according to the flesh; but he of the free-woman [was] by promise.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— But he [that was] of the maid servant was born according to flesh, and he [that was] of the free woman through the promise.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, he that was of the bondmaid, after the flesh, had been born, whereas, he that was of the free woman, through means of a promise.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— but he who [is] of the maid-servant, according to flesh hath been, and he who [is] of the free-woman, through the promise;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— But he who was of the bondwoman was born according to the flesh: but he of the free woman was by promise.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— But he who was of the bondwoman, was borne after the flesh: but hee of the freewoman, was by [promise].
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— But he who was of the bondmaid was born according to the flesh, and he who was of the free was by the promise.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— But he that was by the bond maid, was born after the flesh; and he that was by the free woman, was by the promise.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
But 235
{0235} Prime
ἀλλά
alla
{al-lah'}
Neuter plural of G0243; properly other things, that is, (adverbially) contrariwise (in many relations).
he 3303
{3303} Prime
μέν
men
{men}
A primary particle; properly indicative of affirmation or concession (in fact); usually followed by a contrasted clause with G1161 (this one, the former, etc.
x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
[who was] of 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
bondwoman 3814
{3814} Prime
παιδίσκη
paidiske
{pahee-dis'-kay}
Feminine diminutive of G3816; a girl, that is, (specifically) a female slave or servant.
was born 1080
{1080} Prime
γεννάω
gennao
{ghen-nah'-o}
From a variation of G1085; to procreate (properly of the father, but by extension of the mother); figuratively to regenerate.
z5769
<5769> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 215
after 2596
{2596} Prime
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
the flesh; 4561
{4561} Prime
σάρξ
sarx
{sarx}
Probably from the base of G4563; flesh (as stripped of the skin), that is, (strictly) the meat of an animal (as food), or (by extension) the body (as opposed to the soul (or spirit), or as the symbol of what is external, or as the means of kindred, or (by implication) human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specifically) a human being (as such).
but 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
he x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
of 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
freewoman 1658
{1658} Prime
ἐλεύθερος
eleutheros
{el-yoo'-ther-os}
Probably from the alternate of G2064; unrestrained (to go at pleasure), that is, (as a citizen) not a slave (whether freeborn or manumitted), or (generally) exempt (from obligation or liability).
[was] by 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
promise. 1860
{1860} Prime
ἐπαγγελία
epaggelia
{ep-ang-el-ee'-ah}
From G1861; an announcement (for information, assent or pledge; especially a divine assurance of good).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Galatians 4:23

_ _ after the flesh — born according to the usual course of nature: in contrast to Isaac, who was born “by virtue of the promise” (so the Greek), as the efficient cause of Sarah’s becoming pregnant out of the course of nature (Romans 4:19). Abraham was to lay aside all confidence in the flesh (after which Ishmael was born), and to live by faith alone in the promise (according to which Isaac was miraculously born, contrary to all calculations of flesh and blood).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Galatians 4:21-31.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Galatians 4:23

Was born after the flesh — In a natural way. By promise — Through that supernatural strength which was given Abraham in consequence of the promise.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Galatians 4:23

But he [who was] of the bondwoman was born after the (x) flesh; but he of the freewoman [was] by (y) promise.

(x) As all men are, and by the common course of nature.

(y) By virtue of the promise, which Abraham laid hold on for himself and his true seed, for otherwise Abraham and Sara were past the begetting and bearing of children.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
born:

Romans 9:7-8 Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, [are they] all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. ... That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these [are] not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.

but:

Genesis 17:15-19 And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah [shall] her name [be]. ... And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, [and] with his seed after him.
Genesis 18:10-14 And he said, I will certainly return unto thee according to the time of life; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard [it] in the tent door, which [was] behind him. ... Is any thing too hard for the LORD? At the time appointed I will return unto thee, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.
Genesis 21:1-2 And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken. ... For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him.
Romans 4:18-21 Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be. ... And being fully persuaded that, what he had promised, he was able also to perform.
Romans 10:8 But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, [even] in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach;
Hebrews 11:11 Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child when she was past age, because she judged him faithful who had promised.
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Gn 17:15; 18:10; 21:1. Ro 4:18; 9:7; 10:8. He 11:11.

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