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Ezra 9:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, [even] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now when these things had been completed, the princes approached me, saying, “The people of Israel and the priests and the Levites have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, according to their abominations, [those] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians and the Amorites.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, [even] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Now when these things were completed, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, according to their abominations, [even] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, when these things were ended, the rulers drew near unto me, saying, The people of Israel and the priests and the Levites have not kept themselves separate from the peoples of the lands,—in view of their abominations-even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And at the completion of these things, drawn nigh unto me have the heads, saying, 'The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not been separated from the peoples of the lands, as to their abominations, even the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Jebusite, the Ammonite, the Moabite, the Egyptian, and the Amorite,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And after these things were accomplished, the princes came to me, saying: The people of Israel, and the priests and Levites have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, and from their abominations, namely, of the Chanaanites, and the Hethites, and the Pherezites, and the Jebusites, and the Ammonites, and the Moabites, and the Egyptians, and the Amorrhites.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Nowe when these things were done, the Princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests and the Leuites, haue not separated themselues from the people of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, [euen] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Iebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And when these things were finished, the princes drew near to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands in their abominations, [even] the Canaanite{gr.Chananite}, the Ethite, the Perizzite{gr.Pherezite}, the Jebusite, the Ammonite, the Moabite, and the Moserite and the Amorite.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Yisrael, and the priests, and the Lewiyyim, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, [even] of the Kenaanim, the Chittim, the Perizzim, the Yevusim, the Ammonim, the Moavim, the Mitzrim, and the Emorim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now when these things x428
(0428) Complement
אֵלֶּה
'el-leh
{ale'-leh}
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
were done, 3615
{3615} Prime
כָּלָה
kalah
{kaw-law'}
A primitive root; to end, whether intransitively (to cease, be finished, perish) or transitively (to complete, prepare, consume).
z8763
<8763> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 790
the princes 8269
{8269} Prime
שַׂר
sar
{sar}
From H8323; a head person (of any rank or class).
came 5066
{5066} Prime
נגשׁ
nagash
{naw-gash'}
A primitive root; to be or come (causatively bring) near (for any purpose); euphemistically to lie with a woman; as an enemy, to attack; religiously to worship; causatively to present; figuratively to adduce an argument; by reversal, to stand back.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
me, saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
The people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל, 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
and the priests, 3548
{3548} Prime
כֹּהֵן
kohen
{ko-hane'}
Active participle of H3547; literally one officiating, a priest; also (by courtesy) an acting priest (although a layman).
and the Lwiyyim לְוִיִּם, 3881
{3881} Prime
לֵוִיִי
Leviyiy
{lay-vee-ee'}
Patronymic from H3878; a Leviite or descendant of Levi.
have not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
separated y914
[0914] Standard
בָּדַל
badal
{baw-dal'}
A primitive root; to divide (in various senses literally or figuratively, separate, distinguish, differ, select, etc.).
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
themselves x914
(0914) Complement
בָּדַל
badal
{baw-dal'}
A primitive root; to divide (in various senses literally or figuratively, separate, distinguish, differ, select, etc.).
from the people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
of the lands, 776
{0776} Prime
אֶרֶץ
'erets
{eh'-rets}
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
[doing] according to their abominations, 8441
{8441} Prime
תּוֹעֵבָה
tow`ebah
{to-ay-baw'}
Feminine active participle of H8581; properly something disgusting (morally), that is, (as noun) an abhorrence; especially idolatry or (concretely) an idol.
[even] of the Cna`nm כְּנַעֲנִים, 3669
{3669} Prime
כְּנַעֲנִי
K@na`aniy
{ken-ah-an-ee'}
Patrial from H3667; a Kenaanite or inhabitant of Kenaan; by implication a pedlar (the Cananites standing for their neighbors the Ishmaelites, who conducted mercantile caravans).
the ittm חִתִּים, 2850
{2850} Prime
חִתִּי
Chittiy
{khit-tee'}
Patronymic from H2845; a Chittite, or descendant of Cheth.
the Prizzm פְּרִזִּים, 6522
{6522} Prime
פְּרִזִּי
P@rizziy
{per-iz-zee'}
For H6521; inhabitant of the open country; a Perizzite, one of the Canaanitish tribes.
the Yvsm יְבוּסִים, 2983
{2983} Prime
יְבוּסִי
Y@buwciy
{yeb-oo-see'}
Patrial from H2982; a Jebusite or inhabitant of Jebus.
the `Ammnm עַמֹּנִים, 5984
{5984} Prime
עַמּוֹנִי
`Ammowniy
{am-mo-nee'}
Patronymic from H5983; an Ammonite or (adjectively) Ammonitish.
the Mvm מוֹאָבִים, 4125
{4125} Prime
מוֹאָבִי
Mow'abiy
{mo-aw-bee'}
Patronymic from H4124; a Moabite or Moabitess, that is, a descendant from Moab.
the Mixrm מִצרִים, 4713
{4713} Prime
מִצְרִי
Mitsriy
{mits-ree'}
From H4714; a Mitsrite, or inhabitant of Mitsrajim.
and the mrm אֱמֹרִים. 567
{0567} Prime
אֱמֹרִי
'Emoriy
{em-o-ree'}
Probably a patronymic from an unused name derived from H0559 in the sense of publicity, that is, prominence; thus a mountaineer; an Emorite, one of the Canaanitish tribes.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Ezra 9:1-2

