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Exodus 19:16 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of a trumpet exceeding loud; and all the people that were in the camp trembled.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that [was] in the camp trembled.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So it came about on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunder and lightning flashes and a thick cloud upon the mountain and a very loud trumpet sound, so that all the people who [were] in the camp trembled.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that [were] in the camp trembled.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings and a heavy cloud on the mountain, and the sound of the trumpet exceeding loud; and the whole people that was in the camp trembled.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, on the third day, when the morning had come, that there were thunderings and lightnings, and a heavy cloud upon the mount, and the sound of a horn, loud exceedingly,—and all the people who were in the camp trembled.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass, on the third day, while it is morning, that there are voices, and lightnings, and a heavy cloud, on the mount, and the sound of a trumpet very strong; and all the people who [are] in the camp do tremble.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And now the third day was come, and the morning appeared: and behold thunders began to be heard, and lightning to flash, and a very thick cloud to cover the mount, and the noise of the trumpet sounded exceeding loud; and the people that was in the camp, feared.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thicke cloud vpon the mount, and the voyce of the trumpet exceeding lowd, so that all the people that was in the campe, trembled.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass on the third day, as the morning drew nigh, there were voices and lightnings and a dark cloud on mount Sinai{gr.Sina}: the voice of the trumpet sounded loud, and all the people in the camp trembled.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that [was] in the camp trembled.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
on the third 7992
{7992} Prime
שְׁלִישִׁי
sh@liyshiy
{shel-ee-shee'}
Ordinal from H7969; third; feminine a third (part); by extension a third (day, year or time); specifically a third story cell).
day 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
in the morning, 1242
{1242} Prime
בֹּקֶר
boqer
{bo'-ker}
From H1239; properly dawn (as the break of day); generally morning.
that there were x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
thunders 6963
{6963} Prime
קוֹל
qowl
{kole}
From an unused root meaning to call aloud; a voice or sound.
and lightnings, 1300
{1300} Prime
בָּרָק
baraq
{baw-rawk'}
From H1299; lightning; by analogy a gleam; concretely a flashing sword.
and a thick 3515
{3515} Prime
כָּבֵד
kabed
{kaw-bade'}
From H3513; heavy; figuratively in a good sense (numerous) or in a bad sense (severe, difficult, stupid).
cloud 6051
{6051} Prime
עֲנָן
`anan
{aw-nawn'}
From H6049; a cloud (as covering the sky), that is, the nimbus or thunder cloud.
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the mount, 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
and the voice 6963
{6963} Prime
קוֹל
qowl
{kole}
From an unused root meaning to call aloud; a voice or sound.
of the trumpet 7782
{7782} Prime
שׁוֹפָר
showphar
{sho-far'}
From H8231 in the original sense of incising; a cornet (as giving a clear sound) or curved horn.
exceeding 3966
{3966} Prime
מְאֹד
m@`od
{meh-ode'}
From the same as H0181; properly vehemence, that is, (with or without preposition) vehemently; by implication wholly, speedily, etc. (often with other words as an intensive or superlative; especially when repeated).
loud; 2389
{2389} Prime
חָזָק
chazaq
{khaw-zawk'}
From H2388; strong (usually in a bad sense, hard, bold, violent).
so that all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[was] in the camp 4264
{4264} Prime
מַחֲנֶה
machaneh
{makh-an-eh'}
From H2583; an encampment (of travellers or troops); hence an army, whether literally (of soldiers) or figuratively (of dancers, angels, cattle, locusts, stars; or even the sacred courts).
trembled. 2729
{2729} Prime
חָרַד
charad
{khaw-rad'}
A primitive root; to shudder with terror; hence to fear; also to hasten (with anxiety).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 19:16

_ _ on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, etc. — The descent of God was signalized by every object imagination can conceive connected with the ideas of grandeur and of awe. But all was in keeping with the character of the law about to be proclaimed. As the mountain burned with fire, God was exhibited as a consuming fire to the transgressors of His law. The thunder and lightning, more awful amid the deep stillness of the region and reverberating with terrific peals among the mountains, would rouse the universal attention; a thick cloud was an apt emblem of the dark and shadowy dispensation (compare Matthew 17:5).

