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Galatians 3:16 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now to Abraham were the promises spoken, and to his seed. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. He does not say, “And to seeds,” as [referring] to many, but [rather] to one, “And to your seed,” that is, Christ.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— But to Abraham were the promises addressed, and to his seed: he does not say, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed; which is Christ.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, unto Abraham, were spoken the promises—and unto his seed;—He saith not—and unto thy seeds, as of many, but, as of one—and unto thy seed, which is Christ:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and to Abraham were the promises spoken, and to his seed; He doth not say, 'And to seeds,' as of many, but as of one, 'And to thy seed,' which is Christ;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— To Abraham were the promises made and to his seed. He saith not: And to his seeds as of many. But as of one: And to thy seed, which is Christ.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now to Abraham and his seede were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many, but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— But to Abraham was promised the promise, and to his seed. And he did not say to him, Unto thy seeds, as of many; but, To thy seed, as of one, him, (namely,) who is the Meshiha.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— Now to Abraham was the promise made, and to his seed. And it said to him, not, to thy seeds, as being many; but to thy seed, as being one, which is the Messiah.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
to Abraham 11
{0011} Prime
Ἀβραάμ
Abraam
{ab-rah-am'}
Of Hebrew origin [H0085]; Abraham, the Hebrew patriarch. In Acts 7:16 the text should probably read Jacob.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
his 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
seed 4690
{4690} Prime
σπέρμα
sperma
{sper'-mah}
From G4687; somethng sown, that is, seed (including the male 'sperm'); by implication offspring; specifically a remnant (figuratively as if kept over for planting).
were y4483
[4483] Standard
ῥέω
rheo
{hreh'-o}
For certain tenses of which a prolonged form (ἐρέω [[ereo]], {er-eh'-o}) is used; and both as alternate for G2036; perhaps akin (or identical) with G4482 (through the idea of pouring forth); to utter, that is, speak or say.
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
promises 1860
{1860} Prime
ἐπαγγελία
epaggelia
{ep-ang-el-ee'-ah}
From G1861; an announcement (for information, assent or pledge; especially a divine assurance of good).
made. 4483
{4483} Prime
ῥέω
rheo
{hreh'-o}
For certain tenses of which a prolonged form (ἐρέω [[ereo]], {er-eh'-o}) is used; and both as alternate for G2036; perhaps akin (or identical) with G4482 (through the idea of pouring forth); to utter, that is, speak or say.
z5681
<5681> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 602
He saith 3004
{3004} Prime
λέγω
lego
{leg'-o}
A primary verb; properly to 'lay' forth, that is, (figuratively) relate (in words [usually of systematic or set discourse; whereas G2036 and G5346 generally refer to an individual expression or speech respectively; while G4483 is properly to break silence merely, and G2980 means an extended or random harangue]); by implication to mean.
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
not, 3756
{3756} Prime
οὐ
ou
{oo}
A primary word; the absolutely negative (compare G3361) adverb; no or not.
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to seeds, 4690
{4690} Prime
σπέρμα
sperma
{sper'-mah}
From G4687; somethng sown, that is, seed (including the male 'sperm'); by implication offspring; specifically a remnant (figuratively as if kept over for planting).
as 5613
{5613} Prime
ὡς
hos
{hoce}
Probably adverb of comparative from G3739; which how, that is, in that manner (very variously used as shown).
of 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
many; 4183
{4183} Prime
πολύς
polus
{pol-oos'}
Including the forms from the alternate 'pollos'; (singular) much (in any respect) or (plural) many; neuter (singular) as adverb largely; neuter (plural) as adverb or noun often, mostly, largely.
but 235
{0235} Prime
ἀλλά
alla
{al-lah'}
Neuter plural of G0243; properly other things, that is, (adverbially) contrariwise (in many relations).
as 5613
{5613} Prime
ὡς
hos
{hoce}
Probably adverb of comparative from G3739; which how, that is, in that manner (very variously used as shown).
of 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
one, 1520
{1520} Prime
εἷς
heis
{hice}
(Including the neuter [etc.] ἕν [[hen]]); a primary numeral; one.
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to thy 4675
{4675} Prime
σοῦ
sou
{soo}
Genitive case of G4771; of thee, thy.
seed, 4690
{4690} Prime
σπέρμα
sperma
{sper'-mah}
From G4687; somethng sown, that is, seed (including the male 'sperm'); by implication offspring; specifically a remnant (figuratively as if kept over for planting).
which 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
is 2076
{2076} Prime
ἐστί
esti
{es-tee'}
Third person singular present indicative of G1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
Christ. 5547
{5547} Prime
Χριστός
Christos
{khris-tos'}
From G5548; anointed, that is, the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Galatians 3:16

_ _ This verse is parenthetical. The covenant of promise was not “spoken” (so Greek for “made”) to Abraham alone, but “to Abraham and his seed”; to the latter especially; and this means Christ (and that which is inseparable from Him, the literal Israel, and the spiritual, His body, the Church). Christ not having come when the law was given, the covenant could not have been then fulfilled, but awaited the coming of Him, the Seed, to whom it was spoken.

