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Galatians 2:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— For before that certain came from James, he ate with the Gentiles; but when they came, he drew back and separated himself, fearing them that were of the circumcision.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— For prior to the coming of certain men from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles; but when they came, he [began] to withdraw and hold himself aloof, fearing the party of the circumcision.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— For before that certain came from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles: but when they had come, he withdrew, and separated himself, fearing them who were of the circumcision.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— for before that certain came from James, he ate with [those of] the nations; but when they came, he drew back and separated himself, fearing those of [the] circumcision;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— For, before that certain came from James, with them of the nations, used he to eat; whereas, when they came, he used to withdraw, and keep himself separate, fearing them of the circumcision;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— for before the coming of certain from James, with the nations he was eating, and when they came, he was withdrawing and separating himself, fearing those of the circumcision,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— For before that some came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them who were of the circumcision.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— For before that certaine came from Iames, he did eate with the Gentiles: but when they were come, hee withdrew, and separated himselfe, fearing them [which were] of the Circumcisio.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— For until certain men came from Jakub, he had eaten with the Gentiles; but when they were come, he withdrew himself and separated, because he was afraid of those who were of the circumcision.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— For before certain ones came from James, he ate with the Gentiles: but when they came, he withdrew himself, and separated; because he was afraid of them of the circumcision.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
For 1063
{1063} Prime
γάρ
gar
{gar}
A primary particle; properly assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles).
before y4253
[4253] Standard
πρό
pro
{pro}
A primary preposition; 'fore', that is, in front of, prior (figuratively superior) to. In compounds it retains the same significations.
that certain 5100
{5100} Prime
τὶς
tis
{tis}
An enclitic indefinite pronoun; some or any person or object.
came 2064
{2064} Prime
ἔρχομαι
erchomai
{er'-khom-ahee}
Middle voice of a primary verb (used only in the present and imperfect tenses, the others being supplied by a kindred [middle voice] word, ἐλεύθομαι [[eleuthomai]], {el-yoo'-thom-ahee}; or [active] ἔλθω [[eltho]], {el'-tho}; which do not otherwise occur); to come or go (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
z5629
<5629> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 454
from 575
{0575} Prime
ἀπό
apo
{ap-o'}
A primary particle; 'off', that is, away (from something near), in various senses (of place, time, or relation; literally or figuratively).
James, 2385
{2385} Prime
Ἰάκωβος
Iakobos
{ee-ak'-o-bos}
The same as G2384 Graecized; Jacobus, the name of three Israelites.
he did eat 4906
{4906} Prime
συνεσθίω
sunesthio
{soon-es-thee'-o}
From G4862 and G2068 (including its alternate); to take food in company with.
z5707
<5707> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 855
with 3326
{3326} Prime
μετά
meta
{met-ah'}
A primary preposition (often used adverbially); properly denoting accompaniment; 'amid' (local or causal); modified variously according to the case (genitive case association, or accusative case succession) with which it is joined; occupying an intermediate position between G0575 or G1537 and G1519 or G4314; less intimate than G1722, and less close than G4862).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
Gentiles: 1484
{1484} Prime
ἔθνος
ethnos
{eth'-nos}
Probably from G1486; a race (as of the same habit), that is, a tribe; specifically a foreign (non-Jewish) one (usually by implication pagan).
but 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
when 3753
{3753} Prime
ὅτε
hote
{hot'-eh}
From G3739 and G5037; at which (thing) too, that is, when.
they were come, 2064
{2064} Prime
ἔρχομαι
erchomai
{er'-khom-ahee}
Middle voice of a primary verb (used only in the present and imperfect tenses, the others being supplied by a kindred [middle voice] word, ἐλεύθομαι [[eleuthomai]], {el-yoo'-thom-ahee}; or [active] ἔλθω [[eltho]], {el'-tho}; which do not otherwise occur); to come or go (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
he withdrew 5288
{5288} Prime
ὑποστέλλω
hupostello
{hoop-os-tel'-lo}
From G5259 and G4724; to withhold under (out of sight), that is, (reflexively) to cower or shrink, (figuratively) to conceal (reserve).
z5707
<5707> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 855
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
separated 873
{0873} Prime
ἀφορίζω
aphorizo
{af-or-id'-zo}
From G0575 and G3724; to set off by boundary, that is, (figuratively) limit, exclude, appoint, etc.
z5707
<5707> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 855
himself, 1438
{1438} Prime
ἑαυτοῦ
heautou
{heh-ow-too'}
(Including all the other cases); from a reflexive pronoun otherwise obsolete and the genitive (dative or accusative) of G0846; him (her, it, them, also [in conjunction with the personal pronoun of the other persons] my, thy, our, your) -self (-selves), etc.
fearing 5399
{5399} Prime
φοβέω
phobeo
{fob-eh'-o}
From G5401; to frighten, that is, (passively) to be alarmed; by analogy to be in awe of, that is, revere.
z5740
<5740> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Middle or Passive Deponent (See G5790)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 544
them x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
which were of 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
the circumcision. 4061
{4061} Prime
περιτομή
peritome
{per-it-om-ay'}
From G4059; circumcision (the rite, the condition or the people, literally or figuratively).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Galatians 2:12