_ _ Ezra 9:1-4. Ezra mourns for the affinity of the people with strangers.

_ _ Now when these things were done — The first days after Ezra’s arrival in Jerusalem were occupied in executing the different trusts committed to him. The nature and design of the office with which the royal authority had invested him was publicly made known to his own people by the formal delivery of the contribution and the sacred vessels brought from Babylon to the priests to be deposited in the temple. Then his credentials were privately presented to the provincial governors; and by this prudent, orderly proceeding he put himself in the best position to avail himself of all the advantages guaranteed him by the king. On a superficial view everything contributed to gratify his patriotic feelings in the apparently flourishing state of the church and country. But a further acquaintance discovered the existence of great corruptions, which demanded immediate correction. One was particularly brought under his notice as being the source and origin of all others; namely, a serious abuse that was practiced respecting the law of marriage.

_ _ the princes came to me, saying — The information they lodged with Ezra was to the effect that numbers of the people, in violation of the divine law (Deuteronomy 7:2, Deuteronomy 7:3), had contracted marriages with Gentile women, and that the guilt of the disorderly practice, far from being confined to the lower classes, was shared in by several of the priests and Levites, as well as of the leading men in the country. This great irregularity would inevitably bring many evils in its train; it would encourage and increase idolatry, as well as break down the barriers of distinction which, for important purposes, God had raised between the Israelites and all other people. Ezra foresaw these dangerous consequences, but was overwhelmed with a sense of the difficulty of correcting the evil, when matrimonial alliances had been formed, families had been reared, affections engaged, and important interests established.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Ezra 9:1-4

_ _ Ezra, like Barnabas when he came to Jerusalem and saw the grace of God to his brethren there, no doubt was glad, and exhorted them all that with purpose of heart they would cleave to the Lord, Acts 11:23. He saw nothing amiss (many corruptions lurk out of the view of the most vigilant rulers); but here is a damp upon his joys: information is brought him that many of the people, yea, and some of the rulers, had married wives out of heathen families, and joined themselves in affinity with strangers. Observe,

_ _ I. What the sin was that they were guilty of: it was mingling with the people of those lands (Ezra 9:2), associating with them both in trade and in conversation, making themselves familiar with them, and, to complete the affinity, taking their daughters in marriages to their sons. We are willing to hope that they did not worship their gods, but that their captivity had cured them of their idolatry: it is said indeed that they did according to their abominations; but that (says bishop Patrick) signifies here only the imitation of the heathen in promiscuous marriages with any nation whatsoever, which by degrees would lead them to idolatry. Herein, 1. They disobeyed the express command of God, which forbade all intimacy with the heathen, and particularly in matrimonial contracts, Deuteronomy 7:3. 2. They profaned the crown of their peculiarity, and set themselves upon a level with those above whom God had by singular marks of his favour, of late as well as formerly, dignified them. 3. They distrusted the power of God to protect and advance them, and were led by carnal policy, hoping to strengthen themselves and make an interest among their neighbours by these alliances. A practical disbelief of God's all-sufficiency is at the bottom of all the sorry shifts we make to help ourselves. 4. They exposed themselves, and much more their children, to the peril of idolatry, the very sin, and introduced by this very way, that had cone been the ruin of their church and nation.