_ _ promises — plural, because the same promise was often repeated (Genesis 12:3, Genesis 12:7; Genesis 15:5, Genesis 15:18; Genesis 17:7; Genesis 22:18), and because it involved many things; earthly blessings to the literal children of Abraham in Canaan, and spiritual and heavenly blessings to his spiritual children; but both promised to Christ, “the Seed” and representative Head of the literal and spiritual Israel alike. In the spiritual seed there is no distinction of Jew or Greek; but to the literal seed, the promises still in part remain to be fulfilled (Romans 11:26). The covenant was not made with “many” seeds (which if there had been, a pretext might exist for supposing there was one seed before the law, another under the law; and that those sprung from one seed, say the Jewish, are admitted on different terms, and with a higher degree of acceptability, than those sprung from the Gentile seed), but with the one seed; therefore, the promise that in Him “all the families of the earth shall be blessed” (Genesis 12:3), joins in this one Seed, Christ, Jew and Gentile, as fellow heirs on the same terms of acceptability, namely, by grace through faith (Romans 4:13); not to some by promise, to others by the law, but to all alike, circumcised and uncircumcised, constituting but one seed in Christ (Romans 4:16). The law, on the other hand, contemplates the Jews and Gentiles as distinct seeds. God makes a covenant, but it is one of promise; whereas the law is a covenant of works. Whereas the law brings in a mediator, a third party (Galatians 3:19, Galatians 3:20), God makes His covenant of promise with the one seed, Christ (Genesis 17:7), and embraces others only as they are identified with, and represented by, Christ.

_ _ one ... Christ — not in the exclusive sense, the man Christ Jesus, but “Christ” (Jesus is not added, which would limit the meaning), including His people who are part of Himself, the Second Adam, and Head of redeemed humanity. Galatians 3:28, Galatians 3:29 prove this, “Ye are all ONE in Christ Jesus” (Jesus is added here as the person is indicated). “And if ye be Christ’s, ye are Abraham’s SEED, heirs according to the promise.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Galatians 3:6-18.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Galatians 3:16

Now the promises were made to Abraham and his seed — Several promises were made to Abraham; but the chief of all, and which was several times repeated, was that of the blessing through Christ. He — That is, God. Saith not, And to seeds, as of many — As if the promise were made to several kinds of seed. But as of one — That is, one kind of seed, one posterity, one kind of sons. And to all these the blessing belonged by promise. Which is Christ — including all that believe in him. Genesis 22:18.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Galatians 3:16

Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, (18) which is (l) Christ.

(18) He puts forth the sum of the seventh argument, that is, that both the Jews and the Gentiles grow together in one body of the seed of Abraham, in Christ alone, so that all are one in Christ, as it is afterward declared in (Galatians 3:28).

(l) Paul does not speak of Christ's person, but of two peoples, who grew together in one, in Christ.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
to:

Galatians 3:8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, [saying], In thee shall all nations be blessed.
Genesis 12:3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
Genesis 12:7 And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land: and there builded he an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him.
Genesis 13:15-16 For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever. ... And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, [then] shall thy seed also be numbered.
Genesis 15:5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be.
Genesis 17:7-8 And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. ... And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.
Genesis 21:12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called.
Genesis 22:17-18 That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which [is] upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; ... And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.
Genesis 26:3-4 Sojourn in this land, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee; for unto thee, and unto thy seed, I will give all these countries, and I will perform the oath which I sware unto Abraham thy father; ... And I will make thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all these countries; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed;
Genesis 28:13 And, behold, the LORD stood above it, and said, I [am] the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed;
Genesis 28:14 And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.
Genesis 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him [shall] the gathering of the people [be].

which:

Galatians 3:27-29 For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. ... And if ye [be] Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.
Romans 12:5 So we, [being] many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.
1 Corinthians 12:12 For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also [is] Christ.
1 Corinthians 12:27 Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.
Ephesians 4:15-16 But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, [even] Christ: ... From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love.
Ephesians 5:29-30 For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church: ... For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.
Ephesians 5:32 This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church.
Colossians 2:19 And not holding the Head, from which all the body by joints and bands having nourishment ministered, and knit together, increaseth with the increase of God.
Colossians 3:11 Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond [nor] free: but Christ [is] all, and in all.
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Gn 12:3, 7; 13:15; 15:5; 17:7; 21:12; 22:17; 26:3; 28:13, 14; 49:10. Ro 12:5. 1Co 12:12, 27. Ga 3:8, 27. Ep 4:15; 5:29, 32. Col 2:19; 3:11.

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