_ _ certain — men: perhaps James’ view (in which he was not infallible, any more than Peter) was that the Jewish converts were still to observe Jewish ordinances, from which he had decided with the council the Gentiles should be free (Acts 15:19). Neander, however, may be right in thinking these self-styled delegates from James were not really from him. Acts 15:24 favors this. “Certain from James,” may mean merely that they came from the Church at Jerusalem under James’ bishopric. Still James’ leanings were to legalism, and this gave him his influence with the Jewish party (Acts 21:18-26).

_ _ eat with ... Gentiles — as in Acts 10:10-20, Acts 10:48, according to the command of the vision (Acts 11:3-17). Yet after all, this same Peter, through fear of man (Proverbs 29:25), was faithless to his own so distinctly avowed principles (Acts 15:7-11). We recognize the same old nature in him as led him, after faithfully witnessing for Christ, yet for a brief space, to deny Him. “Ever the first to recognize, and the first to draw back from great truths” [Alford]. An undesigned coincidence between the Gospels and the Epistle in the consistency of character as portrayed in both. It is beautiful to see how earthly misunderstandings of Christians are lost in Christ. For in 2 Peter 3:15, Peter praises the very Epistles of Paul which he knew contained his own condemnation. Though apart from one another and differing in characteristics, the two apostles were one in Christ.

_ _ withdrewGreek,began to withdraw,” etc. This implies a gradual drawing back; “separated,” entire severance.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Galatians 2:11-21.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Galatians 2:12

(2) For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.

(2) Another most vehement proof of his apostleship, and also of that doctrine which he had delivered concerning free justification by faith alone. And it was for this doctrine alone that he reprehended Peter at Antioch, who offended in this, in that for the sake of a few Jews who came from Jerusalem, he played the Jew, and offended the Gentiles who had believed.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
certain:

Galatians 2:9 And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we [should go] unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.
Acts 21:18-25 And the [day] following Paul went in with us unto James; and all the elders were present. ... As touching the Gentiles which believe, we have written [and] concluded that they observe no such thing, save only that they keep themselves from [things] offered to idols, and from blood, and from strangled, and from fornication.

he did:

Acts 10:28 And he said unto them, Ye know how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep company, or come unto one of another nation; but God hath shewed me that I should not call any man common or unclean.
Acts 11:3 Saying, Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat with them.
Ephesians 2:15 Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, [even] the law of commandments [contained] in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, [so] making peace;
Ephesians 2:19-22 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God; ... In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.
Ephesians 3:6 That the Gentiles should be fellowheirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel:

he withdrew:

Isaiah 65:5 Which say, Stand by thyself, come not near to me; for I am holier than thou. These [are] a smoke in my nose, a fire that burneth all the day.
Luke 15:2 And the Pharisees and scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them.
1 Thessalonians 5:22 Abstain from all appearance of evil.

fearing:

Proverbs 29:25 The fear of man bringeth a snare: but whoso putteth his trust in the LORD shall be safe.
Isaiah 57:11 And of whom hast thou been afraid or feared, that thou hast lied, and hast not remembered me, nor laid [it] to thy heart? have not I held my peace even of old, and thou fearest me not?
Matthew 26:69-75 Now Peter sat without in the palace: and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. ... And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out, and wept bitterly.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Pv 29:25. Is 57:11; 65:5. Mt 26:69. Lk 15:2. Ac 10:28; 11:3; 21:18. Ga 2:9. Ep 2:15, 19; 3:6. 1Th 5:22.

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