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Galatians 1:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead),
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Paul, an apostle (not [sent] from men nor through the agency of man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised Him from the dead),
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Paul, an apostle, (not from men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Paul, apostle, not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God [the] Father who raised him from among [the] dead,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Paul, an apostle,—not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father who raised him from among the dead,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Paul, an apostle—not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who did raise him out of the dead—
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Paul, an apostle, not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Paul an Apostle, not of men, neither by man, but by Iesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him fro the dead,
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— PAULOS, an apostle, not from men, nor by men, but by Jeshu the Meshiha, and Aloha his Father, who raised him from among the dead,
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— PAUL, a legate, not from men, nor by man, but by Jesus the Messiah, and God his Father, who raised him from the dead;

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Paul, 3972
{3972} Prime
Παῦλος
Paulos
{pow'-los}
Of Latin origin; (little; but remotely from a derivative of G3973, meaning the same); Paulus, the name of a Roman and of an apostle.
an apostle, 652
{0652} Prime
ἀπόστολος
apostolos
{ap-os'-tol-os}
From G0649; a delegate; specifically an ambassador of the Gospel; officially a commissioner of Christ ('apostle'), (with miraculous powers).
(not 3756
{3756} Prime
οὐ
ou
{oo}
A primary word; the absolutely negative (compare G3361) adverb; no or not.
of 575
{0575} Prime
ἀπό
apo
{ap-o'}
A primary particle; 'off', that is, away (from something near), in various senses (of place, time, or relation; literally or figuratively).
men, 444
{0444} Prime
ἄνθρωπος
anthropos
{anth'-ro-pos}
From G0435 and ὤψ [[ops]] (the countenance; from G3700); manfaced, that is, a human being.
neither 3761
{3761} Prime
οὐδέ
oude
{oo-deh'}
From G3756 and G1161; not however, that is, neither, nor, not even.
by 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
man, 444
{0444} Prime
ἄνθρωπος
anthropos
{anth'-ro-pos}
From G0435 and ὤψ [[ops]] (the countenance; from G3700); manfaced, that is, a human being.
but 235
{0235} Prime
ἀλλά
alla
{al-lah'}
Neuter plural of G0243; properly other things, that is, (adverbially) contrariwise (in many relations).
by 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
Jesus 2424
{2424} Prime
Ἰησοῦς
Iesous
{ee-ay-sooce'}
Of Hebrew origin [H3091]; Jesus (that is, Jehoshua), the name of our Lord and two (three) other Israelites.
Christ, 5547
{5547} Prime
Χριστός
Christos
{khris-tos'}
From G5548; anointed, that is, the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
God 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
the Father, 3962
{3962} Prime
πατήρ
pater
{pat-ayr'}
Apparently a primary word; a 'father' (literally or figuratively, near or more remote).
who y3588
[3588] Standard

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
raised 1453
{1453} Prime
ἐγείρω
egeiro
{eg-i'-ro}
Probably akin to the base of G0058 (through the idea of collecting one's faculties); to waken (transitively or intransitively), that is, rouse (literally from sleep, from sitting or lying, from disease, from death; or figuratively from obscurity, inactivity, ruins, nonexistence).
z5660
<5660> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 714
him 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
from 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
the dead;) 3498
{3498} Prime
νεκρός
nekros
{nek-ros'}
From an apparently primary word νέκυς [[nekus]] (a corpse); dead (literally or figuratively; also as noun).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Galatians 1:1

_ _ Galatians 1:1-24. Superscription. Greetings. The cause of his writing is their speedy falling away from the gospel he taught. Defense of his teaching: His apostolic call independent of man.

