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Ezra 1:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of Jehovah by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, Jehovah stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and [put it] also in writing, saying,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and [put it] also in writing, saying,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, in order to fulfill the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he sent a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and also [put it] in writing, saying:
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and [put it] also in writing, saying,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of Jehovah by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, Jehovah stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, and he made a proclamation throughout his kingdom, and also in writing, saying,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— In the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, to fulfill the word of Yahweh from the mouth of Jeremiah, Yahweh aroused the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia, and he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, moreover also in writing, saying:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, at the completion of the word of Jehovah from the mouth of Jeremiah, hath Jehovah waked up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, and he causeth an intimation to pass over into all his kingdom, and also in writing, saying,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In the first year of Cyrus king of the Persians, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremias might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of the Persians: and he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and in writing also, saying:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now in the first yeere of Cyrus King of Persia, (that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Ieremiah, might be fulfilled) ye LORD stirred vp the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdome, and [put it] also in writing, saying;
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Now in the first year of Cyrus king of the Persians, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah{gr.Jeremias} might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of the Persians, and he issued a proclamation through all his kingdom, and that in writing, saying,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now in the first year of Koresh king of Paras, that the word of Yahweh by the mouth of Yirmeyah might be fulfilled, Yahweh stirred up the spirit of Koresh king of Paras, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and [put it] also in writing, saying,

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now in the first 259
{0259} Prime
אֶחָד
'echad
{ekh-awd'}
A numeral from H0258; properly united, that is, one; or (as an ordinal) first.
year 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
of Cre כּוֹרֶשׁ 3566
{3566} Prime
כּוֹרֶשׁ
Kowresh
{ko'-resh}
From the Persian; Koresh (or Cyrus), the Persian king.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of Pras פָּרַס, 6539
{6539} Prime
פָּרַס
Parac
{paw-ras'}
Of foreign origin; Paras (that is, Persia), an Eastern country, including its inhabitants.
that the word 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
of Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
by the mouth 6310
{6310} Prime
פֶּה
peh
{peh}
From H6284; the mouth (as the means of blowing), whether literally or figuratively (particularly speech); specifically edge, portion or side; adverbially (with preposition) according to.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
of Yirmy יִרמְיָה 3414
{3414} Prime
יִרְמְיָה
Yirm@yah
{yir-meh-yaw'}
From H7311 and H3050; Jah will rise; Jirmejah, the name of eight or nine Israelites.
might be fulfilled, 3615
{3615} Prime
כָּלָה
kalah
{kaw-law'}
A primitive root; to end, whether intransitively (to cease, be finished, perish) or transitively (to complete, prepare, consume).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
stirred up 5782
{5782} Prime
עוּר
`uwr
{oor}
A primitive root (rather identical with H5783 through the idea of opening the eyes); to wake (literally or figuratively).
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the spirit 7307
{7307} Prime
רוּחַ
ruwach
{roo'-akh}
From H7306; wind; by resemblance breath, that is, a sensible (or even violent) exhalation; figuratively life, anger, unsubstantiality; by extension a region of the sky; by resemblance spirit, but only of a rational being (including its expression and functions).
of Cre כּוֹרֶשׁ 3566
{3566} Prime
כּוֹרֶשׁ
Kowresh
{ko'-resh}
From the Persian; Koresh (or Cyrus), the Persian king.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of Pras פָּרַס, 6539
{6539} Prime
פָּרַס
Parac
{paw-ras'}
Of foreign origin; Paras (that is, Persia), an Eastern country, including its inhabitants.
that he made a proclamation 5674
{5674} Prime
עָבַר
`abar
{aw-bar'}
A primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literally or figuratively; transitively, intransitively, intensively or causatively); specifically to cover (in copulation).
6963
{6963} Prime
קוֹל
qowl
{kole}
From an unused root meaning to call aloud; a voice or sound.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
throughout all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
his kingdom, 4438
{4438} Prime
מַלְכוּת
malkuwth
{mal-kooth'}
From H4427; a rule; concretely a dominion.
and [put it] also x1571
(1571) Complement
גַּם
gam
{gam}
By contraction from an unused root meaning to gather; properly assemblage; used only adverbially also, even, yea, though; often repeated as correlation both... and.
in writing, 4385
{4385} Prime
מִכְתָּב
miktab
{mik-tawb'}
From H3789; a thing written, the characters, or a document (letter, copy, edict, poem).
saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Ezra 1:1

_ _ Ezra 1:1-6. Proclamation of Cyrus for building the Temple.