_ _ II. Who were the persons that were guilty of this sin, not only some of the unthinking people of Israel, that knew no better, but many of the priests and Levites, whose office it was to teach the law, and this law among the rest, and in whom, by reason of their elevation above common Israelites, it was a greater crime. It was a diminution to the sons of that tribe to match into any other tribe, and they seldom did except into the royal tribe; but for them to match with heathen, with Canaanites, and Hittites, and I know not whom, was such a disparagement as, if they had had any sense, though not of duty, yet of honour, one would think, they would never have been guilty of. Yet this was not the worst: The hand of the princes and rulers, who by their power should have prevented or reformed this high misdemeanour, was chief in this trespass. If princes be in a trespass, they will be charged as chief in it, because of the influence their examples will have upon others. Many will follow their pernicious ways. But miserable is the case of that people whose leaders debauch them and cause them to err.

_ _ III. The information that was given of this to Ezra. It was given by the persons that were most proper to complain, the princes, those of them that had kept their integrity and with it their dignity; they could not have accused others if they themselves had not been free from blame. It was given to the person who had power to mend the matter, who, as a ready scribe in the law of God, could argue with them, and, as king's commissioner, could awe them. It is probable that these princes had often endeavoured to redress this grievance and could not; but now they applied to Ezra, hoping that his wisdom, authority, and interest, would prevail to do it. Those that cannot of themselves reform public abuses may yet do good service by giving information to those that can.

_ _ IV. The impression this made upon Ezra (Ezra 9:3): He rent his clothes, plucked off his hair, and sat down astonished. Thus he expressed the deep sense he had, 1. Of the dishonour hereby done to God. It grieved him to the heart to think that a people called by his name should so grossly violate his law, should be so little benefited by his correction, and make such bad returns for his favours. 2. Of the mischief the people had hereby done to themselves and the danger they were in of the wrath of God breaking out against them. Note, (1.) The sins of others should be our sorrow, and the injury done by them to God's honour and the souls of men is what we should lay to heart. (2.) Sorrow for sin must be great sorrow; such Ezra's was, as for an only son or a first-born. (3.) The scandalous sins of professors are what we have reason to be astonished at. We may stand amazed to see men contradict, disparage, prejudice, ruin, themselves. Strange that men should act so inconsiderately and so inconsistently with themselves! Upright men are astonished at it.

_ _ V. The influence which Ezra's grief for this had upon others. We may suppose that he went up to the house of the Lord, there to humble himself, because he had an eye to God in his grief and that was the proper place for deprecating his displeasure. Public notice was soon taken of it, and all the devout serious people that were at hand assembled themselves to him, it should seem of their own accord, for nothing is said of their being sent, to, Ezra 9:4. Note, 1. It is the character of good people that they tremble at God's word; they stand in awe of the authority of its precepts and the severity and justice of its threatenings, and to those that do so will God look, Isaiah 66:2. 2. Those that tremble at the word of God cannot but tremble at the sins of men, by which the law of God is broken and his wrath and curse are incurred. 3. The pious zeal of one against sin may perhaps provoke very many to the like, as the apostle speaks in another case, 2 Corinthians 9:2. Many will follow who have not consideration, talent, and courage, enough to lead in a good work. 4. All good people ought to own those that appear and act in the cause of God against vice and profaneness, to stand by them, and do what they can to strengthen their hands.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Ezra 9:1

Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not (a) separated themselves from the people of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, [even] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.