_ _ Judaizing teachers had persuaded the Galatians that Paul had taught them the new religion imperfectly, and at second hand; that the founder of their church himself possessed only a deputed commission, the seal of truth and authority being in the apostles at Jerusalem: moreover, that whatever he might profess among them, he had himself at other times, and in other places, given way to the doctrine of circumcision. To refute this, he appeals to the history of his conversion, and to the manner of his conferring with the apostles when he met them at Jerusalem; that so far was his doctrine from being derived from them, or they from exercising any superiority over him, that they had simply assented to what he had already preached among the Gentiles, which preaching was communicated, not by them to him, but by himself to them [Paley]. Such an apologetic Epistle could not be a later forgery, the objections which it meets only coming out incidentally, not being obtruded as they would be by a forger; and also being such as could only arise in the earliest age of the Church, when Jerusalem and Judaism still held a prominent place.

_ _ apostle — in the earliest Epistles, the two to the Thessalonians, through humility, he uses no title of authority; but associates with him “Silvanus and Timotheus”; yet here, though “brethren” (Galatians 1:2) are with him, he does not name them but puts his own name and apostleship prominent: evidently because his apostolic commission needs now to be vindicated against deniers of it.

_ _ ofGreek, “from.” Expressing the origin from which his mission came, “not from men,” but from Christ and the Father (understood) as the source. “By” expresses the immediate operating agent in the call. Not only was the call from God as its ultimate source, but by Christ and the Father as the immediate agent in calling him (Acts 22:15; Acts 26:16-18). The laying on of Ananias’ hands (Acts 9:17) is no objection to this; for that was but a sign of the fact, not an assisting cause. So the Holy Ghost calls him specially (Acts 13:2, Acts 13:3); he was an apostle before this special mission.

_ _ man — singular; to mark the contrast to “Jesus Christ.” The opposition between “Christ” and “man,” and His name being put in closest connection with God the Father, imply His Godhead.

_ _ raised him from the dead — implying that, though he had not seen Him in His humiliation as the other apostles (which was made an objection against him), he had seen and been constituted an apostle by Him in His resurrection power (Matthew 28:18; Romans 1:4, Romans 1:5). Compare as to the ascension, the consequence of the resurrection, and the cause of His giving “apostles,” Ephesians 4:11. He rose again, too, for our justification (Romans 4:25); thus Paul prepares the way for the prominent subject of the Epistle, justification in Christ, not by the law.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Galatians 1:1-5

_ _ In these verses we have the preface or introduction to the epistle, where observe,

_ _ I. The person or persons from whom this epistle is sent — from Paul an apostle, etc., and all the brethren that were with him. 1. The epistle is sent from Paul; he only was the penman of it. And, because there were some among the Galatians who endeavoured to lessen his character and authority, in the front of it he gives a general account both of his office and of the manner in which he was called to it, which afterwards, in this and the following chapter, he enlarges more upon. As to his office, he was an apostle. He is not afraid to style himself so, though his enemies would scarcely allow him this title: and, to let them see that he did not assume this character without just ground, he acquaints them how he was called to this dignity and office, and assures them that his commission to it was wholly divine, for he was an apostle, not of man, neither by man; he had not the common call of an ordinary minister, but an extraordinary call from heaven to this office. He neither received his qualification for it, nor his designation to it, by the mediation of men, but had both the one and the other directly from above; for he was an apostle by Jesus Christ, he had his instructions and commission immediately from him, and consequently from God the Father, who was one with him in respect of his divine nature, and who had appointed him, as Mediator, to be the apostle and high priest of our profession, and as such to authorize others to this office. He adds, Who raised him from the dead, both to acquaint us that herein God the Father gave a public testimony to Christ's being his Son and the promised Messiah, and also that, as his call to the apostleship was immediately from Christ, so it was after his resurrection from the dead, and when he had entered upon his exalted state; so that he had reason to look upon himself, not only as standing upon a level with the other apostles, but as in some sort preferred above them; for, whereas they were called by him when on earth, he had his call from him when in heaven. Thus does the apostle, being constrained to it by his adversaries, magnify his office, which shows that though men should by no means be proud of any authority they are possessed of, yet at certain times and upon certain occasions it may become needful to assert it. But, 2. He joins all the brethren that were with him in the inscription of the epistle, and writes in their name as well as his own. By the brethren that were with him may be understood either the Christians in common of that place where he now was, or such as were employed as ministers of the gospel. These, notwithstanding his own superior character and attainments, he is ready to own as his brethren; and, though he alone wrote the epistle, yet he joins them with himself in the inscription of it. Herein, as he shows his own great modesty and humility, and how remote he was from an assuming temper, so he might do this to dispose these churches to a greater regard to what he wrote, since hereby it would appear that he had their concurrence with him in the doctrine which he had preached, and was now about to confirm, and that it was no other than what was both published and professed by others as well as himself.