_ _ the voice of a trumpet — This gave the scene the character of a miraculous transaction, in which other elements than those of nature were at work, and some other than material trumpet was blown by other means than human breath.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 19:16-25

_ _ Now, at length, comes that memorable day, that terrible day of the Lord, that day of judgment, in which Israel heard the voice of the Lord God speaking to them out of the midst of the fire, and lived, Deuteronomy 4:33. Never was there such a sermon preached, before nor since, as this which was here preached to the church in the wilderness. For,

_ _ I. The preacher was God himself (Exodus 19:18): The Lord descended in fire, and (Exodus 19:20), The Lord came down upon mount Sinai. The shechinah, or glory of the Lord, appeared in the sight of all the people; he shone forth from mount Paran with ten thousands of his saints (Deuteronomy 33:2), that is, attended, as the divine Majesty always is, by a multitude of the holy angels, who were both to grace the solemnity and to assist at it. Hence the law is said to be given by the disposition of angels, Acts 7:53.

_ _ II. The pulpit (or throne rather) was mount Sinai, hung with a thick cloud (Exodus 19:16), covered with smoke (Exodus 19:18), and made to quake greatly. Now it was that the earth trembled at the presence of the Lord, and the mountains skipped like rams (Psalms 114:4, Psalms 114:7), that Sinai itself, though rough and rocky, melted from before the Lord God of Israel, Judges 5:5. Now it was that the mountains saw him, and trembled (Habakkuk 3:10), and were witnesses against a hard-hearted unmoved people, whom nothing would influence.

_ _ III. The congregation was called together by the sound of a trumpet, exceedingly loud (Exodus 19:16), and waxing louder and louder, Exodus 19:19. This was done by the ministry of the angels, and we read of trumpets sounded by angels, Revelation 8:6. It was the sound of the trumpet that made all the people tremble, as those who knew their own guilt, and who had reason to expect that the sound of this trumpet was to them the alarm of war.

_ _ IV. Moses brought the hearers to the place of meeting, Exodus 19:17. He that had led them out of the bondage of Egypt now led them to receive the law from God's mouth. Public persons are indeed public blessings when they lay out themselves in their places to promote the public worship of God. Moses, at the head of an assembly worshipping God, was as truly great as Moses at the head of an army in the field.

_ _ V. The introductions to the service were thunders and lightnings, Exodus 19:16. These were designed to strike an awe upon the people, and to raise and engage their attention. Were they asleep? The thunders would awaken them. Were they looking another way? The lightnings would engage them to turn their faces towards him that spoke to them. Thunder and lightning have natural causes, but the scripture directs us in a particular manner to take notice of the power of God, and his terror, in them. Thunder is the voice of God, and lightning the fire of God, proper to engage the senses of sight and hearing, those senses by which we receive so much of our information.

_ _ VI. Moses is God's minister, who is spoken to, to command silence, and keep the congregation in order: Moses spoke, Exodus 19:19. Some think it was now that he said, I exceedingly fear and quake (Hebrews 12:21); but God stilled his fear by his distinguishing favour to him, in calling him up to the top of the mount (Exodus 19:20), by which also he tried his faith and courage. No sooner had Moses got up a little way towards the top of the mount than he was sent down again to keep the people from breaking through to gaze, Exodus 19:21. Even the priests or princes, the heads of the houses of their fathers, who officiated for their respective families, and therefore are said to come near to the Lord at other times, must now keep their distance, and conduct themselves with a great deal of caution. Moses pleads that they needed not to have any further orders given them, effectual care being taken already to prevent any intrusions, Exodus 19:23. But God, who knew their wilfulness and presumption, and what was now in the hearts of some of them, hastens him down with this in charge, that neither the priests nor the people should offer to force the lines that were set, to come up unto the Lord, but Moses and Aaron on, the men whom God delighted to honour. Observe, 1. What it was that God forbade them — breaking through to gaze; enough was provided to awaken their consciences, but they were not allowed to gratify their vain curiosity. They might see, but not gaze. Some of them, probably, were desirous to see some similitude, that they might know how to make an image of God, which he took care to prevent, for they saw no manner of similitude, Deuteronomy 4:5. Note, In divine things we must not covet to know more than God would have us know; and he has allowed us as much as is good for us. A desire of forbidden knowledge was the ruin of our first parents. Those that would be wise above what is written, and intrude into those things which they have not seen, need this admonition, that they break not through to gaze. 2. Under what penalty it was forbidden: Lest the Lord break forth upon them (Exodus 19:22-24), and many of them perish. Note, (1.) The restraints and warnings of the divine law are all intended for our good, and to keep us out of that danger into which we should otherwise, by our own folly, run ourselves. (2.) It is at our peril if we break the bounds that God has set us, and intrude upon that which he has not allowed us; the Bethshemites and Uzzah paid dearly for their presumption. And, even when we are called to approach God, we must remember that he is in heaven and we upon earth, and therefore it behoves us to exercise reverence and godly fear.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 19:16

