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Exodus 20:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long in the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be prolonged in the land which the LORD your God gives you.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Honor thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be prolonged in the land that Jehovah thy God giveth thee.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Honour thy father, and thy mother,—that thy days may be prolonged upon the soil, which Yahweh thy God is about to give unto thee.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'Honour thy father and thy mother, so that thy days are prolonged on the ground which Jehovah thy God is giving to thee.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Honour thy father and thy mother, that thou mayst be longlived upon the land which the Lord thy God will give thee.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy dayes may bee long vpon the land, which the LORD thy God giueth thee.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Honour thy father and thy mother, that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest live long on the good land, which the Lord thy God gives to thee.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which Yahweh thy Elohim giveth thee.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Honour 3513
{3513} Prime
כָּבַד
kabad
{kaw-bad'}
A primitive root; to be heavy, that is, in a bad sense (burdensome, severe, dull) or in a good sense (numerous, rich, honorable); causatively to make weighty (in the same two senses).
z8761
<8761> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 446
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
thy father 1
{0001} Prime
אָב
'ab
{awb}
A primitive word; father in a literal and immediate, or figurative and remote application.
and thy mother: 517
{0517} Prime
אֵם
'em
{ame}
A primitive word; a mother (as the bond of the family); in a wide sense (both literally and figuratively); (like H0001).
that x4616
(4616) Complement
לְמַעַן
ma`an
{mah'-an}
From H6030; properly heed, that is, purpose; used only adverbially, on account of (as a motive or an aim), teleologically in order that.
thy days 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
may be long 748
{0748} Prime
אָרַךְ
'arak
{aw-rak'}
A primitive root; to be (causatively make) long (literally or figuratively).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the land 127
{0127} Prime
אֲדָמָה
'adamah
{ad-aw-maw'}
From H0119; soil (from its general redness).
which x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
thy lhm אֱלֹהִים 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
giveth 5414
{5414} Prime
נָתַן
nathan
{naw-than'}
A primitive root; to give, used with great latitude of application (put, make, etc.).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
thee.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

[[no comment]]

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 20:12-17

_ _ We have here the laws of the second table, as they are commonly called, the last six of the ten commandments, comprehending our duty to ourselves and to one another, and constituting a comment upon the second great commandment, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. As religion towards God is an essential branch of universal righteousness, so righteousness towards men is an essential branch of true religion. Godliness and honesty must go together.

_ _ I. The fifth commandment concerns the duties we owe to our relations; those of children to their parents are alone specified: Honour thy father and thy mother, which includes, 1. A decent respect to their persons, an inward esteem of them outwardly expressed upon all occasions in our conduct towards them. Fear them (Leviticus 19:3), give them reverence, Hebrews 12:9. The contrary to this is mocking at them and despising them, Proverbs 30:17. 2. Obedience to their lawful commands; so it is expounded (Ephesians 6:1-3): “Children, obey your parents, come when they call you, go where they send you, do what they bid you, refrain from what they forbid you; and this, as children, cheerfully, and from a principle of love.” Though you have said, “We will not,” yet afterwards repent and obey, Matthew 21:29. 3. Submission to their rebukes, instructions, and corrections; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward, out of conscience towards God. 4. Disposing of themselves with the advice, direction, and consent, of parents, not alienating their property, but with their approbation. 5. Endeavouring, in every thing, to be the comfort of their parents, and to make their old age easy to them, maintaining them if they stand in need of support, which our Saviour makes to be particularly intended in this commandment, Matthew 15:4-6. The reason annexed to this commandment is a promise: That thy days may be long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee. Having mentioned, in the preface to the commandments, has bringing them out of Egypt as a reason for their obedience, he here, in the beginning of the second table, mentions his bringing them into Canaan, as another reason; that good land they must have upon their thoughts and in their eye, now that they were in the wilderness. They must also remember, when they came to that land, that they were upon their good behaviour, and that, if they did not conduct themselves well, their days should be shortened in that land, both the days of particular persons who should be cut off from it, and the days of their nation which should be removed out of it. But here a long life in that good land is promised particularly to obedient children. Those that do their duty to their parents are most likely to have the comfort of that which their parents gather for them and leave to them; those that support their parents shall find that God, the common Father, will support them. This promise is expounded (Ephesians 6:3), That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth. Those who, in conscience towards God, keep this and the rest of God's commandments, may be sure that it shall be well with them, and that they shall live as long on earth as Infinite Wisdom sees good for them, and that what they may seem to be cut short of on earth shall be abundantly made up in eternal life, the heavenly Canaan which God will give them.