_ _ in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia — The Persian empire, including Persia, Media, Babylonia, and Chaldea, with many smaller dependencies, was founded by Cyrus, 536 b.c. [Hales].

_ _ that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled — (See Jeremiah 25:12; Jeremiah 29:10). This reference is a parenthetic statement of the historian, and did not form part of the proclamation.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Ezra 1:1-4

_ _ It will be proper for us here to consider, 1. What was the state of the captive Jews in Babylon. It was upon many accounts very deplorable; they were under the power of those that hated them, had nothing they could call their own; they had no temple, no altar; if they sang psalms, their enemies ridiculed them; and yet they had prophets among them. Ezekiel and Daniel were kept distinct from the heathen. Some of them were preferred at court, others had comfortable settlements in the country, and they were all borne up with hope that, in due time, they should return to their own land again, in expectation of which they preserved among them the distinction of their families, the knowledge of their religion, and an aversion to idolatry. 2. What was the state of the government under which they were. Nebuchadnezzar carried many of them into captivity in the first year of his reign, which was the fourth of Jehoiakim; he reigned forty-five years, his son Evil-merodach twenty-three, and his grandson Belshazzar three years, which make up the seventy years. So Dr. Lightfoot, It is charged upon Nebuchadnezzar that he opened not the house of his prisoners, Isaiah 14:17. And, if he had shown mercy to the poor Jews, Daniel told him it would have been the lengthening of his tranquillity, Daniel 4:27. But the measure of the sins of Babylon was at length full, and then destruction was brought upon them by Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Persian, which we read of, Dan. 5. Darius, being old, left the government to Cyrus, and he was employed as the instrument of the Jews' deliverance, which he gave orders for as soon as ever he was master of the kingdom of Babylon, perhaps in contradiction to Nebuchadnezzar, whose family he had cut off, and because he took a pleasure in undoing what he had done, or in policy, to recommend his newly-acquired dominion as merciful and gentle, or (as some think) in a pious regard to the prophecy of Isaiah, which had been published, and well known, above 150 years before, where he was expressly named as the man that should do this for God, and for whom God would do great things (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1, etc.), and which perhaps was shown to him by those about him. His name (some say) in the Persian language signifies the sun, for he brought light and healing to the church of God, and was an eminent type of Christ the Sun of righteousness. Some was that his name signifies a father, and Christ is the everlasting Father. Now here we are told,

_ _ I. Whence this proclamation took its rise. The Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus. Note, The hearts of kings are in the hand of the Lord, and, like the rivulets of water, he turneth them which way soever he will. It is said of Cyrus that he knew not God, nor how to serve him; but God knew him, and how to serve himself by him, Isaiah 45:4. God governs the world by his influence on the spirits of men, and, whatever good is done at any time, it is God that stirs up the spirit to do it, puts thoughts into the mind, gives to the understanding to form a right judgment, and directs the will which way he pleases. Whatever good offices therefore are, at any time, done for the church of God, he must have the glory of them.

_ _ II. The reference it had to the prophecy of Jeremiah, by whom God had not only promised that they should return, but had fixed the time, which set time to favour Sion had now come. Seventy years were determined (Jeremiah 25:12; Jeremiah 29:10); and he that kept the promise made concerning Israel's deliverance out of Egypt to a day (Exodus 12:41) was doubtless as punctual to this. What Cyrus now did was long since said to be the confirming of the word of God's servants, Isaiah 44:26. Jeremiah, while he lived, was hated and despised; yet thus did Providence honour him long after, that a mighty monarch was influenced to act in pursuance of the word of the Lord by his mouth.