(a) From the time they came home under Zerubbabel until the coming of Ezra, they had degenerated contrary to the law of God, and married where it was not lawful, (Deuteronomy 7:3).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the princes:

Ezra 10:8 And that whosoever would not come within three days, according to the counsel of the princes and the elders, all his substance should be forfeited, and himself separated from the congregation of those that had been carried away.
Jeremiah 26:10 When the princes of Judah heard these things, then they came up from the king's house unto the house of the LORD, and sat down in the entry of the new gate of the LORD'S [house].
Jeremiah 26:16 Then said the princes and all the people unto the priests and to the prophets; This man [is] not worthy to die: for he hath spoken to us in the name of the LORD our God.

have not separated:

Ezra 6:21-22 And the children of Israel, which were come again out of captivity, and all such as had separated themselves unto them from the filthiness of the heathen of the land, to seek the LORD God of Israel, did eat, ... And kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with joy: for the LORD had made them joyful, and turned the heart of the king of Assyria unto them, to strengthen their hands in the work of the house of God, the God of Israel.
Ezra 10:10-11 And Ezra the priest stood up, and said unto them, Ye have transgressed, and have taken strange wives, to increase the trespass of Israel. ... Now therefore make confession unto the LORD God of your fathers, and do his pleasure: and separate yourselves from the people of the land, and from the strange wives.
Exodus 33:16 For wherein shall it be known here that I and thy people have found grace in thy sight? [is it] not in that thou goest with us? so shall we be separated, I and thy people, from all the people that [are] upon the face of the earth.
Numbers 23:9 For from the top of the rocks I see him, and from the hills I behold him: lo, the people shall dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among the nations.
Nehemiah 9:2 And the seed of Israel separated themselves from all strangers, and stood and confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers.
Nehemiah 13:3 Now it came to pass, when they had heard the law, that they separated from Israel all the mixed multitude.
Isaiah 52:11 Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, touch no unclean [thing]; go ye out of the midst of her; be ye clean, that bear the vessels of the LORD.
2 Corinthians 6:14-18 Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? ... And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.

doing according:

Leviticus 18:3 After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do: neither shall ye walk in their ordinances.
Leviticus 18:24-30 Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things: for in all these the nations are defiled which I cast out before you: ... Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, that [ye] commit not [any one] of these abominable customs, which were committed before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I [am] the LORD your God.
Deuteronomy 12:30-31 Take heed to thyself that thou be not snared by following them, after that they be destroyed from before thee; and that thou enquire not after their gods, saying, How did these nations serve their gods? even so will I do likewise. ... Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God: for every abomination to the LORD, which he hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters they have burnt in the fire to their gods.
Deuteronomy 18:9 When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations.
2 Chronicles 33:2 But did [that which was] evil in the sight of the LORD, like unto the abominations of the heathen, whom the LORD had cast out before the children of Israel.
Psalms 106:35 But were mingled among the heathen, and learned their works.
Romans 2:17-25 Behold, thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of God, ... For circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.

of the Canaanites:

Genesis 15:16 But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites [is] not yet full.
Genesis 15:19-21 The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, ... And the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.
Exodus 23:23 For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off.
Deuteronomy 20:17-18 But thou shalt utterly destroy them; [namely], the Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; as the LORD thy God hath commanded thee: ... That they teach you not to do after all their abominations, which they have done unto their gods; so should ye sin against the LORD your God.

Ammonites:

Deuteronomy 23:3-5 An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the LORD; even to their tenth generation shall they not enter into the congregation of the LORD for ever: ... Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee.
1 Kings 11:1 But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, [and] Hittites;
1 Kings 11:5-7 For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. ... Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that [is] before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon.
Nehemiah 4:3 Now Tobiah the Ammonite [was] by him, and he said, Even that which they build, if a fox go up, he shall even break down their stone wall.
Nehemiah 4:7 But it came to pass, [that] when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, [and] that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth,
Nehemiah 13:1-3 On that day they read in the book of Moses in the audience of the people; and therein was found written, that the Ammonite and the Moabite should not come into the congregation of God for ever; ... Now it came to pass, when they had heard the law, that they separated from Israel all the mixed multitude.

Moabites:

Numbers 25:1-3 And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab. ... And Israel joined himself unto Baalpeor: and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel.
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Gn 15:16, 19. Ex 23:23; 33:16. Lv 18:3, 24. Nu 23:9; 25:1. Dt 12:30; 18:9; 20:17; 23:3. 1K 11:1, 5. 2Ch 33:2. Ezr 6:21; 10:8, 10. Ne 4:3, 7; 9:2; 13:1, 3. Ps 106:35. Is 52:11. Jr 26:10, 16. Ro 2:17. 2Co 6:14.

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