_ _ II. To whom this epistle is sent — to the churches of Galatia. There were several churches at that time in this country, and it should seem that all of them were more or less corrupted through the arts of those seducers who had crept in among them; and therefore Paul, on whom came daily the care of all the churches, being deeply affected with their state, and concerned for their recovery to the faith and establishment in it, writes this epistle to them. He directs it to all of them, as being all more or less concerned in the matter of it; and he gives them the name of churches, though they had done enough to forfeit it, for corrupt churches are never allowed to be churches: no doubt there were some among them who still continued in the faith, and he was not without hope that others might be recovered to it.

_ _ III. The apostolical benediction, Galatians 1:3. Herein the apostle, and the brethren who were with him, wish these churches grace and peace from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. This is the usual blessing wherewith he blesses the churches in the name of the Lord — grace and peace. Grace includes God's good-will towards us and his good work upon us; and peace implies in it all that inward comfort, or outward prosperity, which is really needful for us; and they come from God the Father as the fountain, through Jesus Christ as the channel of conveyance. Both these the apostle wishes for these Christians. But we may observe, First grace, and then peace, for there can be no true peace without grace. Having mentioned the Lord Jesus Christ, he cannot pass without enlarging upon his love; and therefore adds (Galatians 1:4), Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver, etc. Jesus Christ gave himself for our sins, as a great sacrifice to make atonement for us; this the justice of God required, and to this he freely submitted for our sakes. One great end hereof was to deliver us from this present evil world; not only to redeem us from the wrath of God, and the curse of the law, but also to recover us from the corruption that is in the world through lust, and to rescue us from the vicious practices and customs of it, unto which we are naturally enslaved; and possibly also to set us free from the Mosaic constitution, for so ain houtos is used, 1 Corinthians 2:6, 1 Corinthians 2:8. From this we may note, 1. This present world is an evil world: it has become so by the sin of man, and it is so on account of the sin and sorrow with which it abounds and the many snares and temptations to which we are exposed as long as we continue in it. But, 2. Jesus Christ has died to deliver us from this present evil world, not presently to remove his people out of it, but to rescue them from the power of it, to keep them from the evil of it, and in due time to possess them of another and better world. This, the apostle informs us, he has done according to the will of God and our Father. In offering up himself a sacrifice for this end and purpose, he acted by the appointment of the Father, as well as with his own free consent; and therefore we have the greatest reason to depend upon the efficacy and acceptableness of what he has done and suffered for us; yea, hence we have encouragement to look upon God as our Father, for thus the apostle here represents him: as he is the Father of our Lord Jesus, so in and through him he is also the Father of all true believers, as our blessed Saviour himself acquaints us (John 20:17), when he tells his disciples that he was ascending to his Father and their Father.

_ _ The apostle, having thus taken notice of the great love wherewith Christ hath loved us, concludes this preface with a solemn ascription of praise and glory to him (Galatians 1:5): To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. Intimating that on this account he is justly entitled to our highest esteem and regard. Or this doxology may be considered as referring both to God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ, from whom he had just before been wishing grace and peace. They are both the proper objects of our worship and adoration, and all honour and glory are perpetually due to them, both on account of their own infinite excellences, and also on account of the blessings we receive from them.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Galatians 1:1

Paul, an apostle — Here it was necessary for St. Paul to assert his authority; otherwise he is very modest in the use of this title. He seldom mentions it when he mentions others in the salutations with himself, as in the Epistles to the Philippians and Thessalonians; or when he writes about secular affairs, as in that to Philemon; nor yet in writing to the Hebrews because he was not properly their apostle. Not of men — Not commissioned from them, but from God the Father. Neither by man — Neither by any man as an instrument, but by Jesus Christ. Who raised him from the dead — Of which it was the peculiar business of an apostle to bear witness.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Galatians 1:1

Paul, (1) an apostle, (not (a) of men, neither by (b) man, but by (c) Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)

(1) A salutation which puts in a few words the sum of the apostle's doctrine, and also immediately from the beginning shows the gravity appropriate for the authority of an apostle, which he had to maintain against the false apostles.