_ _ III. The date of this proclamation. It was in his first year, not the first of his reign over Persia, the kingdom he was born to, but the first of his reign over Babylon, the kingdom he had conquered. Those are much honoured whose spirits are stirred up to begin with God and to serve him in their first years.

_ _ IV. The publication of it, both by word of mouth (he caused a voice to pass throughout all his kingdom, like a jubilee-trumpet, a joyful sabbatical year after many melancholy ones, proclaiming liberty to the captives), and also in black and white: he put it in writing, that it might be the more satisfactory, and might be sent to those distant provinces where the ten tribes were scattered in Assyria and Media, 2 Kings 17:6.

_ _ V. The purport of this proclamation of liberty.

_ _ 1. The preamble shows the causes and considerations by which he was influenced, Ezra 1:2. It should seem, his mind was enlightened with the knowledge of Jehovah (for so he calls him), the God of Israel, as the only living and true God, the God of heaven, who is the sovereign Lord and disposer of all the kingdoms of the earth; of him he says (Ezra 1:3), He is the God, God alone, God above all. Though he had not known God by education, God made him so far to know him now as that he did this service with an eye to him. He professes that he does it, (1.) In gratitude to God for the favours he had bestowed upon him: The God of heaven has given me all the kingdoms of the earth. This sounds a little vain-glorious, for there were many kingdoms of the earth which he had nothing to do with; but he means that God had given him all that was given to Nebuchadnezzar, whose dominion, Daniel says, was to the end of the earth, Daniel 4:22; Daniel 5:19. Note, God is the fountain of power; the kingdoms of the earth are at his disposal; whatever share any have of them they have from him: and those whom God has entrusted with great power and large possessions should look upon themselves as obliged thereby to do much for him. (2.) In obedience to God. He hat charged me to build him a house at Jerusalem; probably by a dream or vision of the night, confirmed by comparing it with the prophecy of Isaiah, where his doing it was foretold. Israel's disobedience to God's charge, which they were often told of, is aggravated by the obedience of this heathen king.

_ _ 2. He gives free leave to all the Jews that were in his dominions to go up to Jerusalem, and to build the temple of the Lord there, Ezra 1:3. His regard to God made him overlook, (1.) The secular interest of his government. It would have been his policy to keep so great a number of serviceable men in his dominions, and seemed impolitic to let them go and take root again in their own land; but piety is the best policy. (2.) The honour of the religion of his country. Why did he not order them to build a temple to the gods of Babylon or Persia? He believed the God of Israel to be the God of heaven, and therefore obliged his Israel to worship him only. Let them walk in the name of the Lord their God.

_ _ 3. He subjoins a brief for a collection to bear the charges of such as were poor and not able to bear their own, Ezra 1:4. “Whosoever remaineth, because he has not the means to bear his charges to Jerusalem, let the men of his place help him.” Some take it as an order to the king's officers to supply them out of his revenue, as Ezra 6:8. But it may mean a warrant to the captives to ask and receive the alms and charitable contributions of all the king's loving subjects. And we may suppose the Jews had conducted themselves so well among their neighbours that they would be as forward to accommodate them because they loved them as the Egyptians were because they were weary of them. At least many would be kind to them because they saw the government would take it well. Cyrus not only gave his good wishes with those that went (Their God be with them, Ezra 1:3), but took care also to furnish them with such things as they needed. He took it for granted that those among them who were of ability would offer their free-will offerings for the house of God, to promote the rebuilding of it. But, besides that, he would have them supplied out of his kingdom. Well-wishers to the temple should be well-doers for it.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Ezra 1:1

Fulfilled — Nebuchadnezzar carried many of the Jews into captivity in the first year of his reign (the fourth of Jehoiakim). He reigned forty — five years, his son Evil — merodach twenty — three, and his grandson Belshazzar, three years, which make up the seventy years foretold by Jeremiah. First year — Of his reign in Babylon: for he had been king of Persia for many years.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Ezra 1:1

