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Exodus 23:10 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the increase thereof:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “You shall sow your land for six years and gather in its yield,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and gather in its produce;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, six years, shalt thou sow thy land,—and shalt gather the yield thereof;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And six years thou dost sow thy land, and hast gathered its increase;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Six years thou shalt sow thy ground, and shalt gather the corn thereof.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And sixe yeres thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruites thereof:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Six years thou shalt sow thy land, and gather in the fruits of it.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof:

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And six 8337
{8337} Prime
שֵׁשׁ
shesh
{shaysh}
(The second form is masculine); a primitive number; six (as an overplus (see H7797) beyond five or the fingers of the hand); as ordinal sixth.
years 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
thou shalt sow 2232
{2232} Prime
זָרַע
zara`
{zaw-rah'}
A primitive root; to sow; figuratively to disseminate, plant, fructify.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
thy land, 776
{0776} Prime
אֶרֶץ
'erets
{eh'-rets}
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
and shalt gather y622
[0622] Standard
אסף
'acaph
{aw-saf'}
A primitive root; to gather for any purpose; hence to receive, take away, that is, remove (destroy, leave behind, put up, restore, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
in x622
(0622) Complement
אסף
'acaph
{aw-saf'}
A primitive root; to gather for any purpose; hence to receive, take away, that is, remove (destroy, leave behind, put up, restore, etc.).
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the fruits 8393
{8393} Prime
תְּבוּאָה
t@buw'ah
{teb-oo-aw'}
From H0935; income, that is, produce (literally or figuratively).
thereof:
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 23:10

_ _ six years thou shalt sow thy land — intermitting the cultivation of the land every seventh year. But it appears that even then there was a spontaneous produce which the poor were permitted freely to gather for their use, and the beasts driven out fed on the remainder, the owners of fields not being allowed to reap or collect the fruits of the vineyard or oliveyard during the course of this sabbatical year. This was a regulation subservient to many excellent purposes; for, besides inculcating the general lesson of dependence on Providence, and of confidence in His faithfulness to His promise respecting the triple increase on the sixth year (Leviticus 25:20, Leviticus 25:21), it gave the Israelites a practical proof that they held their properties of the Lord as His tenants, and must conform to His rules on pain of forfeiting the lease of them.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 23:10-19

_ _ Here is, I. The institution of the sabbatical year, Exodus 23:10, Exodus 23:11. Every seventh year the land was to rest; they must not plough nor sow it at the beginning of the year, and then they could not expect any great harvest at the end of the year: but what the earth did produce of itself should be eaten from hand to mouth, and not laid up. Now this was designed, 1. To show what a plentiful land that was into which God was bringing them — that so numerous a people could have rich maintenance out of the produce of so small a country, without foreign trade, and yet could spare the increase of every seventh year. 2. To remind them of their dependence upon God their great landlord, and their obligation to use the fruit of their land as he should direct. Thus he would try their obedience in a matter that nearly touched their interest. Afterwards we find that their disobedience to this command was a forfeiture of the promises, 2 Chronicles 36:21. 3. To teach them a confidence in the divine Providence, while they did their duty — that, as the sixth day's manna served for two day's meat, so the sixth year's increase should serve for two years' subsistence. Thus they must learn not to take thought for their life, Matthew 6:25. If we are prudent and diligent in our affairs, we may trust Providence to furnish us with the bread of the day in its day.

_ _ II. The repetition of the law of the fourth commandment concerning the weekly sabbath, Exodus 23:12. Even in the year of rest they must not think that the sabbath day was laid in common with the other days, but, even that year, it must be religiously observed; yet thus some have endeavoured to take away the observance of the sabbath, by pretending that every day must be a sabbath day.

_ _ III. All manner of respect to the gods of the heathen is here strictly forbidden, Exodus 23:13. A general caution is prefixed to this, which has reference to all these precepts: In all things that I have said unto you, be circumspect. We are in danger of missing our way on the right hand and on the left, and it is at our peril if we do; therefore we have need to look about us. A man may ruin himself through mere carelessness, but he cannot save himself without great care and circumspection: particularly, since idolatry was a sin which they were much addicted to, and would be greatly tempted to, they must endeavour to blot out the remembrance of the gods of the heathen, and must disuse and forget all their superstitious forms of speech, and never mention them but with detestation. In Christian schools and academies (for it is in vain to think of reforming the play-houses), it were to be wished that the names and stories of the heathen deities, or demons rather, were not so commonly and familiarly used as they are, even with intimations of respect, and sometimes with forms of invocation. Surely we have not so learned Christ.

_ _ IV. Their solemn religious attendance on God in the place which he should choose is here strictly required, Exodus 23:14-17. 1. Thrice a year all their males must come together in a holy convocation, that they might the better know and love one another, and keep up their communion as a dignified and peculiar people. 2. They must come together before the Lord (Exodus 23:17) to present themselves before him, looking towards the place where his honour dwelt, and to pay their homage to him as their great Lord, from and under whom they held all their enjoyments. 3. They must feast together before the Lord, eating and drinking together, in token of their joy in God and their grateful sense of his goodness to them; for a feast is made for laughter, Ecclesiastes 10:19. O what a good Master do we serve, who has made it our duty to rejoice before him, who feasts his servants when they are in waiting! Never let religion be called a melancholy thing, when its solemn services are solemn feasts. 4. They must not appear before God empty, Exodus 23:15. Some free-will offering or other they must bring, in token of their respect and gratitude to their great benefactor; and, as they were not allowed to come empty-handed, so we must not come to worship God empty-hearted; our souls must be filled with grace, with pious and devout affections, holy desires towards him, and dedications of ourselves to him, for with such sacrifices God is well-pleased. 5. The passover, pentecost, and feast of tabernacles, in spring, summer, and autumn, were the three times appointed for their attendance: not in winter, because travelling was then uncomfortable; not in the midst of their harvest, because then they were otherwise employed; so that they had no reason to say that he made them to serve with an offering, or wearied them with incense.

_ _ V. Some particular directions are here given about the three feasts, though not so fully as afterwards. 1. As to the passover, it was not to be offered with leavened bread, for at that feast all leaven was to be cast out, nor was the fat of it to remain until the morning, lest it should become offensive, Exodus 23:18. 2. At the feast of pentecost, when they were to begin their harvest, they must bring the first of their first-fruits to God, by the pious presenting of which the whole harvest was sanctified, Exodus 23:19. 3. At the feast of ingathering, as it is called (Exodus 23:16), they must give God thanks for the harvest-mercies they had received, and must depend upon him for the next harvest, and must not think to receive benefit by that superstitious usage of some of the Gentiles, who, it is said, at the end of their harvest, seethed a kid in its dam's milk, and sprinkled that milk-pottage, in a magical way, upon their gardens and fields, to make them more fruitful next year. But Israel must abhor such foolish customs.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 23:10

The institution of the sabbatical year was designed, To shew what a plentiful land that was, into which God was bringing them, that so numerous a people could have rich maintenance out of the products of so small a country, without foreign trade, and yet could spare the increase of every seventh year. To teach them a confidence in the Divine Providence, while they did their duty, That as the sixth day's manna served for two days meat, so the sixth year's increase should serve for two years subsistence.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
six years:

Leviticus 25:3-4 Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; ... But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath for the LORD: thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard.
Nehemiah 10:31 And [if] the people of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, [that] we would not buy it of them on the sabbath, or on the holy day: and [that] we would leave the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt.
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Lv 25:3. Ne 10:31.

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