(a) He shows who is the author of the ministry generally: for in this the whole ministry agrees, that whether they are apostles, or shepherds, or teachers, they are appointed by God.

(b) He mentions that man is not the instrumental cause: for this is a special right of the apostles, to be called directly from Christ.

(c) Christ no doubt is man, but he is also God, and head of the Church, and in this respect to be exempted out of the number of men.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
an:

Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called [to be] an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,
1 Corinthians 1:1 Paul, called [to be] an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes [our] brother,

not:

Galatians 1:11-12 But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man. ... For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught [it], but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.
Galatians 1:17 Neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus.

neither:

Acts 1:16-26 Men [and] brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus. ... And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.
Acts 13:2-4 As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. ... So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; and from thence they sailed to Cyprus.

but:

Acts 9:6 And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt thou have me to do? And the Lord [said] unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do.
Acts 9:15-16 But the Lord said unto him, Go thy way: for he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel: ... For I will shew him how great things he must suffer for my name's sake.
Acts 22:10 And I said, What shall I do, Lord? And the Lord said unto me, Arise, and go into Damascus; and there it shall be told thee of all things which are appointed for thee to do.
Acts 22:14-21 And he said, The God of our fathers hath chosen thee, that thou shouldest know his will, and see that Just One, and shouldest hear the voice of his mouth. ... And he said unto me, Depart: for I will send thee far hence unto the Gentiles.
Acts 26:16-18 But rise, and stand upon thy feet: for I have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness both of these things which thou hast seen, and of those things in the which I will appear unto thee; ... To open their eyes, [and] to turn [them] from darkness to light, and [from] the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me.
Romans 1:4-5 And declared [to be] the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead: ... By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:
2 Corinthians 3:1-3 Do we begin again to commend ourselves? or need we, as some [others], epistles of commendation to you, or [letters] of commendation from you? ... [Forasmuch as ye are] manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart.
Ephesians 3:8 Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ;
1 Timothy 1:11-14 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust. ... And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.
2 Timothy 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus,
Titus 1:3 But hath in due times manifested his word through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God our Saviour;

and:

Matthew 28:18-20 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. ... Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, [even] unto the end of the world. Amen.
John 5:19 Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.
John 10:30 I and [my] Father are one.
John 20:21 Then said Jesus to them again, Peace [be] unto you: as [my] Father hath sent me, even so send I you.

raised:

Acts 2:24-32 Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it. ... This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses.
Acts 3:15 And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses.
Romans 4:24-25 But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead; ... Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.
Romans 10:9 That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.
Romans 14:9 For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.
Ephesians 1:19-20 And what [is] the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, ... Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set [him] at his own right hand in the heavenly [places],
Hebrews 13:20 Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,
1 Peter 1:21 Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.
Revelation 1:5 And from Jesus Christ, [who is] the faithful witness, [and] the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,
Revelation 1:18 I [am] he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
Revelation 2:8 And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;
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Mt 28:18. Jn 5:19; 10:30; 20:21. Ac 1:16; 2:24; 3:15; 9:6, 15; 13:2; 22:10, 14; 26:16. Ro 1:1, 4; 4:24; 10:9; 14:9. 1Co 1:1. 2Co 3:1. Ga 1:11, 17. Ep 1:19; 3:8. 1Ti 1:11. 2Ti 1:1. Tit 1:3. He 13:20. 1P 1:21. Rv 1:5, 18; 2:8.

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