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Exodus 21:22 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And if men strive together, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart, and yet no harm follow; he shall be surely fined, according as the woman's husband shall lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart [from her], and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges [determine].
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “If men struggle with each other and strike a woman with child so that she gives birth prematurely, yet there is no injury, he shall surely be fined as the woman’s husband may demand of him, and he shall pay as the judges [decide].
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— If men shall contend, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit shall depart [from her], and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges [determine].
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And if men strive together, and strike a woman with child, so that she be delivered, and no mischief happen, he shall in any case be fined, according as the woman's husband shall impose on him, and shall give it as the judges estimate.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, when men strive together, and push against a woman with child, and she miscarry, but there is no other mischief, he shall, surely be fined, according as the woman's husband shall lay upon him, but he shall give it through judges.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And when men strive, and have smitten a pregnant woman, and her children have come out, and there is no mischief, he is certainly fined, as the husband of the woman doth lay upon him, and he hath given through the judges;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— If men quarrel, and one strike a woman with child and she miscarry indeed, but live herself: he shall be answerable for so much damage as the woman's husband shall require, and as arbiters shall award.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— If men striue, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischiefe follow, he shalbe surely punished, according as the womans husband will lay vpon him, and hee shall pay as the Iudges [determine].
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if two men strive and smite a woman with child, and her child be born imperfectly formed, he shall be forced to pay a penalty: as the woman's husband may lay upon him, he shall pay with a valuation.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart [from her], and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges [determine].

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
If x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
strive, 5327
{5327} Prime
נָצָה
natsah
{naw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; properly to go forth, that is, (by implication) to be expelled, and (consequently) desolate; causatively to lay waste; also (specifically), to quarrel.
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
and hurt 5062
{5062} Prime
נגף
nagaph
{naw-gaf'}
A primitive root; to push, gore, defeat, stub (the toe), inflict (a disease).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
a woman 802
{0802} Prime
אִשָּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The first form is the feminine of H0376 or H0582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H0582).
with child, 2030
{2030} Prime
הָרֶה
hareh
{haw-reh'}
From H2029; pregnant.
so that her fruit 3206
{3206} Prime
יֶלֶד
yeled
{yeh'-led}
From H3205; something born, that is, a lad or offspring.
depart 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
[from her], and yet no x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
mischief x611
(0611) Complement
אָסוֹן
'acown
{aws-sone'}
Of uncertain derivation; hurt.
follow: y611
[0611] Standard
אָסוֹן
'acown
{aws-sone'}
Of uncertain derivation; hurt.
x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
he shall be surely y6064
[6064] Standard
עָנַשׁ
`anash
{aw-nash'}
A primitive root; properly to urge; by implication to inflict a penalty, specifically to fine.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
punished, 6064
{6064} Prime
עָנַשׁ
`anash
{aw-nash'}
A primitive root; properly to urge; by implication to inflict a penalty, specifically to fine.
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
according as x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
the woman's 802
{0802} Prime
אִשָּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The first form is the feminine of H0376 or H0582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H0582).
husband 1167
{1167} Prime
בַּעַל
ba`al
{bah'-al}
From H1166; a master; hence a husband, or (figuratively) owner (often used with another noun in modifications of this latter sense.
will lay 7896
{7896} Prime
שִׁית
shiyth
{sheeth}
A primitive root; to place (in a very wide application).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
him; and he shall pay 5414
{5414} Prime
נָתַן
nathan
{naw-than'}
A primitive root; to give, used with great latitude of application (put, make, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
as the judges 6414
{6414} Prime
פָּלִיל
paliyl
{paw-leel'}
From H6419; a magistrate.
[determine].
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

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Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 21:22-36

_ _ Observe here,

_ _ I. The particular care which the law took of women with child, that no hurt should be done them which might occasion their mis-carrying. The law of nature obliges us to be very tender in that case, lest the tree and fruit be destroyed together, Exodus 21:22, Exodus 21:23. Women with child, who are thus taken under the special protection of the law of God, if they live in his fear, may still believe themselves under the special protection of the providence of God, and hope that they shall be saved in child-bearing. On this occasion comes in that general law of retaliation which our Saviour refers to, Matthew 5:38, An eye for an eye. Now, 1. The execution of this law is not hereby put into the hands of private persons, as if every man might avenge himself, which would introduce universal confusion, and make men like the fishes of the sea. The tradition of the elders seems to have put this corrupt gloss upon it, in opposition to which our Saviour commands us to forgive injuries, and not to meditate revenge, Matthew 5:39. 2. God often executes it in the course of his providence, making the punishment, in many cases, to answer to the sin, as Judges 1:7; Isaiah 33:1; Habakkuk 2:13; Matthew 26:52. 3. Magistrates ought to have an eye to this rule in punishing offenders, and doing right to those that are injured. Consideration must be had of the nature, quality, and degree of the wrong done, that reparation may be made to the party injured, and others deterred from doing the like; either an eye shall go for an eye, or the forfeited eye shall be redeemed by a sum of money. Note, He that does wrong must expect one way or other to receive according to the wrong he has done, Colossians 3:25. God sometimes brings men's violent dealings upon their own heads (Psalms 7:16); and magistrates are in this the ministers of the justice, that they are avengers (Romans 13:4), and they shall not bear the sword in vain.