Now in the (a) first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the (b) mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the (c) spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and [put it] also in writing, saying,

The Argument — As the Lord is always merciful to his Church, and does not punish them, but so that they should see their own miseries, and be exercised under the cross, that they might contemn the world, and aspire to the heavens: so after he had visited the Jews, and kept them in bondage 70 years in a strange country among infidels and idolaters, he remembered his tender mercies and their infirmities, and therefore for his own sake raised up a deliverer, and moved both the heart of the chief ruler to pity them, and also by him punished those who had kept them in slavery. Nonetheless, lest they should grow into a contempt of God's great benefits, he keeps them still in exercise, and raises domestic enemies, who try as much as they can to hinder their worthy enterprises: yet by the exhortation of the prophet they went forward little by little till their work was finished. The author of this book was Ezra, who was a priest and scribe of the Law, as in (Ezra 7:6). He returned to Jerusalem the sixth year of Darius, who succeeded Cyrus, that is, about fifty years after the first return under Zerubbabel, when the temple was built. He brought with him a great company and much treasure, with letters to the king's officers for all things needed for the temple: and at his coming he fixed that which was amiss, and set things in order.

(a) After he and Darius had won Babylon.

(b) Who promised deliverance to them after 70 years were past, (Jeremiah 25:12).

(c) That is, moved him and gave him heart.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Now in the:

2 Chronicles 36:22-23 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD [spoken] by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and [put it] also in writing, saying, ... Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God of heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem, which [is] in Judah. Who [is there] among you of all his people? The LORD his God [be] with him, and let him go up.

Cyrus:
Cyrus is said to have been the son of Cambyses, king of Persia, and Mandane, daughter of Astyages, king of Media. He was born about 600 years before Christ, and died at the age of 70, after a reign of 30 years. He was mentioned by name, and his conquests foretold, by the prophet Isaiah, about a century before his birth. Josephus states the partiality he evinced towards the Jews, arose from the circumstance of these prophecies being shown him, probably by Daniel.

by the mouth:

Jeremiah 25:12-14 And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, [that] I will punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations. ... For many nations and great kings shall serve themselves of them also: and I will recompense them according to their deeds, and according to the works of their own hands.
Jeremiah 29:10 For thus saith the LORD, That after seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place.
Jeremiah 33:7-13 And I will cause the captivity of Judah and the captivity of Israel to return, and will build them, as at the first. ... In the cities of the mountains, in the cities of the vale, and in the cities of the south, and in the land of Benjamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, shall the flocks pass again under the hands of him that telleth [them], saith the LORD.

the LORD[YHWH]:

Ezra 5:13-15 But in the first year of Cyrus the king of Babylon [the same] king Cyrus made a decree to build this house of God. ... And said unto him, Take these vessels, go, carry them into the temple that [is] in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be builded in his place.
Ezra 6:22 And kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with joy: for the LORD had made them joyful, and turned the heart of the king of Assyria unto them, to strengthen their hands in the work of the house of God, the God of Israel.
Ezra 7:27 Blessed [be] the LORD God of our fathers, which hath put [such a thing] as this in the king's heart, to beautify the house of the LORD which [is] in Jerusalem:
Psalms 106:46 He made them also to be pitied of all those that carried them captives.
Proverbs 21:1 The king's heart [is] in the hand of the LORD, [as] the rivers of water: he turneth it whithersoever he will.
Daniel 2:1 And in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, wherewith his spirit was troubled, and his sleep brake from him.

made a proclamation:
Heb. caused a voice to pass,
Matthew 3:1-3 In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea, ... For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
John 1:23 He said, I [am] the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

2Ch 36:22. Ezr 5:13; 6:22; 7:27. Ps 106:46. Pv 21:1. Jr 25:12; 29:10; 33:7. Dn 2:1. Mt 3:1. Jn 1:23.

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