_ _ II. The sixth commandment concerns our own and our neighbour's life (Exodus 20:13): “Thou shalt not kill; thou shalt not do any thing hurtful or injurious to the health, ease, and life, of thy own body, or any other person's unjustly.” This is one of the laws of nature, and was strongly enforced by the precepts given to Noah and his sons, Genesis 9:5, Genesis 9:6. It does not forbid killing in lawful war, or in our own necessary defence, nor the magistrate's putting offenders to death, for those things tend to the preserving of life; but it forbids all malice and hatred to the person of any (for he that hateth his brother is a murderer), and all personal revenge arising therefrom; also all rash anger upon sudden provocations, and hurt said or done, or aimed to be done, in passion: of this our Saviour expounds this commandment, Matthew 5:22. And, as that which is worst of all, it forbids persecution, laying wait for the blood of the innocent and excellent ones of the earth.

_ _ III. The seventh commandment concerns our own and our neighbour's chastity: Thou shalt not commit adultery, Exodus 20:14. This is put before the sixth by our Saviour (Mark 10:19): Do not commit adultery, do not kill; for our chastity should be as dear to us as our lives, and we should be as much afraid of that which defiles the body as of that which destroys it. This commandment forbids all acts of uncleanness, with all those fleshly lusts which produce those acts and war against the soul, and all those practices which cherish and excite those fleshly lusts, as looking, in order to lust, which, Christ tells us, is forbidden in this commandment, Matthew 5:28.

_ _ IV. The eighth commandment concerns our own and our neighbour's wealth, estate, and goods: Thou shalt not steal, Exodus 20:15. Though God had lately allowed and appointed them to spoil the Egyptians in a way of just reprisal, yet he did not intend that it should be drawn into a precedent and that they should be allowed thus to spoil one another. This command forbids us to rob ourselves of what we have by sinful spending, or of the use and comfort of it by sinful sparing, and to rob others by removing the ancient landmarks, invading our neighbour's rights, taking his goods from his person, or house, or field, forcibly or clandestinely, over-reaching in bargains, nor restoring what is borrowed or found, withholding just debts, rents, or wages, and (which is worst of all) to rob the public in the coin or revenue, or that which is dedicated to the service of religion.

_ _ V. The ninth commandment concerns our own and our neighbour's good name: Thou shalt not bear false witness, Exodus 20:16. This forbids, 1. Speaking falsely in any matter, lying, equivocating, and any way devising and designing to deceive our neighbour. 2. Speaking unjustly against our neighbour, to the prejudice of his reputation; and (which involves the guilty of both), 3. Bearing false witness against him, laying to his charge things that he knows not, either judicially, upon oath (by which the third commandment, and the sixth of eighth, as well as this, are broken), or extrajudicially, in common converse, slandering, backbiting, tale-bearing, aggravating what is done amiss and making it worse than it is, and any way endeavouring to raise our own reputation upon the ruin of our neighbour's.

_ _ VI. The tenth commandment strikes at the root: Thou shalt not covet, Exodus 20:17. The foregoing commands implicitly forbid all desire of doing that which will be an injury to our neighbour; this forbids all inordinate desire of having that which will be a gratification to ourselves. “O that such a man's house were mine! Such a man's wife mine! Such a man's estate mine!” This is certainly the language of discontent at our own lot, and envy at our neighbour's; and these are the sins principally forbidden here. St. Paul, when the grace of God caused the scales to fall from his eyes, perceived that this law, Thou shalt not covet, forbade all those irregular appetites and desires which are the first-born of the corrupt nature, the first risings of the sin that dwelleth in us, and the beginnings of all the sin that is committed by us: this is that lust which, he says, he had not known the evil of, if this commandment, when it came to his conscience in the power of it, had not shown it to him, Romans 7:7. God give us all to see our face in the glass of this law, and to lay our hearts under the government of it!