_ _ II. The care God took of servants. If their masters maimed them, though it was only striking out a tooth, that should be their discharge, Exodus 21:26, Exodus 21:27. This was intended, 1. To prevent their being abused; masters would be careful not to offer them any violence, lest they should lose their service. 2. To comfort them if they were abused; the loss of a limb should be the gaining of their liberty, which would do something towards balancing both the pain and disgrace they underwent. Nay,

_ _ III. Does God take care for oxen? Yes, it appears by the following laws in this chapter that he does, for our sakes, 1 Corinthians 9:9, 1 Corinthians 9:10. The Israelites are here directed what to do,

_ _ 1. In case of hurt done by oxen, or any other brute-creature; for the law, doubtless, was designed to extend to all parallel cases. (1.) As an instance of God's care of the life of man (though forfeited a thousand times into the hands of divine justice), and in token of his detestation of the sin of murder. If an ox killed any man, woman, or child, the ox was to be stoned (Exodus 21:28); and, because the greatest honour of the inferior creatures is to be serviceable to man, the criminal is denied that honour: his flesh shall not be eaten. Thus God would keep up in the minds of his people a rooted abhorrence of the sin of murder and every thing that was barbarous. (2.) To make men careful that none of their cattle might do hurt, but that, by all means possible, mischief might be prevented. If the owner of the beast knew that he was mischievous, he must answer for the hurt done, and, according as the circumstances of the case proved him to be more or less accessory, he must either be put to death or ransom his life with a sum of money, Exodus 21:29-32. Some of our ancient books make this felony, by the common law of England, and give this reason, “The owner, by suffering his beast to go at liberty when he knew it to be mischievous, shows that he was very willing that hurt should be done.” Note, It is not enough for us not to do mischief ourselves, but we must take care that no mischief be done by those whom it is in our power to restrain, whether man or beast.

_ _ 2. In case of hurt done to oxen, or other cattle. (1.) If they fall into a pit, and perish there, he that opened the pit must make good the loss, Exodus 21:33, Exodus 21:34. Note, We must take heed not only of doing that which will be hurtful, but of doing that which may be so. It is not enough not to design and devise mischief, but we must contrive to prevent mischief, else we become accessory to our neighbours' damage. Mischief done in malice is the great transgression; but mischief done through negligence, and for want of due care and consideration, is not without fault, but ought to be reflected upon with great regret, according as the degree of the mischief is: especially we must be careful that we do nothing to make ourselves accessory to the sins of others, by laying an occasion of offence in our brother's way, Romans 14:13. (2.) If cattle fight, and one kill another, the owners shall equally share in the loss, Exodus 21:35. Only if the beast that had done the harm was known to the owner to have been mischievous he shall answer for the damage, because he ought either to have killed him or kept him up, Exodus 21:36. The determinations of these cases carry with them the evidence of their own equity, and give such rules of justice as were then, and are still, in use, for the decision of similar controversies that arise between man and man. But I conjecture that these cases might be specified, rather than others (though some of them seem minute), because they were then cases in fact actually depending before Moses; for in the wilderness where they lay closely encamped, and had their flocks and herds among them, such mischiefs as these last mentioned were likely enough to occur. That which we are taught by these laws is that we should be very careful to do no wrong, either directly or indirectly; and that, if we have done wrong, we must be very willing to make satisfaction, and desirous that nobody may lose by us.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

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Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Exodus 21:22

If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart [from her], and yet no (q) mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges [determine].

(q) Or, "death": of the mother or child in the event she miscarries. Also the death on the unborn infant.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
strive:

Exodus 21:18 And if men strive together, and one smite another with a stone, or with [his] fist, and he die not, but keepeth [his] bed:

as the judges:

Exodus 21:30 If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him.
Deuteronomy 16:18 Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment.
Deuteronomy 22:18-19 And the elders of that city shall take that man and chastise him; ... And they shall amerce him in an hundred [shekels] of silver, and give [them] unto the father of the damsel, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel: and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days.
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Ex 21:18, 30. Dt 16:18; 22:18.

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