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Exodus 22:16 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And if a man entice a virgin that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely pay a dowry for her to be his wife.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “If a man seduces a virgin who is not engaged, and lies with her, he must pay a dowry for her [to be] his wife.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And if a man shall entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And if a man seduce a virgin that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall certainly endow her, to be his wife.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, when a man enticeth a virgin who is not betrothed, and lieth with her, he shall, surely pay a purchase-price, that she may be his wife.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And when a man doth entice a virgin who [is] not betrothed, and hath lain with her, he doth certainly endow her to himself for a wife;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— If a man seduce a virgin not yet espoused, and lie with her: he shall endow her, and have her to wife.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And if a man entice a maide that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if any one deceive a virgin that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her for a wife to himself.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And if x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
a man 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
entice 6601
{6601} Prime
פָּתָה
pathah
{paw-thaw'}
A primitive root; to open, that is, be (causatively make) roomy; usually figuratively (in a mental or moral sense) to be (causatively make) simple or (in a sinister way) delude.
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
a maid 1330
{1330} Prime
בְּתוּלָה
b@thuwlah
{beth-oo-law'}
Feminine passive participle of an unused root meaning to separate; a virgin (from her privacy); sometimes (by continuation) a bride; also (figuratively) a city or state.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
is not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
betrothed, 781
{0781} Prime
אָרַשׂ
'aras
{aw-ras'}
A primitive root; to engage for matrimony.
z8795
<8795> Grammar
Stem - Pual (See H8849)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 199
and lie 7901
{7901} Prime
שָׁכַב
shakab
{shaw-kab'}
A primitive root; to lie down (for rest, sexual connection, decease or any other purpose).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
with x5973
(5973) Complement
עִם
`im
{eem}
From H6004; adverb or preposition, with (that is, in conjunction with), in varied applications; specifically equally with; often with prepositional prefix (and then usually unrepresented in English).
her, he shall surely y4117
[4117] Standard
מָהַר
mahar
{maw-har'}
A primitive root (perhaps rather the same as H4116 through the idea of readiness in assent); to bargain (for a wife), that is, to wed.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
endow 4117
{4117} Prime
מָהַר
mahar
{maw-har'}
A primitive root (perhaps rather the same as H4116 through the idea of readiness in assent); to bargain (for a wife), that is, to wed.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
her to be his wife. 802
{0802} Prime
אִשָּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The first form is the feminine of H0376 or H0582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H0582).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

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Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 22:16-24

_ _ Here is, I. A law that he who debauched a young woman should be obliged to marry her, Exodus 22:16, Exodus 22:17. If she was betrothed to another, it was death to debauch her (Deuteronomy 22:23, Deuteronomy 22:24); but the law here mentioned respects her as single. But, if the father refused her to him, he was to give satisfaction in money for the injury and disgrace he had done her. This law puts an honour upon marriage and shows likewise how improper a thing it is that children should marry without their parents' consent: even here, where the divine law appointed the marriage, both as a punishment to him that had done wrong and a recompence to her that had suffered wrong, yet there was an express reservation for the father's power; if he denied his consent, it must be no marriage.

_ _ II. A law which makes witchcraft a capital crime, Exodus 22:18. Witchcraft not only gives that honour to the devil which is due to God alone, but bids defiance to the divine Providence, wages war with God's government, and puts his work into the devil's hand, expecting him to do good and evil, and so making him indeed the god of this world; justly therefore was it punished with death, especially among a people that were blessed with a divine revelation, and cared for by divine Providence above any people under the sun. By our law, consulting, covenanting with, invocating, or employing, any evil spirit, to any intent whatsoever, and exercising any enchantment, charm, or sorcery, whereby hurt shall be done to any person whatsoever, is made felony, without benefit of clergy; also pretending to tell where goods lost or stolen may be found, or the like, is an iniquity punishable by the judge, and the second offence with death. The justice of our law herein is supported by the law of God recorded here.

_ _ III. Unnatural abominations are here made capital; such beasts in the shape of men as are guilty of them are unfit to live (Exodus 22:19): Whosoever lies with a beast shall die.

_ _ IV. Idolatry is also made capital, Exodus 22:20. God having declared himself jealous in this matter, the civil powers must be jealous in it too, and utterly destroy those persons, families, and places of Israel, that worshipped any god, save the Lord: this law might have prevented the woeful apostasies of the Jewish nation in after times, if those that should have executed it had not been ringleaders in the breach of it.

_ _ V. A caution against oppression. Because those who were empowered to punish other crimes were themselves most in danger of this, God takes the punishing of it into his own hands.

_ _ 1. Strangers must not be abused (Exodus 22:21), not wronged in judgment by the magistrates, not imposed upon in contracts, nor must any advantage be taken of their ignorance or necessity; no, nor must they be taunted, trampled upon, treated with contempt, or upbraided with being strangers; for all these were vexations, and would discourage strangers from coming to live among them, or would strengthen their prejudices against their religion, to which, by all kind and gentle methods, they should endeavour to proselyte them. The reason given why they should be kind to strangers is, “You were strangers in Egypt, and knew what it was to be vexed and oppressed there,” Note, (1.) Humanity is one of the laws of religion, and obliges us particularly to be tender of those that lie most under disadvantages and discouragements, and to extend our compassionate concern to strangers, and those to whom we are not under the obligations of alliance or acquaintance. Those that are strangers to us are known to God, and he preserves them, Psalms 146:9. (2.) Those that profess religion should study to oblige strangers, that they may thereby recommend religion to their good opinion, and take heed of doing any thing that may tempt them to think ill of it or its professors, 1 Peter 2:12. (3.) Those that have themselves been in poverty and distress, if Providence enrich and enlarge them, ought to show a particular tenderness towards those that are now in such circumstances as they were in formerly, doing now by them as they then wished to be done by.

_ _ 2. Widows and fatherless must not be abused (Exodus 22:22): You shall not afflict them, that is, “You shall comfort and assist them, and be ready upon all occasions to show them kindness.” In making just demands from them, their condition must be considered, who have lost those that should deal for them, and protect them; they are supposed to be unversed in business, destitute of advice, timorous, and of a tender spirit, and therefore must be treated with kindness and compassion; no advantage must be taken against them, nor any hardship put upon them, from which a husband or a father would have sheltered them. For, (1.) God takes particular cognizance of their case, Exodus 22:23. Having no one else to complain and appeal to, they will cry unto God, and he will be sure to hear them; for his law and his providence are guardians to the widows and fatherless, and if men do not pity them, and will not hear them, he will. Note, It is a great comfort to those who are injured and oppressed by men that they have a God to go to who will do more than give them the hearing; and it ought to be a terror to those who are oppressive that they have the cry of the poor against them, which God will hear. Nay, (2.) He will severely reckon with those that do oppress them. Though they escape punishments from men, God's righteous judgments will pursue and overtake them, Exodus 22:24. Men that have a sense of justice and honour will espouse the injured cause of the weak and helpless; and shall not the righteous God do it? Observe the equity of the sentence here passed upon those that oppress the widows and fatherless: their wives shall become widows, and their children fatherless; and the Lord is known by these judgments, which he sometimes executes still.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

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Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
a man entice:

Genesis 34:2-4 And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her, and lay with her, and defiled her. ... And Shechem spake unto his father Hamor, saying, Get me this damsel to wife.
Deuteronomy 22:28-29 If a man find a damsel [that is] a virgin, which is not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found; ... Then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel's father fifty [shekels] of silver, and she shall be his wife; because he hath humbled her, he may not put her away all his days.
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Gn 34:2. Dt 22:28.

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