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 20:12

We have here the laws of the second table, as they are commonly called; the six last commandments which concern our duty to ourselves, and one another, and are a comment upon the second great commandment, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. As religion towards God is, an essential branch of universal righteousness, so righteousness towards men is an essential branch of true religion: godliness and honesty must go together. The fifth commandment is concerning the duties we owe to our relations; that of children to their parents is only instanced in, honour thy father and thy mother, which includes, an inward esteem of them, outwardly expressed upon all occasions in our carriage towards them; fear them, Leviticus 19:3, give them reverence, Hebrews 12:9. The contrary to this is mocking at them or despising them, Obedience to their lawful commands; so it is expounded, Ephesians 6:1-3. Children obey your parents; come when they call you, go where they send you, do what they bid you, do not what they forbid you; and this chearfully, and from a principle of love. Though you have said you will not, yet afterwards repent and obey. Submission to their rebukes, instructions and corrections, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward. Disposing of themselves with the advice, direction and consent of parents, not alienating their property, but with their approbation. Endeavouring in every thing to be the comfort of their parents, and to make their old age easy to them; maintaining them if they stand in need of support. That thy days may be long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee — This promise, (which is often literally fulfilled) is expounded in a more general sense Ephesians 6:3. That it may be well with thee, and thou mayst live long on the earth — Those that in conscience towards God keep this and other of God's commandments, may be sure it shall be well with them, and they shall live as long on the earth as infinite wisdom sees good for, them, and what they may seem to be cut short of on earth, shall be abundantly made up in eternal life, the heavenly Canaan which God will give them.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Exodus 20:12

Honour thy (h) father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.

(h) By parents it is also meant all that have authority over us.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Honour:

Exodus 21:15 And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death.
Exodus 21:17 And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.
Leviticus 19:3 Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep my sabbaths: I [am] the LORD your God.
Leviticus 19:32 Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man, and fear thy God: I [am] the LORD.
1 Kings 2:19 Bathsheba therefore went unto king Solomon, to speak unto him for Adonijah. And the king rose up to meet her, and bowed himself unto her, and sat down on his throne, and caused a seat to be set for the king's mother; and she sat on his right hand.
2 Kings 2:12 And Elisha saw [it], and he cried, My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. And he saw him no more: and he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces.
Proverbs 1:8-9 My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother: ... For they [shall be] an ornament of grace unto thy head, and chains about thy neck.
Proverbs 15:5 A fool despiseth his father's instruction: but he that regardeth reproof is prudent.
Proverbs 20:20 Whoso curseth his father or his mother, his lamp shall be put out in obscure darkness.
Proverbs 23:22-25 Hearken unto thy father that begat thee, and despise not thy mother when she is old. ... Thy father and thy mother shall be glad, and she that bare thee shall rejoice.
Proverbs 28:24 Whoso robbeth his father or his mother, and saith, [It is] no transgression; the same [is] the companion of a destroyer.
Proverbs 30:11 [There is] a generation [that] curseth their father, and doth not bless their mother.
Proverbs 30:17 The eye [that] mocketh at [his] father, and despiseth to obey [his] mother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it.
Malachi 1:6 A son honoureth [his] father, and a servant his master: if then I [be] a father, where [is] mine honour? and if I [be] a master, where [is] my fear? saith the LORD of hosts unto you, O priests, that despise my name. And ye say, Wherein have we despised thy name?
Matthew 15:4-6 For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death. ... And honour not his father or his mother, [he shall be free]. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition.
Luke 18:20 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Honour thy father and thy mother.
Ephesians 5:21 Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.
Ephesians 6:1-3 Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right. ... That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.
Colossians 3:20 Children, obey [your] parents in all things: for this is well pleasing unto the Lord.

that thy:

Deuteronomy 4:26 I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that ye shall soon utterly perish from off the land whereunto ye go over Jordan to possess it; ye shall not prolong [your] days upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed.
Deuteronomy 4:40 Thou shalt keep therefore his statutes, and his commandments, which I command thee this day, that it may go well with thee, and with thy children after thee, and that thou mayest prolong [thy] days upon the earth, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, for ever.
Deuteronomy 25:15 [But] thou shalt have a perfect and just weight, a perfect and just measure shalt thou have: that thy days may be lengthened in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
Deuteronomy 32:47 For it [is] not a vain thing for you; because it [is] your life: and through this thing ye shall prolong [your] days in the land, whither ye go over Jordan to possess it.
Proverbs 3:16 Length of days [is] in her right hand; [and] in her left hand riches and honour.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 21:15, 17. Lv 19:3, 32. Dt 4:26, 40; 25:15; 32:47. 1K 2:19. 2K 2:12. Pv 1:8; 3:16; 15:5; 20:20; 23:22; 28:24; 30:11, 17. Mal 1:6. Mt 15:4. Lk 18:20. Ep 5:21; 6:1. Col 3:20.

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