Now at length is come that memorable day, in which Israel heard the voice of the Lord God speaking to them out of the midst of the fire and lived, Deuteronomy 4:33. Never was there such a sermon preached before or since, as this, which was here preached to the church in the wilderness. For, the preacher was God himself, Exodus 19:17, The Lord descended in fire; and Exodus 19:18. The Lord came down upon mount Sinai. The Shechinah, or glory of the Lord, appeared in the sight of all the people; he shined forth from mount Paran with ten thousand of his saints, attended with a multitude of the holy angels. Hence the law is said to be given by the disposition of angels, Acts 7:53. He spake from mount Sinai, hung with a thick cloud, Exodus 19:16, covered with smoke, Exodus 19:18, and made to quake greatly. Now it was that the earth trembled at the presence of the Lord, and the mountains skipped like rams, Psalms 114:4, Psalms 114:7, that Sinai itself, though rough and rocky, melted from before the Lord God of Israel, Judges 5:5. The congregation was called together by the sound of a trumpet exceeding loud, Exodus 19:16, and waxing louder and louder, Exodus 19:19. This was done by the ministry of the angels, and made all the people tremble. The introductions to the service were thunders and lightnings, Exodus 19:16. These have natural causes; but the scripture directs us in a particular manner to take notice of the power of God, and his terror in them. Thunder is the voice of God, and lightning the fire of God, proper to engage both the learning senses of seeing and hearing.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
thunders:

Exodus 9:23 And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.
Exodus 9:28-29 Intreat the LORD (for [it is] enough) that there be no [more] mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer. ... And Moses said unto him, As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands unto the LORD; [and] the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know how that the earth [is] the LORD'S.
Exodus 20:18 And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people saw [it], they removed, and stood afar off.
1 Samuel 12:17-18 [Is it] not wheat harvest to day? I will call unto the LORD, and he shall send thunder and rain; that ye may perceive and see that your wickedness [is] great, which ye have done in the sight of the LORD, in asking you a king. ... So Samuel called unto the LORD; and the LORD sent thunder and rain that day: and all the people greatly feared the LORD and Samuel.
Job 37:1-5 At this also my heart trembleth, and is moved out of his place. ... God thundereth marvellously with his voice; great things doeth he, which we cannot comprehend.
Job 38:25 Who hath divided a watercourse for the overflowing of waters, or a way for the lightning of thunder;
Psalms 18:11-14 He made darkness his secret place; his pavilion round about him [were] dark waters [and] thick clouds of the skies. ... Yea, he sent out his arrows, and scattered them; and he shot out lightnings, and discomfited them.
Psalms 29:3-11 The voice of the LORD [is] upon the waters: the God of glory thundereth: the LORD [is] upon many waters. ... The LORD will give strength unto his people; the LORD will bless his people with peace.
Psalms 50:3 Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour before him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about him.
Psalms 77:18 The voice of thy thunder [was] in the heaven: the lightnings lightened the world: the earth trembled and shook.
Psalms 97:4 His lightnings enlightened the world: the earth saw, and trembled.
Hebrews 12:18-19 For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, ... And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which [voice] they that heard intreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more:
Revelation 4:5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and [there were] seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.
Revelation 8:5 And the angel took the censer, and filled it with fire of the altar, and cast [it] into the earth: and there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake.
Revelation 11:19 And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

thick:

Exodus 19:9 And the LORD said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever. And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD.
Exodus 40:34 Then a cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.
2 Chronicles 5:14 So that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of God.

voice:

Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,
Revelation 4:1 After this I looked, and, behold, a door [was] opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard [was] as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter.

all the people:

Jeremiah 5:22 Fear ye not me? saith the LORD: will ye not tremble at my presence, which have placed the sand [for] the bound of the sea by a perpetual decree, that it cannot pass it: and though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can they not prevail; though they roar, yet can they not pass over it?
Hebrews 12:21 And so terrible was the sight, [that] Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake:)
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Ex 9:23, 28; 19:9; 20:18; 40:34. 1S 12:17. 2Ch 5:14. Jb 37:1; 38:25. Ps 18:11; 29:3; 50:3; 77:18; 97:4. Jr 5:22. He 12:18, 21. Rv 1:10; 4:1, 5; 8:5; 11:19.

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